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See also:
U+6642, 時
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6642

[U+6641]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6643]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
時-order.gif

Han character[edit]

Stroke order
10 strokes

(radical 72, +6, 10 strokes, cangjie input 日土木戈 (AGDI), four-corner 64041, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

Related characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 494, character 22
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 13890
  • Dae Jaweon: page 859, character 15
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1505, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+6642

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.
alternative forms

𣅱

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
時-oracle.svg 時-bronze-warring.svg 時-silk.svg 時-seal.svg 時-bigseal.svg

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *djɯ): semantic (sun; day) + phonetic (OC *ljɯs).

In ancient scripts, it had the form , with (OC *tjɯ) as the phonetic instead.

Etymology[edit]

From (OC *tjɯ, “to go; to proceed”) + endopassive voicing + endoactive tone B (上聲), literally “that which is proceeding” (Schuessler, 2007).

"this"
A relatively unemphatic form of (OC *djeʔ, “this”) (Pulleybank, 1995). Cognate with (OC *tjɯ, “this; third-person pronoun”) (Schuessler, 2007).

Pronunciation[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ʂʐ̩³⁵/
Harbin /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
Tianjin /sz̩⁴⁵/
Jinan /ʂʐ̩⁴²/
Qingdao /ʂʐ̩⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ʂʐ̩⁴²/
Xi'an /sz̩²⁴/
Xining /sz̩²⁴/
Yinchuan /ʂʐ̩⁵³/
Lanzhou /ʂʐ̩⁵³/
Ürümqi /sz̩⁵¹/
Wuhan /sz̩²¹³/
Chengdu /sz̩³¹/
Guiyang /sz̩²¹/
Kunming /ʂʐ̩³¹/
Nanjing /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
Hefei /ʂʐ̩⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /sz̩¹¹/
Pingyao /sz̩¹³/
Hohhot /sz̩³¹/
Wu Shanghai /zz̩²³/
Suzhou /zz̩ʷ¹³/
Hangzhou /zz̩²¹³/
Wenzhou /zz̩³¹/
Hui Shexian /sz̩⁴⁴/
Tunxi /ɕi⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /ʂʐ̩¹³/
Xiangtan /ʂʐ̩¹²/
Gan Nanchang /sz̩⁴⁵/
Hakka Meixian /sz̩¹¹/
Taoyuan /ʃï¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /si²¹/
Nanning /si²¹/
Hong Kong /si²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /si³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /si⁵³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /si³³/
Shantou (Min Nan) /si⁵⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /ti³¹/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (25)
Final () (19)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/d͡ʑɨ/
Pan
Wuyun
/d͡ʑɨ/
Shao
Rongfen
/d͡ʑie/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/d͡ʑɨ/
Li
Rong
/ʑiə/
Wang
Li
/ʑĭə/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʑi/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
chí
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
si4
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
shí
Middle
Chinese
‹ dzyi ›
Old
Chinese
/*[d]ə/ (~ *[d]əʔ)
English time

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 12042
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*djɯ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. time; season
  2. seasonal
  3. hour; o’clock (mainly in formal writing)
    Synonym:
  4. era; age; period
  5. opportunity; chance
  6. current; contemporary
  7. when; time when
    Usage note: it functions postpositively, whereas “when” in English functions prepositively.
  8. occasionally
  9. beautiful; good
  10. Alternative form of (shì, “this”).
  11. A surname.

Compounds[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: () (ji)
  • Korean: (, si)
  • Vietnamese: thời (), thì ()

References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
とき
Grade: 2
kun’yomi
Alternative spelling
(rare)

⟨to2ki1 → */təkʲi//toki/

From Old Japanese. First cited to the Nihon Shoki of 720 C.E..[1]

There are various theories regarding the ultimate derivation.

However, the sense of “unchanging” does not fit well with the sense of “the passing of time”. Separately, the phonetics of Old Japanese ⟨ki1/kʲi/ appear to contraindicate a fusion of /ko/ + /i/, which resulted in ⟨ki2/kʷi/ as seen at .
  • Possibly derived from or otherwise related to 疾し (toshi, sharp; happening quickly), cognate with 研ぐ (togu, to sharpen).
The Old Japanese phonetics of ⟨to2ki1 would match the attributive form of the adjective 疾し (toshi). However, the attributive form of adjectives was not generally used to derive nouns.
  • Possibly related to (toshi, year), which may also be cognate with 疾し (toshi, sharp; happening quickly).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(とき) (toki

  1. time
    (とき)(なが)toki no nagarethe flow of time
  2. an event, case, occasion, moment; a specific period in time
    (こま)った(とき)(わたし)(そう)(だん)してください。
    Komatta toki wa watashi ni sōdan shite kudasai.
    Please consult with me when troubled (in times of trouble).
  3. a time of something
  4. a season
  5. a tense
Derived terms[edit]
Descendants[edit]

Suffix[edit]

(どき) (-doki

  1. time of..., time for...

Proper noun[edit]

(とき) (Toki

  1. a female given name

Further reading[edit]

The toki entry at Gogen Allguide (in Japanese)

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 2
goon

/ʑi//ʑi//d͡ʑi/

From Middle Chinese (MC d͡ʑɨ).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • The pitch accent depends on the entire appended word.

Counter[edit]

() (-ji

  1. hour, o’clock
    ()(けい)()ると、ちょうど(じゅう)()()(さんじゅう)(よん)(ぷん)(ごじゅう)(ろく)(びょう)だった。
    Tokei o miru to, chōdo jūni-ji sanjūyon-pun gojūroku-byō datta.
    When I looked at the clock, it was just 12:34 and 56 seconds.
    • 1987 February 20 [Nov 15 1982], Murakami, Motoka, “(らん)()(ふたた)びの(まき) [Reunite with Ranko]”, in ()()()(けん) [Musashi’s Sword], volume 7 (fiction), 18th edition, Tokyo: Shogakukan, →ISBN, page 154:
      オラ、(なつ)()()()()(ろく)(がつ)(みっ)()()()()まれだから()()()‼まんずよろしく‼
      Ora, Natsuki Musashi! Rokugatsu mikka no yoji ni umare da kara Musashi‼ Manzu yoroshiku‼
      Mah name’s Natsuki Musashi! It’s Musashi because ah was born on June 3 at 4!! Nice to meet y’all!!
Derived terms[edit]
Japanese number-counter combinations for () (ji)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 What time?
(れい)() (reiji) (いち)() (ichiji) ()() (niji) (さん)() (sanji) ()() (yoji) ()() (goji) (ろく)() (rokuji) (しち)() (shichiji)
(なな)() (nanaji)
(はち)() (hachiji) ()() (kuji) (じゅう)() (jūji) (じゅう)(いち)() (jūichiji) (じゅう)()() (jūniji) (なん)() (nanji)

Suffix[edit]

() (-ji

  1. at the time of...

Affix[edit]

() (ji

  1. time, moment
  2. at that time, chance, occasion
  3. hour, hourly
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
さだ
Grade: 2
Irregular

Either a sound shift from,[2] or cognate with,[1] Old Japanese しだ (sida → shida, time, circumstance).

  • ⟨sida⟩⟨sada⟩ → */saⁿda//sada/
or:
  • ⟨sada⟩ → */saⁿda//sada/

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(さだ) (sada

  1. (obsolete) Only used in 時過ぐ (sada sugu): to pass through the prime of life, grow old

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. ^ 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  4. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
  5. ^ 1960, Tetsuo Hirayama (平山輝男, editor), 全国アクセント辞典 (Zenkoku Akusento Jiten, Nationwide Accent Dictionary), (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Tōkyōdō, →ISBN

Korean[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Chinese (MC d͡ʑɨ).

Historical readings

Pronunciation[edit]

Hanja[edit]

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun (ttae si))

  1. Hanja form? of (time; hour; season).
  2. Hanja form? of (era; age; period).
  3. Hanja form? of (opportunity; chance).
  4. Hanja form? of (correct, right, excellent, great, good, nice, beautiful, fine, well).

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [3]

Old Japanese[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Possibly a fusion of (to2ko2-, prefix for “always, unchanging) +‎ (i(1), nominalizing suffix). (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

Noun[edit]

(to2ki1) (kana とき)

  1. a time, moment (in time), occasion
Descendants[edit]
  • Japanese: (toki)

Etymology 2[edit]

Sound shift from しだ (sida, time, circumstance).[1]

Noun[edit]

(sada) (kana さだ)

  1. Only used in 時過ぐ (sada sugu): to pass through the prime of life, grow old
Descendants[edit]
  • Japanese: (sada)

References[edit]

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

: Hán Nôm readings: thì
, : Hán Nôm readings: thời

  1. time