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See also:
U+6F22, 漢
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6F22

[U+6F21]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6F23]

U+FA47, 漢
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-FA47

[U+FA46]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+FA48]
U+FA9A, 漢
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-FA9A

[U+FA99]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+FA9B]

Translingual

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Traditional
Simplified
Japanese
Korean

Alternative forms

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  • In Traditional Chinese, Japanese kyūjitai, Korean hanja, the component 𦰩 for this character is written with 廿 on top. Note that the bottom portion is written overlapped by and not on top of .
  • In Vietnamese Hán Nôm, 𦰩 can be written with 廿, , or on top. But the most common variant of 𦰩 is with written on top.
  • In Japanese shinjitai, the component 𦰩 is written with on top and has one stroke less. Due to Han unification, both traditional Chinese and Japanese shinjitai forms are encoded under the same code point. The appearance of this character will differ depending on the font used.
  • In Simplified Chinese, the component 𦰩 is simplified to instead, giving the character (U+6C49).
  • Two compatibility ideographs exist for this character. U+FA47 corresponds to the kyūjitai form of this character while U+FA9A corresponds to the alternative form used in North Korea which is similar to Japanese shinjitai.

Han character

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(Kangxi radical 85, +11 in Chinese and Korean, 水+10 in Japanese, 14 strokes in Chinese and Korean, 13 strokes in Japanese, cangjie input 水廿中人 (ETLO), four-corner 34134 or 34185, composition 廿(GHTKV or U+FA47) or 𦰩(J or U+FA9A))

Derived characters

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[edit]

References

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 646, character 17
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 18068
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1055, character 15
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 3, page 1713, character 9
  • Unihan data for U+6F22

Chinese

[edit]
trad.
simp.
alternative forms 𣾒

𣶔
𤁉
𭲑
Wikipedia has articles on:
  • (Written Standard Chinese?)
  • (Cantonese)
  • (Classical)
  • (Gan)
  • Hàn (Southern Min)

Glyph origin

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Historical forms of the character
Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts

Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *hnaːns) : semantic (water) + abbreviated phonetic (OC *hnaːnʔ, *hnaːns) – name of a river.

Pronunciation

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  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /xan⁵¹/
Harbin /xan⁵³/
Tianjin /xan⁵³/
Jinan /xã²¹/
Qingdao /xã⁴²/
Zhengzhou /xan³¹²/
Xi'an /xã⁴⁴/
Xining /xã²¹³/
Yinchuan /xan¹³/
Lanzhou /xɛ̃n¹³/
Ürümqi /xan²¹³/
Wuhan /xan³⁵/
Chengdu /xan¹³/
Guiyang /xan²¹³/
Kunming /xã̠²¹²/
Nanjing /xaŋ⁴⁴/
Hefei /xæ̃⁵³/
Jin Taiyuan /xæ̃⁴⁵/
Pingyao /xɑŋ³⁵/
Hohhot /xæ̃⁵⁵/
Wu Shanghai /hø³⁵/
Suzhou /hø⁵¹³/
Hangzhou /hẽ̞⁴⁴⁵/
Wenzhou /ɕy⁴²/
Hui Shexian /xɛ³²⁴/
Tunxi /xuːə¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /xan⁵⁵/
Xiangtan /xan⁵⁵/
Gan Nanchang /hɵn²¹³/
Hakka Meixian /hon⁵³/
Taoyuan /hon⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /hɔn³³/
Nanning /hɔn³³/
Hong Kong /hɔn³³/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /han²¹/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /hɑŋ²¹²/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /xuiŋ³³/
Shantou (Teochew) /haŋ²¹³/
Haikou (Hainanese) /haŋ³⁵/
/haŋ³³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (32)
Final () (61)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Baxter xanH
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/hɑnH/
Pan
Wuyun
/hɑnH/
Shao
Rongfen
/xɑnH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/hanH/
Li
Rong
/xɑnH/
Wang
Li
/xɑnH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/xɑnH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
hàn
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
hon3
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
hàn
Middle
Chinese
‹ xanH ›
Old
Chinese
/*n̥ˁar-s/ (W dialect: *n̥- > MC x-, *-r > *-n)
English (river name)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 4905
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*hnaːns/

Definitions

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  1. (~水, ~江) Han River, a tributary of the Yangtze
      ―  Hànkǒu  ―  Hankou (literally, “mouth of the Han”)
  2. (literary) the Milky Way
  3. (~朝) Han Dynasty
  4. Han ethnicity; Han Chinese
  5. man; guy; bloke
      ―  hǎohàn  ―  brave man; true man
  6. husband
  7. (~江) Han River, the fourth-longest river on the Korean peninsula
  8. Short for 漢語汉语 (Hànyǔ, “Chinese language”).
  9. a surname
      ―  Hàn Bǎodé  ―  Han Pao-teh (Taiwanese architect)

See also

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Dynasties (朝代) in Chinese history
Name Time period Divisions
Xia
(~朝, ~代)
2070 – 1600 BCE
Shang
(~朝, ~代)
(~朝, ~代)
1600 – 1046 BCE
Zhou
(~朝, ~代)
1046 – 256 BCE Western Zhou
西周
Eastern Zhou
東周东周
Spring and Autumn period
春秋
Warring States period
戰國战国
Qin
(~朝, ~代)
221 – 206 BCE
Han
(~朝, ~代)
206 BCE – 220 C.E. Western Han
西漢西汉
Xin
(~朝)
Eastern Han
東漢东汉
Three Kingdoms
三國三国
220 – 280 C.E. Wei
Shu Han
蜀漢蜀汉
Wu
Jin
(~朝, ~代)
265 – 420 C.E. Western Jin
西晉西晋
Eastern Jin
東晉东晋
Southern and Northern dynasties
南北朝
420 – 589 C.E. Northern dynasties
北朝
Northern Wei
北魏
Western Wei
西魏
Eastern Wei
東魏东魏
Northern Zhou
北周
Northern Qi
北齊北齐
Southern dynasties
南朝
Liu Song
劉宋刘宋
Southern Qi
南齊南齐
Liang
(~朝, ~代)
Chen
(~朝, ~代)
Sui
(~朝, ~代)
581 – 618 C.E.
Tang
(~朝, ~代)
618 – 907 C.E.
Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms
五代十國五代十国
907 – 960 C.E.
Liao
(~朝, ~代)
907 – 1125 C.E.
Song
(~朝, ~代)
960 – 1279 C.E. Northern Song
北宋
Southern Song
南宋
Western Xia
西夏
1038 – 1227 C.E.
Jin
(~朝, ~代)
1115 – 1234 C.E.
Western Liao
西遼西辽
1124 – 1218 C.E.
Yuan
(~朝, ~代)
1271 – 1368 C.E.
Ming
(~朝, ~代)
1368 – 1644 C.E.
Qing
(~朝, ~代)
1636 – 1912 C.E.

Compounds

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Descendants

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Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: (かん) (kan)
  • Korean: 한(漢) (han)
  • Vietnamese: Hán ()
  • Arabic: هان (hān)
  • Bulgarian: хан (han)
  • English: Han
  • Finnish: Han
  • French: Han
  • German: Han
  • Khmer: ហាន (haan)
  • Polish: Han
  • Portuguese: han
  • Russian: хань (xanʹ), ханец (xanec)
  • References

    [edit]

    Japanese

    [edit]
    Shinjitai
    Kyūjitai
    [1]


    &#xFA47;
    or
    +&#xFE00;?
    漢󠄁
    +&#xE0101;?
    (Adobe-Japan1)
    漢󠄃
    +&#xE0103;?
    (Hanyo-Denshi)
    (Moji_Joho)
    The displayed kanji may be different from the image due to your environment.
    See here for details.

    Kanji

    [edit]

    (grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanjishinjitai kanji, kyūjitai form )

    1. Sino-, China
    2. man

    Readings

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    Compounds

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    Etymology 1

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    Kanji in this term
    かん
    Grade: 3
    on’yomi
    Alternative spelling
    (kyūjitai)

    From Middle Chinese (MC xanH), in reference to the Han Chinese ethnic group.

    The sense of man arose from usage in Chinese to differentiate between the “civilized” people of the Han Chinese ethnicity versus other ethnic groups.

    Noun

    [edit]

    (かん) (kan

    1. man
      さらに()(じょう)(とく)()する(かん)あり、(めい)(ちゅう)()(めい)(かん)あり。
      Sara ni gojō ni tokugo suru kan ari, meichū umei no kan ari.
      Moreover, some men achieve enlightenment and further enlightenment, and some men achieve confusion and further confusion.
    Derived terms
    [edit]

    Proper noun

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    (かん) (Kan

    1. the name of China during the Han dynasty (206 BCE – 220 CE)
    2. name of various Chinese dynasties
      1. the 西漢 (Saikan, Western Han) or 前漢 (Zenkan, Former Han) (206 BCE – 9 CE)
      2. the 東漢 (Tōkan, Eastern Han) or 後漢 (Gokan, Later Han) (25–220 CE)
      3. the 蜀漢 (Shokkan, Shu Han) (221–263)
      4. the 成漢 (Seikan, Cheng Han) (304–347)
      5. the 南漢 (Nankan, Southern Han) (917–971)
      6. the 後漢 (Kōkan, Later Han) (947–951)
      7. the 北漢 (Hokukan, Northern Han) (951–979)
    3. the Han Chinese people
    4. the Han River, a tributary of the Yangtze
    5. (by extension from the "river" sense) the Milky Way
      Synonyms: 天漢 (Tenkan), 天河 (Tenga), 銀漢 (Ginkan), 銀河 (Ginga), 天の川 (Ama-no-gawa)
    6. alternative name for 漢中 (Kanchū, Hanzhong)
    7. a surname
    Derived terms
    [edit]

    Etymology 2

    [edit]
    Kanji in this term
    から
    Grade: 3
    kun’yomi
    Alternative spelling
    (kyūjitai)

    From Old Japanese.

    Originally referred to the Gaya confederacy, an independent state in the south of the Korean peninsula in the years 42–562 CE. Over time, the meaning extended to refer in general to the Korean peninsula and China, expanding further just before and during the Edo period to refer to foreign lands in general.[2][3]

    Alternative forms

    [edit]

    Pronunciation

    [edit]

    Prefix

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    (から) (kara-

    1. element in compounds, referring to things imported from China or Korea, or from other foreign lands
      漢詩(からうた)唐歌(からうた)(から)()漢音(からごえ)
      karauta, karauta, karāge, karagoe
      Chinese-style poetry (as opposed to formal waka Japanese-style poetry), Chinese-style poetry, deep-fried chicken or fish (a style introduced by Europeans in the 1600s), “Chinese voice” → the kan'on or Chinese-derived reading for a character
    Derived terms
    [edit]

    Noun

    [edit]

    (から) (kara

    1. (historical) shortly before and during the Edo period, foreign lands in general

    Proper noun

    [edit]

    (から) (Kara

    1. the Gaya confederacy
    2. (archaic) the Korean peninsula
    3. (archaic) China, especially during the Han dynasty
    Derived terms
    [edit]

    Etymology 3

    [edit]
    Kanji in this term
    あや
    Grade: 3
    kun’yomi
    Alternative spelling
    (kyūjitai)

    From Old Japanese, in reference to clans purportedly originating from China.[2][4][3] Appears to be cognate with / / / (aya, a pattern or design; a pattern of diagonally interweaving lines; twill; how something fits together, the reason or background of a thing; skillful expression in color or words; melody, tune), possibly in distant reference to technologies and cultural practices brought to Japan by the original Chinese immigrants.

    Pronunciation

    [edit]

    Proper noun

    [edit]

    (あや) (Aya

    1. short for 漢氏 (Aya uji): name of one of two ancient clans, purportedly descendants from Han Chinese, and notable historically for major achievements in fields including literature, diplomacy, and finance, among others
      1. 東漢 (Yamato no Aya)
      2. 西漢 (Kawachi no Aya)
    Derived terms
    [edit]

    Etymology 4

    [edit]
    Kanji in this term
    おとこ
    Grade: 3
    kun’yomi
    Alternative spelling
    (kyūjitai)

    Rare alternative spelling for (otoko, man), from usage in Chinese to differentiate between the “civilized” people of the Han Chinese ethnicity versus other ethnic groups.

    See the entry for the derivation of the reading.

    Pronunciation

    [edit]

    Noun

    [edit]

    (おとこ) (otokoをとこ (wotoko)?

    1. (slang) Rare spelling of (man).
      • 2004 July 7, Nobuhiro Watsuki, “(だい)26(にじゅうろく)() トレーニング・デイ [Chapter 26: Training Day]”, in ()(ソウ)(レン)(キン) (()(ソウ)(レン)(キン)) [Armed Alchemy], volume 3, Tokyo: Shueisha, →ISBN, page 161:
        (おとこ)()(なか)(じん)(せい)(かた)る!キミのベストポーズでスーパーアピール‼
        Otoko wa senaka de jinsei o kataru! Kimi no besuto pōzu de sūpā apīru‼
        Men show what life is with their backs! Strike your best pose to drive home your point!!

    References

    [edit]
    1. ^ ”, in 漢字ぺディア [Kanjipedia]‎[1] (in Japanese), The Japan Kanji Aptitude Testing Foundation, 2015–2024
    2. 2.0 2.1 Shōgaku Tosho (1988) 国語大辞典(新装版) [Unabridged Dictionary of Japanese (Revised Edition)] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
    3. 3.0 3.1 Matsumura, Akira (1995) 大辞泉 [Daijisen] (in Japanese), First edition, Tokyo: Shogakukan, →ISBN
    4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    5. 5.0 5.1 Kindaichi, Kyōsuke et al., editors (1997), 新明解国語辞典 [Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten] (in Japanese), Fifth edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    6. ^ NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998), NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 [NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary] (in Japanese), Tokyo: NHK Publishing, Inc., →ISBN

    Korean

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    Etymology

    [edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC xanH).

    Historical Readings
    Dongguk Jeongun Reading
    Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 한〮 (Yale: hán)
    Middle Korean
    Text Eumhun
    Gloss (hun) Reading
    Gwangju Cheonjamun, 1575 하ᄂᆞᆯ (Yale: hanol) (Yale: han)

    Pronunciation

    [edit]
    • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [ha̠(ː)n]
    • Phonetic hangul: [(ː)]
      • Though still prescribed in Standard Korean, most speakers in both Koreas no longer distinguish vowel length.

    Hanja

    [edit]
    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 한나라 (Hannara han))

    1. Hanja form? of (Sino-, China). [affix]
    2. Hanja form? of (man; person). [suffix]
    3. Hanja form? of (Han dynasty). [proper noun]

    Compounds

    [edit]

    References

    [edit]
    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

    Vietnamese

    [edit]

    Han character

    [edit]

    : Hán Nôm readings: Hán

    Hán 漢 written with 龷 on top. A common variant of 漢 in Vietnamese writing. This is from 大南國史演歌 Đại Nam quốc sử diễn ca.
    1. Of or relating to China

    Compounds

    [edit]
    1. 漢喃 (Hán Nôm) Vietnamese made Chinese characters