Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to navigation Jump to search
See also:
Japanese Hiragana kyokashotai SU.svg
U+3059, す
HIRAGANA LETTER SU

[U+3058]
Hiragana
[U+305A]

Japanese[edit]

Stroke order
2 strokes

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Derived in the Heian period from writing the man'yōgana kanji in the cursive sōsho style.

Syllable[edit]

(romaji su)

  1. The hiragana syllable (su). Its equivalent in katakana is (su). It is the thirteenth syllable in the gojūon order; its position is (sa-gyō u-dan, row sa, section u).
Derived terms[edit]
See also[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Alternative spellings


(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium. Particularly: “could it be from Sinitic?”)

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(su (su)?

  1. nest, hive, den
    クモ()
    kumo no su
    spider's web

Etymology 3[edit]

Alternative spellings


Unknown.

  • Perhaps a native Japanese term, with the su reading somehow related to the way that very sour things cause one to pucker.
  • Alternatively, from Middle Chinese (MC t͡sʰuoH). Borrowed earlier (vinegar was historically introduced to Japan in the 300-400s from China) than the systematic introduction of kanji, thus later mistaken as a native Japanese term. Compare modern Mandarin () or Cantonese (cou3).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(su (su)?

  1. vinegar (condiment)
    バルサミコ()
    barusamiko-su
    balsamic vinegar
Derived terms[edit]
Idioms[edit]
Synonyms[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

Alternative spellings

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(su (su)?

  1. sandbank, sandbar

Etymology 5[edit]

Alternative spelling

From Old Japanese.

Verb[edit]

(su

  1. (archaic) to do
  2. (archaic) to cause, become
Conjugation[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 6[edit]

The original form of the causative ending. Ultimately cognate with (su), the ancient form of modern する (suru, to do).

In a modern synchronic analysis, sometimes analyzed as a contraction of せる (seru).

Suffix[edit]

(-sugodan (stem (-shi), past した (-shita))

  1. (chiefly dialectal and colloquial) Alternative form of せる (seru, causative suffix)

Conjugation[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. ^ 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

Old Japanese[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Verb[edit]

(su)

  1. to do
  2. to happen, occur
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 15, poem 3624)
      和礼乃未夜欲布祢波許具登於毛敞礼婆於伎敞能可多爾可治能於等奈里
      ware no2mi2 ya yo1pune pa ko2gu to2 omope1reba oki1pe1 no2 kata ni kadi no2 oto2 su nari
      (please add an English translation of this usage example)
  3. to be in a state of something
  4. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
    • 711712, Kojiki (20)
      佐韋賀波用久毛多知和多理宇泥備夜麻許能波佐夜芸奴加是布加牟登
      Sawi-gapa yo1 kumo1 tatiwatari Unebi2-yama ko2no2pa sayagi1nu kaze pukamu to2 su
      (please add an English translation of this usage example)
Conjugation[edit]
Descendants[edit]
  • Japanese: (su)する (suru)
    • Kagoshima dialect: すっ (su')

Etymology 2[edit]

Attaches to 未然形 (mizenkei, irrealis or incomplete form) of 四段活用 (yodan katsuyō, quadrigrade conjugation) and サ行変格活用 (sa-gyō henkaku katsuyō, s-irregular conjugation) verbs.

Verb[edit]

(-su)

  1. indicates light respect and slight affection
    • 711712, Kojiki (poem 2)
      ...佐加志賣遠阿理登岐加弖久波志賣遠阿理登伎許志弖佐用婆比爾阿理多多用婆比阿理加用婆...
      ...sakasi me1 wo ari to2 ki1kasite kupasi me1 wo ari to2 ki1ko2site sa-yo1bapi1 ni ari tatasi yo1bapi1 ni ari kayo1pase
      (please add an English translation of this usage example)
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 1, poem 1)
      ...此岳尓菜採兒家吉閑名告根...
      ...ko2no2 woka ni na tumasu ko1 ipe1 ki1kana no2rasane...
      (please add an English translation of this usage example)
Conjugation[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Possibly cognate with modern Korean (sae, bird).

Suffix[edit]

(-su)

  1. representing birds
Derived terms[edit]