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See also: and

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 5 +10, 11 strokes, cangjie input 十十人弓 (JJON), four-corner 48417, composition𠦝)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 84, character 25
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 204
  • Dae Jaweon: page 172, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 56, character 10
  • Unihan data for U+4E7E

Chinese[edit]

Glyph origin[edit]

Phono-semantic compound (形聲): phonetic  + semantic 

Etymology 1[edit]

-
trad.
simp.

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *kan (dry, dry up). Cognate with Burmese ခန်း (hkan:, to dry up, to evaporate).

Pronunciation[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (乾), Pronunciation 1/2

Initial: 見 (28)
Final: 寒
Division: I

Openness: Open
Tone: Level (Ø)

Fanqie: 古寒切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/kɑn/ /kɑn/ /kɑn/ /kɑn/ /kan/ /kɑn/ /kɑn/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
gān ‹ kan › /*[k]ˤar/ dry

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
3698 1 /*kaːn/

Definitions[edit]

  1. dry
    喉嚨 [MSC, trad.]
    喉咙 [MSC, simp.]
    Wǒ hóulóng hěn gān. [Pinyin]
    My throat feels dry.
  2. clean
    乾淨干净 (“clean”)
  3. adoptive; foster
  4. in vain; for nothing

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

-
simp. and trad.

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *m-ka-n (heaven, sky, sun). Cognate with Tibetan མཁའ (mkha'), ནམ་མཁའ (nam mkha', sky, heaven).

Pronunciation[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (乾), Pronunciation 2/2

Initial: 群 (30)
Final: 仙
Division: III

Openness: Open
Tone: Level (Ø)

Fanqie: 渠焉切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/ɡiᴇn/ /gi̯ɛn/ /ɡiɛn/ /ɡiɛn/ /gian/ /ɡĭɛn/ /ɡjæn/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
qián ‹ gjen › /*[ɡ](r)ar/ heaven; heavenly

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
3709 1 /*ɡran/

Definitions[edit]

  1. One of the Eight Trigrams ().
    乾道 (“ways of heaven; natural law”)
  2. sky; heaven
  3. sun
  4. emperor
  5. man, male
  6. A surname​.

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

  1. northwest
  2. dehydrate
  3. arid
  4. drought
  5. imbibe
  6. paradise
  7. the emperor

Readings[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana いぬい, romaji inui, historical hiragana いぬゐ)

  1. (obsolete) northwest

Proper noun[edit]

(hiragana いぬい, romaji Inui, historical hiragana いぬゐ)

  1. A surname​.

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(geon, gan) (hangeul , , revised geon, gan, McCune-Reischauer kŏn, kan)

  1. (하늘 건, haneul-): sky
  2. (건괘 건, geon-gwae-): or the 1st of the Eight Trigrams (☰☱☲☳☴☵☶☷ or 八卦 (팔괘, palgwae))
  3. (임금 건, im-geum-): king
  4. (마를 건, mareul-): to be dry

Synonyms[edit]

  • (, cheon)
  • (, gan) (translingual; simplified hanzi for 乾)

Antonyms[edit]

See also[edit]

八卦 (팔괘, palgwae)

7+0=111+000 (U+2630)* sky
6+1=110+001 (U+2631) marsh
5+2=101+010 (U+2632) fire
4+3=100+011 (U+2633) thunder
3+4=011+100 (U+2634) wind
2+5=010+101 (U+2635) water
1+6=001+110 (U+2636) mountain
0+7=000+111 (U+2637) earth

[*] Decimal pair=Binary pair (Codepoint). (The solid bar "—" of the Trigrams may be assigned to the binary number "1", while the split bar "--" to "0".)


Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(kiền, cạn, can, càn, khan, gàn, phạm)

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References[edit]