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U+4E7E, 乾
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E7E

[U+4E7D]
CJK Unified Ideographs 乿
[U+4E7F]
See also: and

Translingual[edit]

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character



References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (large seal) and
  • Xu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*kaːn, *ɡran
*kaːn
*kaːns
*kaːns
*ɡaːn
*ɡaːn
*ɡaːn, *ɡaːns
*ɡaːns
*ɡaːns
*ɡaːns
*qʷaːd

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *kaːn, *ɡran): phonetic (OC *kaːns) + semantic .

Han character[edit]

(radical 5 +10, 11 strokes, cangjie input 十十人弓 (JJON), four-corner 48417, composition𠦝)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 84, character 25
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 204
  • Dae Jaweon: page 172, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 56, character 10
  • Unihan data for U+4E7E

Chinese[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

trad.
simp.
alt. forms

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *kan(dry, dry up). Cognate with Burmese ခန်း(hkan:, to dry up, to evaporate).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • kan - literary;
  • koaⁿ - vernacular.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location 乾 (旱)
Mandarin Beijing /kan⁵⁵/
Harbin /kan⁴⁴/
Tianjin /kan²¹/
Jinan /kã²¹³/
Qingdao /kã²¹³/
Zhengzhou /kan²⁴/
Xi'an /kã²¹/
Xining /kã⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /kan⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /kɛ̃n³¹/
Ürümqi /kan⁴⁴/
Wuhan /kan⁵⁵/
Chengdu /kan⁵⁵/
Guiyang /kan⁵⁵/
Kunming /kã̠⁴⁴/
Nanjing /kaŋ³¹/
Hefei /kæ̃²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /kæ̃¹¹/
Pingyao /kɑŋ¹³/
Hohhot /kæ̃³¹/
Wu Shanghai /kø⁵³/
Suzhou /kø⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /kẽ̞³³/
Wenzhou /ky³³/
Hui Shexian /kɛ³¹/
Tunxi /kuə¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /kan³³/
Xiangtan /kan³³/
Gan Nanchang /kɵn⁴²/
Hakka Meixian /kon⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /kon²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /kɔn⁵³/
Nanning /kɔn⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /kɔn⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /kan⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /kaŋ⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /kuiŋ⁵⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /kaŋ³³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /kaŋ²³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (28)
Final () (61)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kɑn/
Pan
Wuyun
/kɑn/
Shao
Rongfen
/kɑn/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kan/
Li
Rong
/kɑn/
Wang
Li
/kɑn/
Bernard
Karlgren
/kɑn/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
gān
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
gān
Middle
Chinese
‹ kan ›
Old
Chinese
/*[k]ˤar/
English dry

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 3698
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kaːn/

Definitions[edit]

  1. dry
    喉嚨 / 喉咙  ―  Wǒ hóulóng hěn gān.  ―  My throat feels dry.
  2. clean
    /   ―  gānjìng  ―  clean
  3. adoptive; foster
  4. in vain; for nothing

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

simp. and trad.
alt. forms

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *m-ka-n(heaven, sky, sun). Cognate with Tibetan མཁའ(mkha'), ནམ་མཁའ(nam mkha', sky, heaven).

Pronunciation[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location 乾 (旱)
Mandarin Beijing /kan⁵⁵/
Harbin /kan⁴⁴/
Tianjin /kan²¹/
Jinan /kã²¹³/
Qingdao /kã²¹³/
Zhengzhou /kan²⁴/
Xi'an /kã²¹/
Xining /kã⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /kan⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /kɛ̃n³¹/
Ürümqi /kan⁴⁴/
Wuhan /kan⁵⁵/
Chengdu /kan⁵⁵/
Guiyang /kan⁵⁵/
Kunming /kã̠⁴⁴/
Nanjing /kaŋ³¹/
Hefei /kæ̃²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /kæ̃¹¹/
Pingyao /kɑŋ¹³/
Hohhot /kæ̃³¹/
Wu Shanghai /kø⁵³/
Suzhou /kø⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /kẽ̞³³/
Wenzhou /ky³³/
Hui Shexian /kɛ³¹/
Tunxi /kuə¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /kan³³/
Xiangtan /kan³³/
Gan Nanchang /kɵn⁴²/
Hakka Meixian /kon⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /kon²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /kɔn⁵³/
Nanning /kɔn⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /kɔn⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /kan⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /kaŋ⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /kuiŋ⁵⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /kaŋ³³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /kaŋ²³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (30)
Final () (79)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () Chongniu III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɡˠiᴇn/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɡᵚiɛn/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɡiæn/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/gian/
Li
Rong
/ɡjɛn/
Wang
Li
/ɡĭɛn/
Bernard
Karlgren
/gi̯ɛn/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
qián
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
qián
Middle
Chinese
‹ gjen ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ɡ](r)ar/
English heaven; heavenly

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 3709
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡran/

Definitions[edit]

  1. One of the Eight Trigrams ().
      ―  qiándào  ―  ways of heaven; natural law
  2. sky; heaven
  3. sun
  4. emperor
  5. man, male
  6. A surname​.

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

  1. northwest
  2. dehydrate
  3. arid
  4. drought
  5. imbibe
  6. paradise
  7. the emperor

Readings[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana いぬい, romaji inui, historical hiragana いぬゐ)

  1. (obsolete) northwest

Proper noun[edit]

‎(hiragana いぬい, romaji Inui, historical hiragana いぬゐ)

  1. A surname​.

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(geon, gan) (hangeul , , revised geon, gan, McCune-Reischauer kŏn, kan)

  1. (하늘 건, haneul-): sky
  2. (건괘 건, geon-gwae-): or the 1st of the Eight Trigrams (☰☱☲☳☴☵☶☷ or 八卦 (팔괘, palgwae))
  3. (임금 건, im-geum-): king
  4. (마를 건, mareul-): to be dry

Synonyms[edit]

  • (, cheon)
  • (, gan) (translingual; simplified hanzi for 乾)

Antonyms[edit]

See also[edit]

八卦 (팔괘, palgwae)

7+0=111+000 (U+2630)* sky
6+1=110+001 (U+2631) marsh
5+2=101+010 (U+2632) fire
4+3=100+011 (U+2633) thunder
3+4=011+100 (U+2634) wind
2+5=010+101 (U+2635) water
1+6=001+110 (U+2636) mountain
0+7=000+111 (U+2637) earth

[*] Decimal pair=Binary pair (Codepoint). (The solid bar "—" of the Trigrams may be assigned to the binary number "1", while the split bar "--" to "0".)


Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(kiền, cạn, can, càn, khan, gàn, phạm)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

References[edit]