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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
風-order.gif

Etymology[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bamboo and silk script Large seal script Small seal script
風-oracle.svg 風-bronze.svg 風-silk.svg 風-bigseal.svg 風-seal.svg

Phono-semantic compound (形聲):  +  ‎(insects). Ancient Chinese thought insects appear with wind. (Insects refer to any kind of animal, such as tigers (大蟲)). The stroke inside the enclosure has merged with the 虫, so compound is graphically  + ; compare similar development in (from ).

Han character[edit]

(radical 182 +0, 9 strokes, cangjie input 竹弓竹中戈 (HNHLI) or 竹弓一中戈 (HNMLI), four-corner 77210, composition𠘨)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1411, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 43756
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1930, character 20
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 7, page 4480, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+98A8

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.

Etymology[edit]

Unknown. Pronunciations 1 and 2 are cognate, and pronunciation 3 appears to be cognate as well. The Old Chinese form for "wind" was *prəm, which is thought to be related to Proto-Tai *C̬.lɯmᴬ ‎(wind), Korean 바람 ‎(baram, wind) and Tibetan རླུང ‎(rlung, wind). This word has a wide range of extended meanings, and interestingly many of these have exact parallels in the Korean cognate. Compare Chinese 風流, 風騷 - Korean 바람둥이 ‎(baramdung-i).

Cognate with 飛廉 (“wind god”), 蜚蠊 (“cockroach”) (notice how the -r- infix in Old Chinese was preserved through disyllabification, also , ), (“mad, insane”), (“to mock, to advise”), (“sail”). The development from Old Chinese to Middle Chinese was irregular, driven by dissimilation of the initial and coda bilabial consonants.

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Dialectal pronunciations ()
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /fəŋ⁵⁵/
Harbin /fəŋ⁴⁴/
Tianjin /fəŋ²¹/
Jinan /fəŋ²¹³/
Qingdao /fəŋ²¹³/
Zhengzhou /fəŋ²⁴/
Xi'an /fəŋ²¹/
Xining /fə̃⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /fəŋ⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /fə̃n³¹/
Ürümqi /fɤŋ⁴⁴/
Wuhan /foŋ⁵⁵/
Chengdu /foŋ⁵⁵/
Guiyang /foŋ⁵⁵/
Kunming /foŋ/
Nanjing /fən³¹/
Hefei /fəŋ²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /fəŋ¹¹/
Pingyao /xuŋ¹³/
Hohhot /fə̃ŋ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /foŋ⁵³/
Suzhou /foŋ⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /foŋ³³/
Wenzhou /hoŋ³³/
Hui Shexian /fʌ̃³¹/
Tunxi /fan¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /xoŋ³³/
Xiangtan /ɸən³³/
Gan Nanchang /fuŋ⁴²/
Hakka Meixian /fuŋ⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /fuŋ²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /foŋ⁵³/
Nanning /fuŋ⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /fuŋ⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /hɔŋ⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /huŋ⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /xɔŋ⁵⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /hoŋ³³/
/huaŋ³³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /foŋ²³/
/huaŋ²³/
Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/2

Initial: (1)
Final:
Division: III

Openness: Open
Tone: Level (Ø)

Fanqie:
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/pɨuŋ/ /pi̯uŋ/ /piuŋ/ /piuŋ/ /puwŋ/ /pĭuŋ/ /piuŋ/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
fēng ‹ pjuwng › /*prəm/ wind (n.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
2921 3 /*plum/

Definitions[edit]

  1. wind
  2. air, atmosphere
  3. general mood, custom
  4. demeanour
  5. cultivation, moralisation
  6. style, manner
  7. conduct, discipline
  8. power
  9. news, information
  10. love, affection; to become sexually attracted; copulate
  11. dissolute, promiscuous
  12. ungrounded, baseless
  13. (= (fēng)) mad, insane
  14. (medicine) One of the causes of diseases in traditional Chinese medicine.
  15. epilepsy
  16. A surname​. Feng, Fung
Compounds[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic ():

Pronunciation 2[edit]

Dialectal pronunciations ()
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /fəŋ⁵⁵/
Harbin /fəŋ⁴⁴/
Tianjin /fəŋ²¹/
Jinan /fəŋ²¹³/
Qingdao /fəŋ²¹³/
Zhengzhou /fəŋ²⁴/
Xi'an /fəŋ²¹/
Xining /fə̃⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /fəŋ⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /fə̃n³¹/
Ürümqi /fɤŋ⁴⁴/
Wuhan /foŋ⁵⁵/
Chengdu /foŋ⁵⁵/
Guiyang /foŋ⁵⁵/
Kunming /foŋ/
Nanjing /fən³¹/
Hefei /fəŋ²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /fəŋ¹¹/
Pingyao /xuŋ¹³/
Hohhot /fə̃ŋ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /foŋ⁵³/
Suzhou /foŋ⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /foŋ³³/
Wenzhou /hoŋ³³/
Hui Shexian /fʌ̃³¹/
Tunxi /fan¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /xoŋ³³/
Xiangtan /ɸən³³/
Gan Nanchang /fuŋ⁴²/
Hakka Meixian /fuŋ⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /fuŋ²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /foŋ⁵³/
Nanning /fuŋ⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /fuŋ⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /hɔŋ⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /huŋ⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /xɔŋ⁵⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /hoŋ³³/
/huaŋ³³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /foŋ²³/
/huaŋ²³/
Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 2/2

Initial: (1)
Final:
Division: III

Openness: Open
Tone: Departing (H)

Fanqie:
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/pɨuŋH/ /pi̯uŋH/ /piuŋH/ /piuŋH/ /puwŋH/ /pĭuŋH/ /piuŋH/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
fèng ‹ pjuwngH › /*prəm-s/ blow; criticize

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
2929 3 /*plums/ 同諷見詩

Definitions[edit]

  1. to blow, to fan
  2. to influence, to reform a misguided person through persuasion

Pronunciation 3[edit]

Dialectal pronunciations ()
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /fəŋ⁵⁵/
Harbin /fəŋ⁴⁴/
Tianjin /fəŋ²¹/
Jinan /fəŋ²¹³/
Qingdao /fəŋ²¹³/
Zhengzhou /fəŋ²⁴/
Xi'an /fəŋ²¹/
Xining /fə̃⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /fəŋ⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /fə̃n³¹/
Ürümqi /fɤŋ⁴⁴/
Wuhan /foŋ⁵⁵/
Chengdu /foŋ⁵⁵/
Guiyang /foŋ⁵⁵/
Kunming /foŋ/
Nanjing /fən³¹/
Hefei /fəŋ²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /fəŋ¹¹/
Pingyao /xuŋ¹³/
Hohhot /fə̃ŋ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /foŋ⁵³/
Suzhou /foŋ⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /foŋ³³/
Wenzhou /hoŋ³³/
Hui Shexian /fʌ̃³¹/
Tunxi /fan¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /xoŋ³³/
Xiangtan /ɸən³³/
Gan Nanchang /fuŋ⁴²/
Hakka Meixian /fuŋ⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /fuŋ²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /foŋ⁵³/
Nanning /fuŋ⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /fuŋ⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /hɔŋ⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /huŋ⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /xɔŋ⁵⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /hoŋ³³/
/huaŋ³³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /foŋ²³/
/huaŋ²³/

Definitions[edit]

  1. (= (fěng)) to mock, to ridicule, to satire
  2. (= (fěng)) to advise in mild tone

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
かぜ
Grade: 2
kun'yomi

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana かぜ, romaji kaze)

  1. a movement of air; a wind
  2. airs
  3. style

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
ふう
Grade: 2
on'yomi

From Middle Chinese ‎(pjuwng, wind).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana ふう, romaji )

  1. style

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
ふり
Grade: 2
Irregular

The 連用形 ‎(ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verb 振る ‎(furu, to swing).

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana ふり, romaji furi)

  1. swing

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(pung)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul):  (revised: pung, McCune-Reischauer: p'ung, Yale: phung)
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Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(phong)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.