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U+4E7E, 乾
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E7E

[U+4E7D]
CJK Unified Ideographs 乿
[U+4E7F]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 5 +10, 11 strokes, cangjie input 十十人弓 (JJON), four-corner 48417, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

Related characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 84, character 25
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 204
  • Dae Jaweon: page 172, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 56, character 10
  • Unihan data for U+4E7E

Chinese[edit]

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character



References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*kaːn, *ɡran
*kaːn
*kaːns
*kaːns
*ɡaːn
*ɡaːn
*ɡaːn, *ɡaːns
*ɡaːns
*ɡaːns
*ɡaːns
*qʷaːd

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *kaːn, *ɡran): phonetic  (OC *kaːns) + semantic .

Etymology 1[edit]

trad.
simp. *
alt. forms

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *kan (to dry; to dry up). Cognate with Burmese ခန်း (hkan:, to dry up; to evaporate).

The sense “lacking sweetness” is a calque of French sec or English dry.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • kan - literary;
  • koaⁿ/koa - vernacular.
  • Wu

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location 乾 (旱)
    Mandarin Beijing /kan⁵⁵/
    Harbin /kan⁴⁴/
    Tianjin /kan²¹/
    Jinan /kã²¹³/
    Qingdao /kã²¹³/
    Zhengzhou /kan²⁴/
    Xi'an /kã²¹/
    Xining /kã⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /kan⁴⁴/
    Lanzhou /kɛ̃n³¹/
    Ürümqi /kan⁴⁴/
    Wuhan /kan⁵⁵/
    Chengdu /kan⁵⁵/
    Guiyang /kan⁵⁵/
    Kunming /kã̠⁴⁴/
    Nanjing /kaŋ³¹/
    Hefei /kæ̃²¹/
    Jin Taiyuan /kæ̃¹¹/
    Pingyao /kɑŋ¹³/
    Hohhot /kæ̃³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /kø⁵³/
    Suzhou /kø⁵⁵/
    Hangzhou /kẽ̞³³/
    Wenzhou /ky³³/
    Hui Shexian /kɛ³¹/
    Tunxi /kuə¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /kan³³/
    Xiangtan /kan³³/
    Gan Nanchang /kɵn⁴²/
    Hakka Meixian /kon⁴⁴/
    Taoyuan /kon²⁴/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /kɔn⁵³/
    Nanning /kɔn⁵⁵/
    Hong Kong /kɔn⁵⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /kan⁵⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /kaŋ⁴⁴/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /kuiŋ⁵⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /kaŋ³³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /kaŋ²³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (28)
    Final () (61)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kɑn/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kɑn/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kɑn/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kan/
    Li
    Rong
    /kɑn/
    Wang
    Li
    /kɑn/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /kɑn/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    gān
    Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    gān
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ kan ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[k]ˤar/
    English dry

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 3698
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kaːn/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. dry; moistureless; waterless; arid
      喉嚨 / 喉咙  ―  Wǒ hóulóng hěn gān.  ―  My throat feels dry.
    2. to dry; to exhaust
    3. to neglect; to snub
    4. dried up; exhausted; drained
    5. (of voice) dry and coarse
    6. dried-up food
    7. adopted; adoptive; foster
    8. in vain; for nothing
    9. falsely; superficially
    10. not sweet; lacking sweetness

    Synonyms[edit]

    Dialectal synonyms of (“dry”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese)
    Mandarin Beijing
    Taiwan
    Jinan
    Xi'an
    Wuhan 乾燥
    Chengdu
    Yangzhou
    Hefei
    Cantonese Guangzhou
    Hong Kong
    Yangjiang
    Gan Nanchang
    Hakka Meixian
    Miaoli (N. Sixian)
    Liudui (S. Sixian)
    Hsinchu (Hailu)
    Dongshi (Dabu)
    Zhuolan (Raoping)
    Yunlin (Zhao'an)
    Jin Taiyuan
    Min Bei Jian'ou
    Min Dong Fuzhou
    Min Nan Xiamen
    Quanzhou
    Zhangzhou
    Taipei
    Penang
    Chaozhou
    Wu Suzhou
    Wenzhou
    Xiang Changsha
    Shuangfeng

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    simp. and trad.
    alt. forms

    From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *m-ka-n (heaven; sky; sun). Cognate with Tibetan མཁའ (mkha'), ནམ་མཁའ (nam mkha', sky; heaven).

    Pronunciation[edit]



    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (30)
    Final () (79)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () Chongniu III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɡˠiᴇn/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɡᵚiɛn/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ɡiæn/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /gian/
    Li
    Rong
    /ɡjɛn/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɡĭɛn/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /gi̯ɛn/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    qián
    Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    qián
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ gjen ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[ɡ](r)ar/
    English heaven; heavenly

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 3709
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɡran/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. first of the eight trigrams (bagua) used in Taoist cosmology, represented by the symbol
    2. (figuratively) sky; heaven
        ―  qiándào  ―  ways of heaven; natural law
    3. (figuratively) emperor; monarch
    4. (figuratively) sun
    5. (figuratively) northwest
    6. (figuratively) man; male
    7. A surname​.

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    1. northwest
    2. dehydrate
    3. arid
    4. drought
    5. imbibe
    6. paradise
    7. the emperor

    Readings[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    (inu) +‎ (i)

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana いぬい, rōmaji inui, historical hiragana いぬゐ)

    1. (obsolete) northwest

    Proper noun[edit]

    (hiragana いぬい, rōmaji Inui, historical hiragana いぬゐ)

    1. A surname​.

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (geon, gan) (hangeul , , revised geon, gan, McCune-Reischauer kŏn, kan)

    1. (하늘 건, haneul-): sky
    2. (건괘 건, geon-gwae-): or the 1st of the Eight Trigrams (☰☱☲☳☴☵☶☷ or 八卦 (팔괘, palgwae))
    3. (임금 건, im-geum-): king
    4. (마를 건, mareul-): to be dry

    Synonyms[edit]

    • (, cheon)
    • (, gan) (translingual; simplified hanzi for 乾)

    Antonyms[edit]

    See also[edit]

    八卦 (팔괘, palgwae)

      7+0=111+000 (U+2630)* sky
      6+1=110+001 (U+2631) marsh
      5+2=101+010 (U+2632) fire
      4+3=100+011 (U+2633) thunder
      3+4=011+100 (U+2634) wind
      2+5=010+101 (U+2635) water
      1+6=001+110 (U+2636) mountain
      0+7=000+111 (U+2637) earth

      [*] Decimal pair=Binary pair (Codepoint). (The solid bar "—" of the Trigrams may be assigned to the binary number "1", while the split bar "--" to "0".)


    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (kiền, cạn, can, càn, khan, gàn)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    References[edit]