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See also: , 𠆢, , and
009 - ren2 - man.svg
U+4EBA, 人
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4EBA

[U+4EB9]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4EBB]
U+2F08, ⼈
KANGXI RADICAL MAN

[U+2F07]
Kangxi Radicals
[U+2F09]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
2 strokes
Stroke order
人-order.gif

Alternative forms[edit]

  • (when used as a left radical)
  • 𠂉 (when used as an upper radical)

Han character[edit]

(radical 9, +0, 2 strokes, cangjie input 人 (O), four-corner 80000, composition丿)

  1. Kangxi radical #9, .

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 91, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 344
  • Dae Jaweon: page 190, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 101, character 10
  • Unihan data for U+4EBA

Chinese[edit]

Chinese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia zh

Glyph origin[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms
 
component
𠆢 component
component
component
𠂉 component
component
𠆢 component
component
component
𠂉 component

𠔽
𤯔
𦉫

Sagart (1999) relates it to Tibetan ཉེན (nyen, relative), from ཉེ (nye, near) + nominalizing suffix -n; if so, from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-naːj ~ s-nej (near).

Schuessler (2007) proposes two etymologies:

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • nyin4 - vernacular;
  • liin4 - literary.
  • Hakka
  • Jin
  • Min Bei
  • Min Dong
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • rêng5 - Jieyang;
    • ring5 - other places.
  • Wu
  • Note:
    • 3nyin - colloquial;
    • 3zen - literary.
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /ʐən³⁵/
    Harbin /ʐən²⁴/
    /in²⁴/
    Tianjin /in⁴⁵/
    /ʐən⁴⁵/
    Jinan /ʐẽ⁴²/
    Qingdao /iə̃⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /ʐən⁴²/
    Xi'an /ʐẽ²⁴/
    Xining /ʐə̃²¹³/
    Yinchuan /ʐəŋ⁵³/
    Lanzhou /ʐə̃n⁵³/
    Ürümqi /ʐɤŋ⁵¹/
    Wuhan /nən²¹³/
    Chengdu /zən³¹/
    Guiyang /zen²¹/
    Kunming /ʐə̃³¹/
    Nanjing /ʐən²⁴/
    Hefei /ʐən⁵⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /zəŋ¹¹/
    Pingyao /ʐəŋ¹³/
    Hohhot /ʐə̃ŋ³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /ȵiŋ²³/
    /zəŋ²³/
    Suzhou /zən¹³/
    /ȵin¹³/
    Hangzhou /zen²¹³/
    Wenzhou /zaŋ³¹/ 文讀
    /ȵaŋ³¹/ 白讀
    /naŋ³¹/ 訓讀
    Hui Shexian /iʌ̃⁴⁴/
    /niʌ̃⁴⁴/
    Tunxi /ian⁴⁴/
    Xiang Changsha /ʐən¹³/
    Xiangtan /in¹²/
    Gan Nanchang /ȵin⁴⁵/
    /lɨn⁴⁵/ ~參
    Hakka Meixian /ŋin¹¹/
    Taoyuan /ŋin¹¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /jɐn²¹/
    Nanning /jɐn²¹/
    Hong Kong /jɐn²¹/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /lin³⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /iŋ⁵³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /neiŋ³³/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /ziŋ⁵⁵/
    /naŋ⁵⁵/ 訓讀
    Haikou (Min Nan) /zin³¹/
    /naŋ³¹/ 訓儂

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (38)
    Final () (43)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ȵiɪn/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ȵin/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ȵʑjen/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ȵin/
    Li
    Rong
    /ȵiĕn/
    Wang
    Li
    /ȵʑĭĕn/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ȵʑi̯ĕn/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    rén
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    jan4
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    rén
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ nyin ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ni[ŋ]/
    English (other) person

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 10800
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*njin/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. man; person; people (Classifier: m c;  h)
      /   ―  rén shì shéi?  ―  Who is that person?
      嗰個邊個 [Cantonese, trad.]
      嗰个边个 [Cantonese, simp.]
      go2 go3 jan4-2 hai6 bin1 go3 lai4 gaa3? [Jyutping]
      Who is that person?
      敲門 / 敲门  ―  Yǒurén qiāomén le.  ―  Someone knocked on the door.
    2. human being
      /   ―  rénlèi  ―  human
    3. body
      不大舒服 [MSC, trad.]
      不大舒服 [MSC, simp.]
      Zhè liǎng tiān rén bùdà shūfú. [Pinyin]
      I [lit. the body] haven't been feeling that well these few days.
    4. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
      今天上午 [MSC, trad. and simp.]
      Jīntiān shàngwǔ nǐ rén zài nǎ? [Pinyin]
      Where have you been this morning?
    5. everybody; everyone
      人人  ―  rénrén  ―  everybody
      手一冊 / 手一册  ―  rénshǒu yīcè  ―  It's a bestseller. (lit. Everyone has a copy.)
    6. physical, psychological or moral quality or condition; character; personality
      就我所知不錯 [MSC, trad.]
      就我所知不错 [MSC, simp.]
      Jiùwǒsuǒzhī, tā rén bùcuò. [Pinyin]
      As far as I know, he is kind (lit. his personality is not bad).
      知道什麼 [MSC, trad.]
      知道什么 [MSC, simp.]
      Wǒ bù zhīdào tā shì shénme rén. [Pinyin]
      I don't know what kind of person he is.
    7. a person associated with a particular identity or trait; -er
      主持  ―  zhǔchírén  ―  host
      北京  ―  Běijīngrén  ―  Beijinger
      香港 [Cantonese]  ―  hoeng1 gong2 jan4 [Jyutping]  ―  Hongkonger
    8. manpower; worker; employee
    9. talent; person of talent
    10. other people; others
      云亦云  ―  rényún yìyún  ―  to follow the crowd (lit. to say what others say)
    11. common people; commoner
    12. adult; grown-up
      長大成 / 长大成  ―  chángdà chéngrén  ―  to grow up to be an adult
    13. reason; cause
    14. sexual intercourse
        ―  réndào  ―  sexual intercourse
        ―  rénshì  ―  sexual intercourse
    15. company; companion; friend
    16. artificial; man-made
      /   ―  rénhuò  ―  human disaster
    17. mortal; bodily; earthly
      /   ―  rénjiān  ―  the mortal world
    18. Alternative form of (rén, “kernel”).
    19. Alternative form of (rén, “charity”).
    20. Alternative form of (rén, “loving; kind”).
    21. (Beijing) Lenition of 人家 (rénjia).
      磨蹭外頭我們 [dialectal Mandarin, trad.]
      磨蹭外头我们 [dialectal Mandarin, simp.]
      Bié móceng la, rén zǎi wàitou děng zhe wǒmen ne! [Pinyin]
      Stop dilly-dallying. He/She/They is/are waiting for us outside!
    22. (Taishanese) paternal grandmother
    23. A surname​.
    Synonyms[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    simp. and trad.
    alternative forms
    𠆧
    Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia has an article on:

    The Min native word for “person”; used as a replacement character for . Use of is recommended by Taiwan's Ministry of Education.

    Pronunciation 1[edit]


    Definitions[edit]

    (coastal Min)

    1. man; person; people; human being; Homo sapiens (Classifier: mn;  md)
    2. a person associated with a particular identity or trait; -er
      臺灣 / 台湾 [Hokkien]  ―  Tâi-oân-lâng [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  Taiwanese
    3. physical, psychological or moral quality or condition
      𣍐䆀 / 𫧃䆀 [Hokkien]  ―  I lâng bē-bái. [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  He is kind. (literally, “His personality is not bad.”)
    Compounds[edit]

    Pronunciation 2[edit]


    Definitions[edit]

    (coastal Min)

    1. other people
    2. I; me

    References[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    ⟨pi1to2 → */pʲitə//fito//hito//çito/

    From Old Japanese, from Proto-Japonic *pitə.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (ひと) (hito (counter )

    1. a person, human
    2. an individual
      Synonym: 個人 (kojin)
    3. mankind, people
      Synonyms: 人類 (jinrui), 人間 (ningen)
    4. character, personality
      Synonyms: 人格 (jinkaku), 人柄 (hitogara)
    5. an average person
      Synonym: 世人 (sejin, yohito)
    6. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
      Synonyms: (kata), (mono)
    7. (law) This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
    8. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
    9. an adult
      Synonyms: 大人 (otona), 成人 (seijin)
    10. someone (else)
    Usage notes[edit]
    • When scientifically referring to humans, this term is often spelled in katakana, as ヒト.
    • From Old Japanese or Middle Japanese development, hito is sometimes shifted to -uto, -udo, -to, -tto, or -do.
    Derived terms[edit]

    Pronoun[edit]

    (ひと) (hito

    1. (archaic) second-person personal pronoun: you

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Go-on borrowing from Early Middle Chinese (MC ȵiɪn). Compare Shanghainese nyin.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (にん) (nin

    1. a personality
    2. the role of that person
    Derived terms[edit]

    Counter[edit]

    (にん) (-nin

    1. counter for number of people
    See also[edit]

    Affix[edit]

    (にん) (nin

    1. man

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kan-on borrowing from Late Middle Chinese (MC ȵiɪn). Compare Mandarin /ʐən/.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Suffix[edit]

    (じん) (-jin

    1. person from that group
      アジア(じん)イギリス(じん)スペイン(じん)ドイツ(じん)アメリカ(じん)スコットランド(じん)
      Ajiajin, Igirisujin, Supeinjin, Doitsujin, Amerikajin, Sukottorandojin
      an Asian, an Englishman, a Spaniard, a German, an American, a Scot
    2. person who does the activity of the suffixed word
    Derived terms[edit]

    Affix[edit]

    (じん) (jin

    1. man
    2. Short for 人造 (jinzō): artificial, synthetic

    Etymology 4[edit]

    From Old Japanese. The proto-form may have been -ri or -tari, see 二人 (futari, literally two people).

    Counter[edit]

    () (-ri

    1. counter for number of people
    Derived terms[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
    2. ^ 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    3. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC ȵiɪn).

    Historical Readings
    Dongguk Jeongun Reading
    Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 ᅀᅵᆫ (Yale: zìn)
    Middle Korean
    Text Eumhun
    Gloss (hun) Reading
    Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[2] 사〯ᄅᆞᆷ (Yale: sǎlòm) ᅀᅵᆫ (Yale: zìn)

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 사람 (saram in))

    1. Hanja form? of (human; person).

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [3]

    Kunigami[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana ちゅー, romaji chū)

    1. person
    2. human

    Miyako[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana ぴぃとぅ, romaji psïtu)

    1. person
    2. human

    Okinawan[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana っちゅ, rōmaji tchu)

    1. person
    2. human
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana ぴとぅ, rōmaji pitu)

    1. people
    2. person
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana にん, rōmaji nin)

    1. person; type of person
    Derived terms[edit]

    Counter[edit]

    (hiragana にん, rōmaji -nin)

    1. counter for number of people
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 4[edit]

    Counter[edit]

    (hiragana , rōmaji -i)

    1. counter for number of people
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 5[edit]

    Counter[edit]

    (hiragana たい, rōmaji -tai)

    1. counter for number of people
    Derived terms[edit]

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Hán tự[edit]

    : Hán Việt readings: nhân ((như)(lân)(thiết))[1][2]
    : Nôm readings: nhơn[1][2][3][4], nhân[1][4], người[1]

    1. (Northern Vietnam) Hán tự form of nhân (human).
    2. (Southern Vietnam) Hán tự form of nhơn (human).

    References[edit]


    Yaeyama[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana ぴぃとぅ, romaji pïtu)

    1. person
    2. human

    Yonaguni[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana っとぅ, romaji ttu)

    1. person
    2. human