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See also:
U+6642, 時
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6642

[U+6641]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6643]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
時-order.gif

Han character[edit]

Stroke order
10 strokes

(radical 72, +6, 10 strokes, cangjie input 日土木戈 (AGDI), four-corner 64041, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

Related characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 494, character 22
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 13890
  • Dae Jaweon: page 859, character 15
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1505, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+6642

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.
alternative forms

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
時-oracle.svg 時-bronze-warring.svg 時-silk.svg 時-seal.svg 時-bigseal.svg

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *djɯ): semantic  (sun; day) + phonetic  (OC *ljɯs).

In ancient scripts, it had the form , with (OC *tjɯ) as the phonetic instead.

Etymology[edit]

From (OC *tjɯ, “to go; to proceed”) + endopassive voicing + endoactive tone B (上聲), literally “that which is proceeding” (Schuessler, 2007).

Pronunciation[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ʂʐ̩³⁵/
Harbin /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
Tianjin /sz̩⁴⁵/
Jinan /ʂʐ̩⁴²/
Qingdao /ʂʐ̩⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ʂʐ̩⁴²/
Xi'an /sz̩²⁴/
Xining /sz̩²⁴/
Yinchuan /ʂʐ̩⁵³/
Lanzhou /ʂʐ̩⁵³/
Ürümqi /sz̩⁵¹/
Wuhan /sz̩²¹³/
Chengdu /sz̩³¹/
Guiyang /sz̩²¹/
Kunming /ʂʐ̩³¹/
Nanjing /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
Hefei /ʂʐ̩⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /sz̩¹¹/
Pingyao /sz̩¹³/
Hohhot /sz̩³¹/
Wu Shanghai /zz̩²³/
Suzhou /zz̩ʷ¹³/
Hangzhou /zz̩²¹³/
Wenzhou /zz̩³¹/
Hui Shexian /sz̩⁴⁴/
Tunxi /ɕi⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /ʂʐ̩¹³/
Xiangtan /ʂʐ̩¹²/
Gan Nanchang /sz̩⁴⁵/
Hakka Meixian /sz̩¹¹/
Taoyuan /ʃï¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /si²¹/
Nanning /si²¹/
Hong Kong /si²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /si³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /si⁵³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /si³³/
Shantou (Min Nan) /si⁵⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /ti³¹/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (25)
Final () (19)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/d͡ʑɨ/
Pan
Wuyun
/d͡ʑɨ/
Shao
Rongfen
/d͡ʑie/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/d͡ʑɨ/
Li
Rong
/ʑiə/
Wang
Li
/ʑĭə/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʑi/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
chí
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
shí
Middle
Chinese
‹ dzyi ›
Old
Chinese
/*[d]ə/ (~ *[d]əʔ)
English time

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 12042
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*djɯ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. time; season
  2. seasonal
  3. hour; o’clock
  4. era; age; period
  5. opportunity; chance
  6. current; contemporary
  7. when; time when
    白銀可以貴金屬用做貨幣稱為白銀 [MSC, trad.]
    白银可以贵金属用做货币称为白银 [MSC, simp.]
    From: Chinese Wikipedia, 白銀
    Báiyín kěyǐ zhǐ: Yín, guìjīnshǔ, yòngzuò huòbì shí kě chēngwèi báiyín [Pinyin]
    Baiyin may refer to: silver, a precious metal; when used as currency it may be referred to as baiyin
  8. occasionally
  9. beautiful; good
    [Classical Chinese, trad.]
    [Classical Chinese, simp.]
    From: The Classic of Poetry, circa 11th – 7th centuries BCE, translated based on James Legge's version
    Ěr jiǔ jì zhǐ, ěr yáo jì shí. [Pinyin]
    Since your spirits are [so] good, and your viands are all of the season.
  10. Alternative form of (shì, “this”).
    [Classical Chinese, trad.]
    [Classical Chinese, simp.]
    From: The Book of Documents, circa 4th – 3rd century BCE
    Shí rì hé sàng? Yǔ jí rǔ xié wáng. [Pinyin]
    When will this sun perish? We will all perish with you.

Compounds[edit]

Further reading[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. time

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
とき
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

/to2ki1//toki/

From Old Japanese. Found in the Man'yōshū, completed some time after 759 CE.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(とき) (toki

  1. time
    (とき)(なが)
    toki no nagare
    the flow of time
  2. an event, case, occasion, moment; a specific period in time
    (こま)った(とき)(わたし)相談(そうだん)して(くだ)さい。
    Komatta toki wa watashi ni sōdan shite kudasai.
    Please consult with me when troubled (in times of trouble).
  3. time of something
  4. a season
  5. a tense
Descendants[edit]
  • Yami: toki
Derived terms[edit]

Suffix[edit]

(どき) (-doki

  1. time of...; time for...

Proper noun[edit]

(とき) (Toki

  1. a female given name

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 2
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (MC d͡ʑɨ). The goon reading, so likely the initial borrowing.

Pronunciation[edit]

Counter[edit]

() (-ji

  1. hour, o’clock
    ()(けい)()ると、ちょうど12(じゅうに)()34(さんじゅうよん)(ぷん)56(ごじゅうろく)(びょう)だった。
    Tokei o miru to, chōdo jūni-ji sanjūyon-pun gojūroku-byō datta.
    When I looked at the clock, it was just 12:34 and 56 seconds.
    • 1987 February 20 [Nov 15 1982], Murakami, Motoka, “(らん)()(ふたた)びの(まき) [Reunite with Ranko]”, in ()()()(けん) [Musashi’s Sword], volume 7 (fiction), 18th edition, Tokyo: Shogakukan, →ISBN, page 154:
      オラ、(なつ)()()()()(ろく)(がつ)(みっ)()()()()まれだから()()()‼まんずよろしく‼
      Ora, Natsuki Musashi! Rokugatsu mikka no yoji ni umare da kara Musashi‼ Manzu yoroshiku‼
      Mah name’s Natsuki Musashi! It’s Musashi because ah was born on June 3 at 4!! Nice to meet y’all!!
Derived terms[edit]
Japanese number-counter combinations for () (ji)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 What time?
(れい)() (reiji) (いち)() (ichiji) ()() (niji) (さん)() (sanji) ()() (yoji) ()() (goji) (ろく)() (rokuji) (しち)() (shichiji)
(なな)() (nanaji)
(はち)() (hachiji) ()() (kuji) (じゅう)() (jūji) (じゅう)(いち)() (jūichiji) (じゅう)()() (jūniji) (なん)() (nanji)
Related terms[edit]

Suffix[edit]

() (-ji

  1. at the time of

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
さだ
Grade: 2
Irregular

/sida//sada/

Sound shift from Old Japanese しだ (sida, doing time, opportunity).[4]

Noun[edit]

(さだ) (sada

  1. (obsolete) chance; time; prime of life (Can we verify(+) this sense?)
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 11, poem 2732), text here
      (おきつ)(なみ)()(なみ)之来(のき)(よる)左太(さだ)()(うら)()(この)()()(すぎ)()(のち)将戀(こひむ)可聞(かも) [Man'yōgana]
      (おき)(なみ)()(なみ)来寄(きよ)佐太(さだ)(うら)のこのさだ()ぎて(のち)()ひむかも [Modern spelling]
      oki tsu nami he-nami no ki-yoru Sada-no-ura no kono sada sugite nochi koimu kamo
      Sounding like the bay of Sada, whence the waves of the offing and of the coatside approach, this chance has passed away; afterwards alas, I can but long for her! (from far)[5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 3, poem 467), text here
  2. ^ 1974, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Second Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō
  3. ^ 1960, Tetsuo Hirayama (平山輝男, editor), 全国アクセント辞典 (Zenkoku Akusento Jiten, Nationwide Accent Dictionary), (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Tōkyōdō, →ISBN
  4. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  5. ^ Jan Lodewijk Pierson, Jr. (1960) The Manyôśû Translated and Annotated Book XV, Leiden: Brill Archive (E.J. Brill), page 335

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(eumhun (ttae si))

  1. time; hour; o’clock
  2. season; seasonal
  3. era; age; period
  4. opportunity; chance
  5. correct, right, excellent, great, good, nice, beautiful, fine, well

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(thì), (thời)

  1. time