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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
弓-order.gif

Etymology[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bamboo and silk script Large seal script Small seal script
弓-oracle.svg 弓-bronze.svg 弓-silk.svg 弓-bigseal.svg 弓-seal.svg

Pictogram (象形) - pictographic representation of a bow.

Han character[edit]

(radical 57 +0, 3 strokes, cangjie input 弓 (N), four-corner 17207)

See also[edit]

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 356, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 9692
  • Dae Jaweon: page 671, character 22
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 987, character 11
  • Unihan data for U+5F13

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Pronunciation[edit]


Dialectal pronunciations ()
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /kuŋ⁵⁵/
Harbin /kuŋ⁴⁴/
Tianjin /kuŋ²¹/
Jinan /kuŋ²¹³/
Qingdao /kəŋ²¹³/
Zhengzhou /kuŋ²⁴/
Xi'an /kuŋ²¹/
Xining /kuə̃⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /kuŋ⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /kũn³¹/
Ürümqi /kuŋ⁴⁴/
Wuhan /koŋ⁵⁵/
Chengdu /koŋ⁵⁵/
/t͡ɕyoŋ⁵⁵/
Guiyang /koŋ⁵⁵/
/t͡ɕioŋ⁵⁵/
Kunming /koŋ/
Nanjing /koŋ³¹/
Hefei /kəŋ²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /kuəŋ¹¹/
Pingyao /kuŋ¹³/
Hohhot /kũŋ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /koŋ⁵³/
Suzhou /koŋ⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /koŋ³³/
Wenzhou /t͡ɕoŋ³³/
Hui Shexian /kuʌ̃³¹/
Tunxi /kan¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /koŋ³³/
Xiangtan /kən³³/
Gan Nanchang /kuŋ⁴²/
Hakka Meixian /kiuŋ⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /kioŋ²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /koŋ⁵³/
Nanning /kuŋ⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /kuŋ⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /kiɔŋ⁵⁵/
/kiŋ⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /kyŋ⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /kœyŋ⁵⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /keŋ³³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /koŋ²³/
/kiaŋ²³/
Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: (28)
Final:
Division: III

Openness: Open
Tone: Level (Ø)

Fanqie:
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/kɨuŋ/ /ki̯uŋ/ /kiuŋ/ /kiuŋ/ /kuwŋ/ /kĭuŋ/ /kiuŋ/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
gōng ‹ kjuwng › /*kʷəŋ/ bow (n.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
4079 0 /*kʷɯŋ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. a bow
  2. curved, arched
  3. KangXi radical number 57

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 2
kun'yomi

From Old Japanese. In modern Japanese, only found as a prefix in compounds.[1][2]

Pronunciation[edit]

Prefix[edit]

‎(hiragana , romaji yu-)

  1. a bow, a bow shape
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
(yumi): Four different types of bow.
Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
(yu, yumi, tarashi, kyū): Japanese bows, arrows, and arrow-stand.
Kanji in this term
ゆみ
Grade: 2
kun'yomi

Appears to be Old Japanese yu + suffixing element mi, itself of uncertain derivation.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana ゆみ, romaji yumi)

  1. a bow:
    1. (weaponry) a bow for shooting arrows
    2. (music) a bow for playing a stringed instrument such as a violin or cello
  2. archery
  3. (Shintō) a type of kagura (sacred Shinto song and dance) intended to drive away evil
  4. short for 破魔弓 (はまゆみ) ‎(hama yumi): a ceremonial archery bow with the power to dispel evil
  5. a bow shape, a curve
  6. a bow-shaped tool used to beat ginned cotton into a softer and finer textile
Coordinate terms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
たらし
Grade: 2
kun'yomi

Alteration from torashi, 連用形 ‎(ren'yōkei, stem or continuative form) of verb torasu, from tora as the 未然形 ‎(mizenkei, incomplete form) of verb 取る ‎(toru, to take) + ‎(su, honorific suffix in Old Japanese). Original meaning was “something kept to hand”.[1][2]

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana たらし, romaji tarashi)

  1. (rare, honorific) an archery bow, particularly one belonging to a noble
Synonyms[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

Kanji in this term
きゅう
Grade: 2
on'yomi

From Middle Chinese ‎(*giung).[1][2] Compare modern Mandarin ‎(gōng).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana きゅう, romaji kyū)

  1. (rare) a bow
  2. (obsolete) in ancient Chinese archery, a unit of length for measuring the distance between the archer and the target; one kyū was equal to six ‎(shaku), roughly six feet or 182 centimeters
  3. (obsolete) in ancient China, a unit of length for surveying land; one kyū was equal to eight ‎(shaku), roughly eight feet or 242 centimeters
Usage notes[edit]

In modern Japanese, the reading kyū is most often found in compounds.

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  3. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

Korean[edit]


the shape of the Hun bow

Hanja[edit]

‎(gung)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul):  (revised: gung, McCune-Reischauer: kung, Yale: kwung)
  • Name (hangeul): ()
  1. (:궁, hwal:gung): bow (for shooting arrows)

Compounds[edit]

Related terms[edit]

See also[edit]


Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(cung, cong, củng)

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