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See also: , 𠆢, , and
009 - ren2 - man.svg
U+4EBA, 人
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4EBA

[U+4EB9]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4EBB]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
2 strokes
Stroke order
人-order.gif

Alternative forms[edit]

  • (when used as a left radical)

Han character[edit]

(radical 9, +0, 2 strokes, cangjie input 人 (O), four-corner 80000, composition丿)

  1. Kangxi radical #9, .

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 91, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 344
  • Dae Jaweon: page 190, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 101, character 10
  • Unihan data for U+4EBA

Chinese[edit]

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Odd character Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
人-bronze-shang.svg 人-oracle.svg 人-bronze.svg 人-bronze-spring.svg 人-bronze-warring.svg 人-silk.svg 人-slip.svg 儿-seal.svg 人-seal.svg 人-bigseal.svg





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Pictogram (象形) – side view of a standing man, highlighting the arms and legs. Compare .

Etymology 1[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms
 
component
𠆢 component
component
component

𠔽
𤯔

Sagart (1999) relates it to Tibetan ཉེན (nyen, relative), from ཉེ (nye, near) + nominalizing suffix -n; if so, from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-naːj ~ *s-nej (near).

Schuessler (2007) proposes two etymologies:

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • nyin4 - vernacular;
  • liin4 - literary.
  • Hakka
  • Jin
  • Min Bei
  • Min Dong
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • rêng5 - Jieyang;
    • ring5 - other places.
  • Wu
  • Note:
    • 3nyin - colloquial;
    • 3zen - literary.
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /ʐən³⁵/
    Harbin /ʐən²⁴/
    /in²⁴/
    Tianjin /in⁴⁵/
    /ʐən⁴⁵/
    Jinan /ʐẽ⁴²/
    Qingdao /iə̃⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /ʐən⁴²/
    Xi'an /ʐẽ²⁴/
    Xining /ʐə̃²¹³/
    Yinchuan /ʐəŋ⁵³/
    Lanzhou /ʐə̃n⁵³/
    Ürümqi /ʐɤŋ⁵¹/
    Wuhan /nən²¹³/
    Chengdu /zən³¹/
    Guiyang /zen²¹/
    Kunming /ʐə̃³¹/
    Nanjing /ʐən²⁴/
    Hefei /ʐən⁵⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /zəŋ¹¹/
    Pingyao /ʐəŋ¹³/
    Hohhot /ʐə̃ŋ³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /ȵiŋ²³/
    /zəŋ²³/
    Suzhou /zən¹³/
    /ȵin¹³/
    Hangzhou /zen²¹³/
    Wenzhou /zaŋ³¹/ 文讀
    /ȵaŋ³¹/ 白讀
    /naŋ³¹/ 訓讀
    Hui Shexian /iʌ̃⁴⁴/
    /niʌ̃⁴⁴/
    Tunxi /ian⁴⁴/
    Xiang Changsha /ʐən¹³/
    Xiangtan /in¹²/
    Gan Nanchang /ȵin⁴⁵/
    /lɨn⁴⁵/ ~參
    Hakka Meixian /ŋin¹¹/
    Taoyuan /ŋin¹¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /jɐn²¹/
    Nanning /jɐn²¹/
    Hong Kong /jɐn²¹/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /lin³⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /iŋ⁵³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /neiŋ³³/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /ziŋ⁵⁵/
    /naŋ⁵⁵/ 訓讀
    Haikou (Min Nan) /zin³¹/
    /naŋ³¹/ 訓儂

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (38)
    Final () (43)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ȵiɪn/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ȵin/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ȵʑjen/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ȵin/
    Li
    Rong
    /ȵiĕn/
    Wang
    Li
    /ȵʑĭĕn/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ȵʑi̯ĕn/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    rén
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    rén
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ nyin ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ni[ŋ]/
    English (other) person

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 10800
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*njin/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. man; person; people (Classifier: m c;  h)
    2. human being (Homo sapiens)
    3. body
    4. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
    5. everybody; everyone
    6. physical, psychological or moral quality or condition; character; personality
    7. a person associated with a particular identity or trait; -er
    8. manpower; worker; employee
    9. talent; person of talent
    10. other people; others
      • 云亦云  ―  rényún yìyún  ―  to follow the crowd (lit. to say what others say)
    11. common people; commoner
    12. adult; grown-up
    13. reason; cause
    14. sexual intercourse
      •   ―  réndào  ―  sexual intercourse
      •   ―  rénshì  ―  sexual intercourse
    15. company; companion; friend
    16. artificial; man-made
    17. mortal; bodily; earthly
    18. Alternative form of (rén, “kernel”).
    19. Alternative form of (rén, “charity”).
    20. Alternative form of (rén, “loving; kind”).
    21. (Beijing) Lenition of 人家 (rénjia).
    22. (Taishanese) paternal grandmother
    Synonyms[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (にん) (nin); (じん) (jin)
    • Korean: (, in)
    • Vietnamese: nhân ()

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    simp. and trad.
    alternative forms
    𠆧
    Wikipedia has an article on:

    The Min native word for “person”; used as a replacement character for . Use of is recommended by Taiwan's Ministry of Education.

    Pronunciation 1[edit]


    Definitions[edit]

    (coastal Min)

    1. man; person; people; human being; Homo sapiens (Classifier: mn;  md)
    2. a person associated with a particular identity or trait; -er
    3. physical, psychological or moral quality or condition

    Pronunciation 2[edit]


    Definitions[edit]

    (coastal Min)

    1. other people
    2. I; me

    References[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    ひと
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    ⟨pi1to2 → */pʲitə//fito//hito/

    From Old Japanese, from Proto-Japonic *pitə.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (ひと) (hito (counter )

    1. a person, human
      • 2004 June 4, “レオニンの(じゅう)(しゃ) [Leonin Squire]”, in フィフス・ドーン [Fifth Dawn], Wizards of the Coast:
        (わたし)(おう)かもしれないが、(へい)()(ひと)(びと)なくしては、(わたし)(なに)(もの)でもないのだ。
        Watashi wa ō kamo shirenai ga, heishi ya hitobito naku shite wa, watashi wa nanimono demo nai no da.
        I may be king, but without my soldiers and my people, I am nobody.
    2. an individual
      Synonym: 個人 (kojin)
    3. mankind, people
      Synonyms: 人類 (jinrui), 人間 (ningen)
    4. character, personality
      Synonyms: 人格 (jinkaku), 人柄 (hitogara)
    5. an average person
      Synonym: 世人 (sejin, yohito)
    6. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
      Synonyms: (kata), (mono)
    7. (law) This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
    8. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
    9. an adult
      Synonyms: 大人 (otona), 成人 (seijin)
    10. someone (else)
    Usage notes[edit]
    • When scientifically referring to humans, this term is often spelled in katakana, as ヒト.
    • From Old Japanese or Middle Japanese development, hito is sometimes shifted to -uto, -udo, -to, -tto, or -do.
    Derived terms[edit]

    Pronoun[edit]

    (ひと) (hito

    1. (archaic) second-person personal pronoun: you

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    にん
    Grade: 1
    goon

    From Middle Chinese (MC ȵiɪn). The 呉音 (goon, literally Wu sound), so likely the earlier or initial borrowing from Middle Chinese.

    (This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium. Particularly: “Explain nasal basis for goon reading/borrowing”)

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (にん) (nin

    1. a personality
    2. the role of that person
    Derived terms[edit]