Chinese

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See also: chinese

English[edit]

English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
Wiktionary
Wiktionary
Wiktionary
Wiktionary
Southern Min edition of Wiktionary
Men in Hanfu (traditional Chinese clothing)
Lion dancers at New York City's Chinese New Year celebration, 2015.

Etymology[edit]

From China +‎ -ese under influence of Portuguese chinês, replacing older Chinish. Doublet of chinois. In its orientalist sense of "generically exotic, backwards, or poorly organized", sometimes a deliberate marketing strategy to increase sales, as with the German Chinese checkers. In its sense related to the orientation of stage lighting's barn doors, a reference to a supposed resemblance to East Asian eyes.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (UK) IPA(key): /t͡ʃaɪˈniːz/; (sometimes) IPA(key): /ˈt͡ʃaɪniːz/
  • (US) IPA(key): /ˌt͡ʃaɪˈniz/; (sometimes) IPA(key): /ˈt͡ʃaɪˌniz/
  • (Canada, idle-idol split) IPA(key): /ˌt͡ʃʌɪˈniz/, /ˈt͡ʃʌɪˌniz/
    • (Ontario) IPA(key): [ˌt͡ʃəɪˈniːz], [ˈt͡ʃəɪˌniˑz]
  • (file)
  • Rhymes: -iːz

Adjective[edit]

Chinese (not generally comparable, comparative more Chinese, superlative most Chinese)

  1. Of, from, or related to China, particularly now the People's Republic of China.
    China has been ruled by the Chinese Communist Party since 1949.
    • 1980 November 30, “Communist China's 'Pin Yin' system causes confusion among foreigners”, in Free China Weekly[1], volume XXI, number 47, Taipei, page 1:
      In this instance, when the Chairman of the "Accuracy in Media" spoke out strongly against the Chinese Communist system of "pin yin" spelling, he was not criticizing any bias or unreliability of news presentation but specifically the inconvenience and confusion caused by the "pin yin" spelling of Chinese names.
  2. Of, from, or related to the people of China, particularly the Han Chinese and their culture whether in China or overseas.
    Important Chinese holidays celebrated around the world include the Chinese New Year ("Spring Festival"), Tomb Sweeping Day, and the Mid-Autumn Festival.
    • 1964, John F. Kennedy, A Nation of Immigrants[2], Revised and Enlarged edition, Harper & Row, →LCCN, →OCLC, pages 72–73:
      In the early 1870’s anti-Chinese agitation in California became organized and focused under the leadership of Denis Kearney, who was, ironically, an immigrant from Ireland. A campaign of organized violence against Chinese communities took form, and the hysteria led to political pressure too violent to be resisted. President Hayes vetoed an act of Congress restricting Chinese immigration, but he did force renegotiation of the Burlingame Treaty under which the government of China agreed to restrict emigration voluntarily.
  3. Of, from, or related to a language native to Han Chinese persons, often used generally of Chinese characters or particularly to refer to Standard Mandarin.
    There are four Chinese tones... five, if you count the neutral one.
    • 1928, Otto Jespersen, An International Language, page 82:
      The construction of a verbal system which is fairly regular and at the same time based on existing languages is a most difficult task, because in no other domain of the grammar do languages retain a greater number of ancient irregularities and differ more fundamentally from one another. Still an attempt will be made here to conciliate the two points of view and to bring about something which resembles the simple Chinese grammar without, however, losing its European character or the power of expressing nuances to which we are accustomed in our own languages.
    • 2012, Endymion Wilkinson, “Introduction”, in Chinese History: A New Manual[3], 3rd revised edition, Harvard University Press, →ISBN, →LCCN, →OCLC, page 14:
      The DPRK (Joseon Minjujui Inmin Konghuaguk 朝鮮民主主義人民共和國) is read in Chinese as Chaoxian minzhu zhuyi renmin gonghe guo, and its capital, Pyeonyang, is pronounced Pingrang 平壤.
  4. (in phrases, sometimes offensive) As exotic, unusual, backwards, or unorganized as someone or something from China.
  5. (of film and video lighting, offensive, dated) Having barn doors with a horizontal orientation.
    Coordinate term: English

Synonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Translations[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

Chinese

  1. (uncountable, collective) The citizens of China, particularly citizens of the People's Republic of China.
    The Chinese have an incredible history.
    • 1900, Jared Sparks, Edward Everett, Henry Cabot Lodge, The North American Review, volume 171, page 390:
      If the Chinese were a people like the Russians, the Germans or the French, we (I address chiefly American and British readers) would observe any marked increase in their industrial activity or in their national aggressiveness with some misgiving, possibly, but []
    • 1934, Chinese Affairs, volume 65, page 23:
      I have given these points to make it clear that the Chinese are a people of strong emotion; and that this emotion is highest and purest when running in the channels of filial piety and loyalty.
    • 2002, Sino-American Relations, volume 28, page 60:
      After Pearl Harbor, American sympathy for the Chinese grew even stronger, for the Chinese were a people who had long been bravely resisting Japanese aggressors.
    • 2019 September 30, Jiang Jiang, “I am proud of my country”, in Times of Malta:
      China is a country with a 5,000 year uninterrupted civilisation, and the Chinese are a people that keep moving forward amid trials and tribulations.
  2. (uncountable, collective) The Han Chinese, whether in China or overseas.
    The Chinese are present in all parts of the world.
  3. (uncountable) The Standard Chinese language, written in Chinese characters and spoken and spelled using Standard Mandarin pronunciation.
    你好 is read “Nǐ hǎo” and means “Hello” in Chinese.
  4. (uncountable) The branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family including Mandarin, Cantonese, Shanghainese, Southern Min, and other closely related language varieties and dialects.
    Suzhounese and Hakka are lesser-known varieties of Chinese.
  5. (uncountable) The logographic writing system shared by most Sinitic languages.
    Hong Kong still uses traditional Chinese.

Synonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Translations[edit]

The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout § Translations.

Noun[edit]

Chinese (countable and uncountable, plural Chinese or Chineses)

  1. (countable, chiefly in the plural) A person/people from China or of Chinese descent.
    • 1738, J. B. Du Halde, “PROVINCE IV. FO-KYEN.”, in A Description of the Empire of China and Chinese-Tartary, Together with the Kingdoms of Korea, and Tibet[4], volume I, London, →OCLC, page 88:
      If the Chineſe had Liberty to ſettle in Formoſa, ſeveral Families would gladly tranſplant themſelves thither ; but in order thereto they muſt obtain Paſsports from the Mandarins of China, who grant them with Difficulty, and not without taking Security.
      The Mandarins are very careful to examine all that paſs into or out of the Iſland, and ſome of them extort Money under-hand. This extraordinary Precaution is the Effect of good Policy eſpecially as the Tartars are Maſters of China ; for Formoſa is a Place of great Importance, and if a Chineſe ſhould ſeize it, he might raiſe great Troubles in the Empire : ſo that the Emperor keeps a Garriſon there of ten thouſand Men, commanded by a Tſong-ping, or Lieutenant-General, two Fû-tſyang, or Major-General, and ſeveral inferior Officers; who are chang’d duely every three years, or oftner, if there be Occaſion.
    • 1999, Lydia Laube, Bound for Vietnam[5], →ISBN, page 24:
      But I had the unmitigated pleasure of watching a family of four Chinese struggle to use knives and forks to [eat] their bacon and eggs.
  2. (uncountable) Chinese cuisine.
    Please don't eat the Chinese. I'm saving it for later.
    • 1958, A.G. Yates, The Cold Dark Hours, Sydney: Horwitz, published 1963, page 73:
      "Do you like to eat Chinese?
  3. (UK, countable, informal) A meal consisting of Chinese cuisine.
    We're going out tonight for a Chinese.

Usage notes[edit]

As with other terms for people formed with -ese, the countable singular noun in reference to a person (as in "I am a Chinese", "writing about Chinese cuisine as a Chinese") is uncommon and often taken as incorrect. In its place, the adjective is used, by itself (as in "I am Chinese") or with a word like person, man, or woman ("writing about Chinese cuisine as a Chinese person"). However, it is rather frequent in East Asia as a translation for the demonym of the country written 中國人中国人 (Zhōngguórén) (lit. person from China) in Chinese or 中国人 (chūgokujin) in Japanese. The ethnicity is referred to differently by different people, notably 華人华人 (Huárén) or 漢人汉人 (Hànrén)

Synonyms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Translations[edit]

The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout § Translations.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Anagrams[edit]

Dutch[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Chinees +‎ -e.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

Chinese f (plural Chinesen, masculine Chinees)

  1. woman from China

Related terms[edit]

Adjective[edit]

Chinese

  1. inflection of Chinees:
    1. masculine/feminine singular attributive
    2. definite neuter singular attributive
    3. plural attributive

Anagrams[edit]

German[edit]

Etymology[edit]

China +‎ -ese

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /çiˈneːzə/, /ʃiˈneːzə/
  • (southern Germany, Austria, Switzerland) IPA(key): /kiˈneːzə/
    • (file)
  • Hyphenation: Chi‧ne‧se

Noun[edit]

Chinese m (weak, genitive Chinesen, plural Chinesen)

  1. person from China, Chinaman
  2. Chinese restaurant
    Synonym: Chinarestaurant

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Chinese” in Duden online
  • Chinese” in Digitales Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache