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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
風-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 182 +0, 9 strokes, cangjie input 竹弓竹中戈 (HNHLI) or 竹弓一中戈 (HNMLI), four-corner 77210, composition𠘨)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1411, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 43756
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1930, character 20
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 7, page 4480, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+98A8

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bamboo and silk script Large seal script Small seal script
風-oracle.svg 風-bronze.svg 風-silk.svg 風-bigseal.svg 風-seal.svg

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *plum, *plums): phonetic  ‎(OC *bom) + semantic  ‎(insects). Ancient Chinese thought insects appear with wind. (Insects refer to any kind of animal, such as tigers (大蟲)). The stroke inside the enclosure has merged with the , so compound is graphically  + ; compare similar development in (from ).

Etymology[edit]

Unknown. Pronunciations 1 and 2 are cognate, and pronunciation 3 appears to be cognate as well. The Old Chinese form for "wind" was *prəm, which is thought to be related to Proto-Tai *C̬.lɯmᴬ ‎(wind), Korean 바람 ‎(baram, wind) and Tibetan རླུང ‎(rlung, wind). This word has a wide range of extended meanings, and interestingly many of these have exact parallels in the Korean cognate. Compare Chinese 風流, 風騷 - Korean 바람둥이 ‎(baramdung-i).

Cognate with:

  • 飛廉 (“wind god”)
  • 蜚蠊 (“cockroach”) (notice how the -r- infix in Old Chinese was preserved through disyllabification, also (OC *b·ruːm), (OC *b·uːm))
  • (OC *plum, “mad, insane”)
  • (OC *plums, “to mock, to advise”)
  • (OC *bom, *boms, “sail”)

The development from Old Chinese to Middle Chinese was irregular, driven by dissimilation of the initial and coda bilabial consonants.

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Dialectal pronunciations ()
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /fəŋ⁵⁵/
Harbin /fəŋ⁴⁴/
Tianjin /fəŋ²¹/
Jinan /fəŋ²¹³/
Qingdao /fəŋ²¹³/
Zhengzhou /fəŋ²⁴/
Xi'an /fəŋ²¹/
Xining /fə̃⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /fəŋ⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /fə̃n³¹/
Ürümqi /fɤŋ⁴⁴/
Wuhan /foŋ⁵⁵/
Chengdu /foŋ⁵⁵/
Guiyang /foŋ⁵⁵/
Kunming /foŋ/
Nanjing /fən³¹/
Hefei /fəŋ²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /fəŋ¹¹/
Pingyao /xuŋ¹³/
Hohhot /fə̃ŋ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /foŋ⁵³/
Suzhou /foŋ⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /foŋ³³/
Wenzhou /hoŋ³³/
Hui Shexian /fʌ̃³¹/
Tunxi /fan¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /xoŋ³³/
Xiangtan /ɸən³³/
Gan Nanchang /fuŋ⁴²/
Hakka Meixian /fuŋ⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /fuŋ²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /foŋ⁵³/
Nanning /fuŋ⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /fuŋ⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /hɔŋ⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /huŋ⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /xɔŋ⁵⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /hoŋ³³/
/huaŋ³³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /foŋ²³/
/huaŋ²³/
Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/2

Initial: (1)
Final: (2)
Tone: Level (Ø)

Openness: Open
Division: III
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: fēng
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/pɨuŋ/ /piuŋ/ /piuŋ/ /puwŋ/ /piuŋ/ /pĭuŋ/ /pi̯uŋ/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
fēng ‹ pjuwng › /*prəm/ wind (n.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
2921 3 /*plum/

Definitions[edit]

  1. wind
  2. air, atmosphere
  3. general mood, custom
  4. demeanour
  5. cultivation, moralisation
  6. style, manner
  7. conduct, discipline
  8. power
  9. news, information
  10. love, affection; to become sexually attracted; copulate
  11. dissolute, promiscuous
  12. ungrounded, baseless
  13. Alternative form of (fēng, “mad, insane”).
  14. (medicine) One of the causes of diseases in traditional Chinese medicine.
  15. epilepsy
  16. A surname​. Feng, Fung

Compounds[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic ():

Pronunciation 2[edit]

Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 2/2

Initial: (1)
Final: (2)
Tone: Departing (H)

Openness: Open
Division: III
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: fèng
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/pɨuŋH/ /piuŋH/ /piuŋH/ /puwŋH/ /piuŋH/ /pĭuŋH/ /pi̯uŋH/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
fèng ‹ pjuwngH › /*prəm-s/ blow; criticize

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
2929 3 /*plums/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to blow, to fan
  2. to influence, to reform a misguided person through persuasion

Pronunciation 3[edit]

Definitions[edit]

  1. Alternative form of (fěng, “to mock, to ridicule, to satire”).
  2. Alternative form of (fěng, “to advise in mild tone”).

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
かぜ
Grade: 2
kun'yomi

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana かぜ, romaji kaze)

  1. a movement of air; a wind
  2. airs
  3. style

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
ふう
Grade: 2
on'yomi

From Middle Chinese ‎(pjuwng, wind).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana ふう, romaji )

  1. style

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
ふり
Grade: 2
Irregular

The 連用形 ‎(ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verb 振る ‎(furu, to swing).

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana ふり, romaji furi)

  1. swing

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(pung)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul):  (revised: pung, McCune-Reischauer: p'ung, Yale: phung)
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Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(phong)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.