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Japanese Hiragana kyokashotai DA.png
U+3060, だ
HIRAGANA LETTER DA
Composition: [U+305F] + ◌゙ [U+3099]

[U+305F]
Hiragana
[U+3061]

Japanese[edit]

Stroke order
6 strokes

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

The hiragana character (ta) with a dakuten ().

Syllable[edit]

(romaji da)

  1. The hiragana syllable (da). Its equivalent in katakana is (da).
See also[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

  • Forms beginning with or : From the particle (de) or である (de aru). The lemma form itself is a contraction of であ, clipping of である (de aru).
  • Forms beginning with : From classical Japanese なり (nari), whence Modern Japanese (na, na-inflection ending).

Verb[edit]

(daintransitive irregular

  1. (auxiliary) Following parts of speech that do not inflect by themselves, including nouns, na-adjectives, adverbs and prepositional phrases.
    1. to be
      (かれ)()(じつ)
      Kare wa mujitsu da.
      He is not guilty.
      (ふゆ)(やす)みは明日(あした)から
      Fuyu yasumi wa ashita kara da.
      Winter vacation is from tomorrow. (Winter vacation starts from tomorrow.)
      (わたし)()(ども)だった(ころ)
      watashi ga kodomo datta koro
      when I was a child
      ()(じん)(やさ)しい(ひと)
      bijin de yasashii hito
      a person who is both beautiful and kind
      (だい)(がく)(せい)ならこれくらいはできるはずです
      Daigakusei nara kore kurai wa dekiru hazu desu.
      This should be easy for a college student.
    2. should; be obliged to; ought to
      ()(ぶつ)(しょう)(どく)
      Obutsu wa shōdoku da.
      The filth should be disinfected.
      ()わり
      Okawari da.
      (Of a second helping) one more please.
      ()()()るんじゃない
      Nido to kuru n janai!
      Never come again!
  2. (auxiliary) Some forms follow also inflectable words.
    1. です follow i-adjectives, as the standard polite terminal form for i-adjectives.
      (おそ)ですね。
      Osoi desu ne.
      You are too slow.
    2. だろう / でしょう / なら can follow any inflectable word, forming suppletive volitional/politte volitional/conditional forms.
      ()なら()るな!
      Nomu nara noru na!
      If you are to drink, don't drive!
      (かれ)はきっと(せい)(こう)するだろう
      Kare wa kitto seikō suru darō.
      I believe he will succeed.
  3. (auxiliary) Not following any words, but used before some conjunctives or in some inflected forms, to represent the aforementioned statement.
    (やま)をなめてはいけない。でないと()んじゃうよ。
    Yama o namete wa ikenai. De nai to shinjauyo.
    Don't underestimate the difficulty of mountaineering. If you do, you could die.
Usage notes[edit]
  • is the only commonly used modern Japanese verb with the terminal form (終止形) distinct from the attributive form (連体形). As relative clauses in Japanese are syntactically equivalent to attributives, relative clauses must end in the attributive form. Thus , as a terminal form, cannot appear at the end of a relative clause. The following forms are used instead of in such places:
  • Use after nouns, adverbs or prepositional phrases. But use before the nominalizer .
(がく)(せい)アリス
gakusei no Arisu
Alice, who is a student
ここまであらすじ
kokomade no arasuji
the plot summary until now
(あと)(あじ)すっきりのが(とく)(ちょう)です。
Atoaji mo sukkiri na no ga tokuchō desu.
That the aftertaste is refreshing too is its distinguishing feature.
今日(きょう)(やす)ので(はや)()きしてなかった。
Kyō wa yasumi na no de hayaoki shite nakatta.
I didn't get up early because it is a holiday today.
  • Use after a na-adjective.
(じっ)()(ゆう)(ふく)友人(ゆうじん)
jikka ga yūfuku na yūjin
a friend whose family is rich
  • Alternatively, である can be used when following nouns and denoting the meaning "to be".
(がく)(せい)であるアリス
gakusei dearu Arisu
Alice, who is a student
  • This word is phonologically an enclitic, similar to particles. It is classified as 助動詞 (jodōshi, auxiliary verb) in traditional Japanese grammar.
Conjugation[edit]
Synonyms[edit]
  • である (de aru)
  • (ya) (Kansai dialect)
  • じゃ (ja) (Some western dialects. Also used in archaic speech in fictional characters)
See also[edit]