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gw u5143.svg
U+5143, 元
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5143

[U+5142]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5144]
Commons:Category
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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
0 strokes

Han character[edit]

(radical 10, +2, 4 strokes, cangjie input 一一山 (MMU), four-corner 10211, composition or ⿱)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 123, character 6
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1340
  • Dae Jaweon: page 258, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 264, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+5143

Further reading[edit]


Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
Wikipedia has an article on:

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
元-oracle.svg 元-bronze.svg 元-seal.svg 元-bigseal.svg





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Pictogram (象形) – a figure with two lines for a head (one connected to body, one above it), emphasizing the head.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • nuang5 - Shantou;
  • nguêng5 - Chaozhou;
  • ngang5 - used in 開元.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /yan³⁵/
    Harbin /yan²⁴/
    Tianjin /yan⁴⁵/
    Jinan /yã⁴²/
    Qingdao /yã⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /yan⁴²/
    Xi'an /yã²⁴/
    Xining /yã²⁴/
    Yinchuan /yan⁵³/
    Lanzhou /yɛ̃n⁵³/
    Ürümqi /yan⁵¹/
    Wuhan /yɛn²¹³/
    Chengdu /yan³¹/
    Guiyang /ian²¹/
    Kunming /iɛ̃³¹/
    Nanjing /yen²⁴/
    Hefei /yĩ⁵⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /ye¹¹/
    Pingyao /ye̞¹³/
    Hohhot /ye³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /ȵyø²³/
    /ɦyø²³/
    Suzhou /ɦiø¹³/
    Hangzhou /ɦyõ²¹³/
    Wenzhou /ȵy³¹/
    Hui Shexian /ue⁴⁴/
    Tunxi /ȵyɛ⁴⁴/
    Xiang Changsha /yẽ¹³/
    Xiangtan /yẽ¹²/
    Gan Nanchang /ȵyɵn⁴⁵/
    Hakka Meixian /ŋian¹¹/
    Taoyuan /ŋien¹¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /jyn²¹/
    Nanning /yn²¹/
    Hong Kong /jyn²¹/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /guan³⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ŋuoŋ⁵³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ŋyiŋ³³/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /ŋuaŋ⁵⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /zuaŋ³¹/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (31)
    Final () (66)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ŋʉɐn/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ŋʷiɐn/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ŋiuɐn/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ŋuan/
    Li
    Rong
    /ŋiuɐn/
    Wang
    Li
    /ŋĭwɐn/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ŋi̯wɐn/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    yuán
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    yuán
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ ngjwon ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[ŋ]o[r]/ (< nasal + uvular)
    English head; first

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 16145
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    3
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ŋon/

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Possibly related to (OC *ŋʷan) "source, origin, basic, primary" and 黿 (OC *ŋoːn, *ŋon) "large turtle" (whose back-formation might be (OC *ŋaːw) "mythological turtle" with final -n discarded due to folk etymology) (Schuessler, 2007).

    Compare Proto-Tibeto-Burman *m~s-gaw (head). If so, cognate with (OC *ɡoːʔ, *ɡoːs) "ruler, lord (obsolete), queen"; Tibetan མགོ (mgo, head, summit, beginning) (⇒ མགོ.དཔོན (mgo.dpon, headman)), Garo sko  (skull), Northern Tujia kho⁵⁵ pa⁵⁵ (head) (STEDT, Schuessler, 2007).

    Thurgood (1985) cites Mei Tsu-lin's opinion that (OC *ŋon) and (OC *klun) are variants of each other and cognates with Tibetan མགོན (mgon, protector; master; lord).

    Definitions[edit]

    1. head
      Synonym: (tóu)
    2. first; primary; head; chief
    3. basic; fundamental
    4. origin; source
    5. meta-
    6. Classifier for yuan or dollars.
    7. (mathematics) variable; unknown; element
        ―  xiāo yuán  ―  method of elimination (lit, "method of eliminating matrix elements")
      [Classical Chinese]  ―  lì tiānyuán [Pinyin]  ―  Let x be the unknown variable in the equation.
        ―  zhǔ yuán  ―  pivot
    8. (~朝) Yuan Dynasty
    9. A surname​.
    Synonyms[edit]
    See also[edit]
    Dynasties (朝代) in Chinese history
    Name Time period Divisions
    Xia
    (~朝, ~代)
    2070 – 1600 BCE
    Shang
    (~朝, ~代)
    (~朝, ~代)
    1600 – 1046 BCE
    Zhou
    (~朝, ~代)
    1046 – 256 BCE Western Zhou
    西周
    Eastern Zhou
    東周东周
    Spring and Autumn period
    春秋
    Warring States period
    戰國战国
    Qin
    (~朝, ~代)
    221 – 206 BCE
    Han
    (~朝, ~代)
    206 BCE – 220 CE Western Han
    西漢西汉
    Xin
    (~朝)
    Eastern Han
    東漢东汉
    Three Kingdoms
    三國三国
    220 – 280 CE Wei
    Shu
    Wu
    Jin
    (~朝, ~代)
    265 – 420 CE Western Jin
    西晉西晋
    Eastern Jin
    東晉东晋
    Southern and Northern dynasties
    南北朝
    420 – 589 CE Northern dynasties
    北朝
    Northern Wei
    北魏
    Western Wei
    西魏
    Eastern Wei
    東魏东魏
    Northern Zhou
    北周
    Northern Qi
    北齊北齐
    Southern dynasties
    南朝
    Liu Song
    劉宋刘宋
    Southern Qi
    南齊南齐
    Liang
    (~朝, ~代)
    Chen
    (~朝, ~代)
    Sui
    (~朝, ~代)
    581 – 618 CE
    Tang
    (~朝, ~代)
    618 – 907 CE
    Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms
    五代十國五代十国
    907 – 960 CE
    Liao
    (~朝, ~代)
    907 – 1125 CE
    Song
    (~朝, ~代)
    960 – 1279 CE Northern Song
    北宋
    Southern Song
    南宋
    Western Xia
    西夏
    1038 – 1227 CE
    Jin
    (~朝, ~代)
    1115 – 1234 CE
    Western Liao
    西遼西辽
    1124 – 1218 CE
    Yuan
    (~朝, ~代)
    1271 – 1368 CE
    Ming
    (~朝, ~代)
    1368 – 1644 CE
    Qing
    (~朝, ~代)
    1636 – 1912 CE

    Compounds[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Korean: (, won)
    • Vietnamese: nguyên ()

    Etymology 2[edit]

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“circle; circular; round; etc.”).
    (This character, , is the second-round simplified form of .)
    Notes:

    References[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    もと
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi
    Alternative spellings


    ⟨mo2to2/moto/

    From Old Japanese. Cited to the Kojiki of 712 CE.[1] From Proto-Japonic *mətə. Cognate with Okinawan (mutu).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (もと) (moto

    1. cause, origin
    2. basis, foundation
    3. cost
      (もと)がとれる
      moto ga toreru
      to be able to cover the cost
    4. (finance) capital
    5. principal

    Derived terms[edit]

    Prefix[edit]

    (もと) (moto-

    1. former
      (もと)カレ(もと)カノ
      motokare, motokano
      former boyfriend, former girlfriend
      プロジェクト(もと)担当者(たんとうしゃ)田中(たなかし)
      purojekuto no moto tantōsha no Tanaka-shi
      former project manager Tanaka

    Etymology 2[edit]

    From (はじ) (hajime, beginning).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Proper noun[edit]

    (はじめ) (Hajime

    1. A male given name

    References[edit]

    1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. 2.0 2.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun 으뜸 (eutteum won))

    1. Chief

    Okinawan[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    むとぅ
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi
    Kanji in this term
    むーとぅ
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    From Proto-Ryukyuan *moto, from Proto-Japonic *mətə. Cognate with mainland Japanese (moto).

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana むとぅ, rōmaji mutu, alternative reading むーとぅ, rōmaji mūtu)

    1. cause, origin
    2. basis, foundation
    3. cost
    4. origin
    5. (finance) capital
    6. principal

    References[edit]

    • ムトゥ” in Okinawa Center of Language Study, Shuri-Naha Dialect Dictionary.
    • ムートゥ” in Okinawa Center of Language Study, Shuri-Naha Dialect Dictionary.

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Nôm readings: nguyên, nguyễn

    1. source, origin, base
    2. a family name