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Japanese Hiragana kyokashotai YU.svg
U+3086, ゆ



hentaigana form (obsolete variant hiragana form (𛃥). Another form of cursive )
Stroke order
2 strokes


Etymology 1[edit]

Derived in the Heian period from writing the man'yōgana kanji in the cursive sōsho style.


(romaji yu)

  1. The hiragana syllable (yu). Its equivalent in katakana is (yu). It is the thirty-seventh syllable in the gojūon order; its position is (ya-gyō u-dan, row ya, section u).
See also[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entries.
[noun] warm or hot water
[noun] bathwater
[noun] a hot spring
[noun] a medicinal bath
[noun] a medicinal decoction
[noun] bilgewater
[noun] molten metal used in casting or founding
[noun] urine
[prefix] a bow, a bow shape
[noun] (possibly obsolete) yuzu (Citrus junos)
[proper noun] A surname​.
[noun] (Shinto) holy, pure, sacred
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above terms.
For a list of all kanji read as , not just those used in Japanese terms, see Category:Japanese kanji read as ゆ.)
For pronunciation and definitions of – see , , , , , , , , .
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above Sino-Japanese terms.)

(The following entries are uncreated: , , , , , , , , .)



From Proto-Ryukyuan *wo, from Proto-Japonic *wo. Cognate with standard Japanese (wo).



(rōmaji yu)

  1. (archaic, literary) A case particle.
    1. (archaic, literary, with transitive verb) An accusative case particle: a grammatical marker following the direct object.
      Taru-yu uramituti nachuga hamachiduri.
      Who do you hate when you sing, the plover on the beach?
    2. (archaic, literary, with intransitive verb) away from, off
    3. (archaic, literary, with intransitive verb) along, following a specified route, track, orbit, etc.

Usage notes[edit]

In modern Okinawan parlance this accusative particle is simply omitted from direct objects and the like, turning the language into a marked nominative language.


  • ” in JLect - Japonic Languages and Dialects Database Dictionary, 2019.
  • ” in Okinawa Center of Language Study, Shuri-Naha Dialect Dictionary.

Old Japanese[edit]


Alternative spelling



  1. (following the irrealis stem of verbs)
    1. expresses passiveness
    2. expresses possibility
    3. expresses natural, spontaneous occurrence



Usage notes[edit]

  • The alternative kanji spelling of this verb suffix derives from Middle Chinese (MC ʃɨʌX, “prefix attached to verbs to form noun phrases, indicating the patient of the verb, similar to a passive participle”). In writing, this is used prefixally as in Chinese, by adding it before the kanji of the verb. The resulting compound is read as the irrealis stem of the verb plus the terminal (yu) or attributive ゆる (yuru), depending on the grammar required by the syntax. Examples are 所有 (arayuru), 所謂 (ipayuru), 所念 (omopoyu), 所見 (miyu), 所聞 (kikoyu), 所知 (shirayu).