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U+4E7E, 乾
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E7E

[U+4E7D]
CJK Unified Ideographs 乿
[U+4E7F]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 5, +10, 11 strokes, cangjie input 十十人弓 (JJON), four-corner 48417, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

Related characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 84, character 25
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 15992
  • Dae Jaweon: page 172, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 56, character 10
  • Unihan data for U+4E7E

Chinese[edit]

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
ACC-s10941.svg ACC-L32032.svg



References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *kaːn, *ɡran): phonetic (OC *kaːns) + semantic .

Etymology 1[edit]

trad.
simp. *
alternative forms

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *kan (to dry; to dry up). Cognate with Burmese ခန်း (hkan:, to dry up; to evaporate).

The sense “lacking sweetness” is a semantic loan from French sec or English dry.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • koaⁿ/koa - vernacular;
  • kan - literary.
Note: guan1 - “dried-up food” (e.g. 餅乾).

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location 乾 (旱)
Mandarin Beijing /kan⁵⁵/
Harbin /kan⁴⁴/
Tianjin /kan²¹/
Jinan /kã²¹³/
Qingdao /kã²¹³/
Zhengzhou /kan²⁴/
Xi'an /kã²¹/
Xining /kã⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /kan⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /kɛ̃n³¹/
Ürümqi /kan⁴⁴/
Wuhan /kan⁵⁵/
Chengdu /kan⁵⁵/
Guiyang /kan⁵⁵/
Kunming /kã̠⁴⁴/
Nanjing /kaŋ³¹/
Hefei /kæ̃²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /kæ̃¹¹/
Pingyao /kɑŋ¹³/
Hohhot /kæ̃³¹/
Wu Shanghai /kø⁵³/
Suzhou /kø⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /kẽ̞³³/
Wenzhou /ky³³/
Hui Shexian /kɛ³¹/
Tunxi /kuə¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /kan³³/
Xiangtan /kan³³/
Gan Nanchang /kɵn⁴²/
Hakka Meixian /kon⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /kon²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /kɔn⁵³/
Nanning /kɔn⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /kɔn⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /kan⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /kaŋ⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /kuiŋ⁵⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /kaŋ³³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /kaŋ²³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (28)
Final () (61)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kɑn/
Pan
Wuyun
/kɑn/
Shao
Rongfen
/kɑn/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kan/
Li
Rong
/kɑn/
Wang
Li
/kɑn/
Bernard
Karlgren
/kɑn/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
gān
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
gān
Middle
Chinese
‹ kan ›
Old
Chinese
/*[k]ˁar/
English dry

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 3698
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kaːn/

Definitions[edit]

  1. dry; moistureless; waterless; arid
    喉嚨 / 喉咙  ―  Wǒ hóulóng hěn gān.  ―  My throat feels dry.
  2. to dry; to exhaust
  3. to neglect; to snub
  4. (colloquial) to drain one's glass; bottoms up
  5. dried up; exhausted; drained
  6. (of voice) dry and coarse
  7. dried-up food
  8. adopted; adoptive; foster
  9. in vain; for nothing
  10. falsely; superficially
  11. not sweet; lacking sweetness

Synonyms[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *m-ka-n (heaven; sky; sun). Cognate with Tibetan མཁའ (mkha'), ནམ་མཁའ (nam mkha', sky; heaven).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • kiang5 - Shantou;
  • kiêng5 - Chaozhou.
  • Wu

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (30)
    Final () (79)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () Chongniu III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɡˠiᴇn/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɡᵚiɛn/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ɡiæn/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /gian/
    Li
    Rong
    /ɡjɛn/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɡĭɛn/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /gi̯ɛn/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    qián
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    qián
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ gjen ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[ɡ](r)ar/
    English heaven; heavenly

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 3709
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɡran/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. first of the eight trigrams (bagua) used in Taoist cosmology, represented by the symbol
    2. (figurative) sky; heaven
        ―  qiándào  ―  ways of heaven; natural law
    3. (figurative) emperor; monarch
    4. (figurative) sun
    5. (figurative) northwest
    6. (figurative) man; male
    7. A surname​.

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    1. northwest
    2. dehydrate
    3. arid
    4. drought
    5. imbibe
    6. paradise
    7. the emperor

    Readings[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    (inu) +‎ (i)

    Noun[edit]

    (いぬい) (inui (historical kana いぬゐ)

    1. (obsolete) northwest

    Proper noun[edit]

    (いぬい) (Inui (historical kana いぬゐ)

    1. A surname​.

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    かん
    Grade: S
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (MC kɑn).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Affix[edit]

    (かん) (kan

    1. dry

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    けん
    Grade: S
    kan’on

    From Middle Chinese (MC ɡˠiᴇn).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Affix[edit]

    (けん) (ken

    1. the sky

    Korean[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC ɡˠiᴇn, “sky”).

    Historical readings

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 하늘 (haneul geon))

    1. Hanja form? of (sky).
      Synonym: ( (cheon))
      Antonym: ( (ji)): earth
    2. Hanja form? of ( or the first of the eight trigrams (bagua) (☰☱☲☳☴☵☶☷ or 팔괘 (八卦, palgwae, “Bagua”))).
      Antonym: ( (gon))
    3. Hanja form? of (king).

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    From a corrupted or unorthodox reading. The original reading is (gan) based on Middle Chinese (MC kɑn, “dry”).

    Historical readings

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun 마를 (mareul geon))

    1. (prefix) Hanja form? of (dry).
      Antonym: ( (seup)): wet
    2. Hanja form? of (moistureless; waterless; arid).
    3. Hanja form? of (in vain; for nothing; superficially).

    Compounds[edit]

    See also[edit]

      7+0=111+000 (U+2630)* sky
      6+1=110+001 (U+2631) marsh
      5+2=101+010 (U+2632) fire
      4+3=100+011 (U+2633) thunder
      3+4=011+100 (U+2634) wind
      2+5=010+101 (U+2635) water
      1+6=001+110 (U+2636) mountain
      0+7=000+111 (U+2637) earth

      Usage notes[edit]

      [*] Decimal pair = Binary pair (Codepoint). (The solid bar "—" of the Trigrams may be assigned to the binary number "1", while the split bar "--" to "0".)

    References[edit]

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Nôm readings: kiền, cạn, can, càn, khan, gàn

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    References[edit]