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U+98A8, 風
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-98A8

[U+98A7]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+98A9]
See also: and

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
風-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 182 +0, 9 strokes, cangjie input 竹弓竹中戈 (HNHLI) or 竹弓一中戈 (HNMLI), four-corner 77210, composition𠘨)

  1. Kangxi radical #182, (wind).

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1411, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 43756
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1930, character 20
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 7, page 4480, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+98A8

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bamboo and silk script Large seal script Small seal script
風-oracle.svg 風-bronze.svg 風-silk.svg 風-bigseal.svg 風-seal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*b·ruːm
*b·uːm
*pʰomʔ
*pʰoms, *bum
*bom
*bom, *boms
*bom, *boms
*bomʔ
*bloms, *bum
*boːŋ, *bum
*plum, *plums
*plum
*plum
*plum
*plum
*plum
*plum
*plums
*blum
*blum
*bums

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *plum, *plums): phonetic (OC *bom) + semantic (insects). Ancient Chinese thought insects appear with wind. (Insects refer to any kind of animal, such as tigers (大蟲)). The stroke inside the enclosure has merged with the , so compound is graphically  + ; compare similar development in (from ).

Etymology[edit]

Unknown. Pronunciations 1 and 2 are cognate, and pronunciation 3 appears to be cognate as well. The Old Chinese form for "wind" was *prəm, which is thought to be related to Proto-Tai *C̬.lɯmᴬ(wind), Korean 바람(baram, wind) and Tibetan རླུང(rlung, wind). This word has a wide range of extended meanings, and interestingly many of these have exact parallels in the Korean cognate. Compare Chinese 風流, 風騷 - Korean 바람둥이(baramdung-i).

Cognate with:

  • 飛廉 (“wind god”)
  • 蜚蠊 (“cockroach”) (note the preservation of the -r- infix in Old Chinese through disyllabification, also (OC *b·ruːm), (OC *b·uːm))
  • (OC *plum, “mad, insane”)
  • (OC *plums, “to mock, to advise”)
  • (OC *bom, *boms, “sail”)

The development from Old Chinese to Middle Chinese was irregular, driven by dissimilation of the initial and coda bilabial consonants.

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note:
  • Quanzhou:
    • hoang - vernacular;
    • hong - literary.
Note:
  • huang1 - vernacular;
  • hong1 - literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /fəŋ⁵⁵/
Harbin /fəŋ⁴⁴/
Tianjin /fəŋ²¹/
Jinan /fəŋ²¹³/
Qingdao /fəŋ²¹³/
Zhengzhou /fəŋ²⁴/
Xi'an /fəŋ²¹/
Xining /fə̃⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /fəŋ⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /fə̃n³¹/
Ürümqi /fɤŋ⁴⁴/
Wuhan /foŋ⁵⁵/
Chengdu /foŋ⁵⁵/
Guiyang /foŋ⁵⁵/
Kunming /foŋ/
Nanjing /fən³¹/
Hefei /fəŋ²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /fəŋ¹¹/
Pingyao /xuŋ¹³/
Hohhot /fə̃ŋ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /foŋ⁵³/
Suzhou /foŋ⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /foŋ³³/
Wenzhou /hoŋ³³/
Hui Shexian /fʌ̃³¹/
Tunxi /fan¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /xoŋ³³/
Xiangtan /ɸən³³/
Gan Nanchang /fuŋ⁴²/
Hakka Meixian /fuŋ⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /fuŋ²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /foŋ⁵³/
Nanning /fuŋ⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /fuŋ⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /hɔŋ⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /huŋ⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /xɔŋ⁵⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /hoŋ³³/
/huaŋ³³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /foŋ²³/
/huaŋ²³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (1)
Final () (2)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/pɨuŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/piuŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/piuŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/puwŋ/
Li
Rong
/piuŋ/
Wang
Li
/pĭuŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/pi̯uŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
fēng
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
fēng
Middle
Chinese
‹ pjuwng ›
Old
Chinese
/*prəm/
English wind (n.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 2921
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
3
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*plum/

Definitions[edit]

  1. wind
  2. air; atmosphere
  3. general mood; custom
  4. demeanour
  5. cultivation; moralisation
  6. style; manner
  7. conduct; discipline
  8. power
  9. news; information
  10. love; affection; to become sexually attracted; to copulate
  11. dissolute; promiscuous
  12. ungrounded; baseless
  13. Alternative form of (fēng, “mad; insane”).
  14. (TCM) One of the causes of diseases in traditional Chinese medicine.
  15. epilepsy
  16. A surname​. Feng; Fung

Compounds[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic ():

Pronunciation 2[edit]


Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (1)
Final () (2)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/pɨuŋH/
Pan
Wuyun
/piuŋH/
Shao
Rongfen
/piuŋH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/puwŋH/
Li
Rong
/piuŋH/
Wang
Li
/pĭuŋH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/pi̯uŋH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
fèng
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
fèng
Middle
Chinese
‹ pjuwngH ›
Old
Chinese
/*prəm-s/
English blow; criticize

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 2929
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
3
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*plums/
Notes

Definitions[edit]

  1. to blow; to fan
  2. to influence; to reform a misguided person through persuasion
    • /   ―  fēngmín  ―  to cultivate the masses

Compounds[edit]

Pronunciation 3[edit]

Definitions[edit]

  1. Alternative form of (fěng, “to mock; to ridicule; to satire”).
  2. Alternative form of (fěng, “to advise in mild tone”).

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
かぜ
Grade: 2
kun'yomi

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana かぜ, romaji kaze)

  1. a movement of air; a wind
  2. airs
  3. style

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
ふう
Grade: 2
on'yomi

From Middle Chinese (pjuwng, wind).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana ふう, romaji )

  1. style

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
ふり
Grade: 2
Irregular

The 連用形(ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verb 振る(furu, to swing).

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana ふり, romaji furi)

  1. swing

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(pung)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul):  (revised: pung, McCune-Reischauer: p'ung, Yale: phung)
  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(phong)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.