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See also: , 𠆢, , and
009 - ren2 - man.svg
U+4EBA, 人
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4EBA

[U+4EB9]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4EBB]
U+2F08, ⼈
KANGXI RADICAL MAN

[U+2F07]
Kangxi Radicals
[U+2F09]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
2 strokes
Stroke order
人-order.gif

Alternative forms[edit]

  • (when used as a left radical)
  • 𠂉 (when used as an upper radical)

Han character[edit]

(radical 9, +0, 2 strokes, cangjie input 人 (O), four-corner 80000, composition丿)

  1. Kangxi radical #9, .

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 91, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 344
  • Dae Jaweon: page 190, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 101, character 10
  • Unihan data for U+4EBA

Chinese[edit]

Chinese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia zh

Glyph origin[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms
 
component
𠆢 component
component
component
component
𠆢 component
component
component

𠔽
𤯔
𦉫

Sagart (1999) relates it to Tibetan ཉེན (nyen, relative), from ཉེ (nye, near) + nominalizing suffix -n; if so, from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-naːj ~ s-nej (near).

Schuessler (2007) proposes two etymologies:

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • nyin4 - vernacular;
  • liin4 - literary.
  • Hakka
  • Jin
  • Min Bei
  • Min Dong
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • rêng5 - Jieyang;
    • ring5 - other places.
  • Wu
  • Note:
    • 3nyin - colloquial;
    • 3zen - literary.
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /ʐən³⁵/
    Harbin /ʐən²⁴/
    /in²⁴/
    Tianjin /in⁴⁵/
    /ʐən⁴⁵/
    Jinan /ʐẽ⁴²/
    Qingdao /iə̃⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /ʐən⁴²/
    Xi'an /ʐẽ²⁴/
    Xining /ʐə̃²¹³/
    Yinchuan /ʐəŋ⁵³/
    Lanzhou /ʐə̃n⁵³/
    Ürümqi /ʐɤŋ⁵¹/
    Wuhan /nən²¹³/
    Chengdu /zən³¹/
    Guiyang /zen²¹/
    Kunming /ʐə̃³¹/
    Nanjing /ʐən²⁴/
    Hefei /ʐən⁵⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /zəŋ¹¹/
    Pingyao /ʐəŋ¹³/
    Hohhot /ʐə̃ŋ³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /ȵiŋ²³/
    /zəŋ²³/
    Suzhou /zən¹³/
    /ȵin¹³/
    Hangzhou /zen²¹³/
    Wenzhou /zaŋ³¹/ 文讀
    /ȵaŋ³¹/ 白讀
    /naŋ³¹/ 訓讀
    Hui Shexian /iʌ̃⁴⁴/
    /niʌ̃⁴⁴/
    Tunxi /ian⁴⁴/
    Xiang Changsha /ʐən¹³/
    Xiangtan /in¹²/
    Gan Nanchang /ȵin⁴⁵/
    /lɨn⁴⁵/ ~參
    Hakka Meixian /ŋin¹¹/
    Taoyuan /ŋin¹¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /jɐn²¹/
    Nanning /jɐn²¹/
    Hong Kong /jɐn²¹/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /lin³⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /iŋ⁵³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /neiŋ³³/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /ziŋ⁵⁵/
    /naŋ⁵⁵/ 訓讀
    Haikou (Min Nan) /zin³¹/
    /naŋ³¹/ 訓儂

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (38)
    Final () (43)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ȵiɪn/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ȵin/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ȵʑjen/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ȵin/
    Li
    Rong
    /ȵiĕn/
    Wang
    Li
    /ȵʑĭĕn/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ȵʑi̯ĕn/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    rén
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    rén
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ nyin ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ni[ŋ]/
    English (other) person

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 10800
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*njin/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. man; person; people (Classifier: m c;  h)
      /   ―  rén shì shuí?  ―  Who is that person?
      嗰個邊個 [Cantonese, trad.]
      嗰个边个 [Cantonese, simp.]
      go2 go3 jan4-2 hai6 bin1 go3 lai4 gaa3? [Jyutping]
      Who is that person?
      敲門 / 敲门  ―  Yǒurén qiāomén le.  ―  Someone knocked on the door.
    2. human being
      /   ―  rénlèi  ―  human
    3. body
      不大舒服 [MSC, trad.]
      不大舒服 [MSC, simp.]
      Zhè liǎng tiān rén bùdà shūfú. [Pinyin]
      I [lit. the body] haven't been feeling that well these few days.
    4. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
      今天上午 [MSC, trad. and simp.]
      Jīntiān shàngwǔ nǐ rén zài nǎ? [Pinyin]
      Where have you been this morning?
    5. everybody; everyone
      人人  ―  rénrén  ―  everybody
      手一冊 / 手一册  ―  rénshǒu yīcè  ―  It's a bestseller. (lit. Everyone has a copy.)
    6. physical, psychological or moral quality or condition; character; personality
      就我所知不錯 [MSC, trad.]
      就我所知不错 [MSC, simp.]
      Jiùwǒsuǒzhī, tā rén bùcuò. [Pinyin]
      As far as I know, he is kind (lit. his personality is not bad).
      知道什麼 [MSC, trad.]
      知道什么 [MSC, simp.]
      Wǒ bù zhīdào tā shì shénme rén. [Pinyin]
      I don't know what kind of person he is.
    7. a person associated with a particular identity or trait; -er
      主持  ―  zhǔchírén  ―  host
      北京  ―  Běijīngrén  ―  Beijinger
      香港 [Cantonese]  ―  hoeng1 gong2 jan4 [Jyutping]  ―  Hongkonger
    8. manpower; worker; employee
    9. talent; person of talent
    10. other people; others
      云亦云  ―  rényún yìyún  ―  to follow the crowd (lit. to say what others say)
    11. common people; commoner
    12. adult; grown-up
      長大成 / 长大成  ―  chángdà chéngrén  ―  to grow up to be an adult
    13. reason; cause
    14. sexual intercourse
        ―  réndào  ―  sexual intercourse
        ―  rénshì  ―  sexual intercourse
    15. company; companion; friend
    16. artificial; man-made
      /   ―  rénhuò  ―  human disaster
    17. mortal; bodily; earthly
      /   ―  rénjiān  ―  the mortal world
    18. Alternative form of (rén, “kernel”).
    19. Alternative form of (rén, “charity”).
    20. Alternative form of (rén, “loving; kind”).
    21. (Beijing) Lenition of 人家 (rénjia).
      磨蹭外頭我們 [dialectal Mandarin, trad.]
      磨蹭外头我们 [dialectal Mandarin, simp.]
      Bié móceng la, rén zǎi wàitou děng zhe wǒmen ne! [Pinyin]
      Stop dilly-dallying. He/She/They is/are waiting for us outside!
    22. (Taishanese) paternal grandmother
    23. A surname​.
    Synonyms[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    simp. and trad.
    alternative forms
    𠆧
    Wikipedia has an article on:

    The Min native word for “person”; used as a replacement character for . Use of is recommended by Taiwan's Ministry of Education.

    Pronunciation 1[edit]


    Definitions[edit]

    (coastal Min)

    1. man; person; people; human being; Homo sapiens (Classifier: mn;  md)
    2. a person associated with a particular identity or trait; -er
    3. physical, psychological or moral quality or condition
    Compounds[edit]

    Pronunciation 2[edit]


    Definitions[edit]

    (coastal Min)

    1. other people
    2. I; me

    References[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    ⟨pi1to2 → */pʲitə//fito//hito//çito/

    From Old Japanese, from Proto-Japonic *pitə.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (ひと) (hito (counter )

    1. a person, human
      • 2004 June 4, “レオニンの(じゅう)(しゃ) [Leonin Squire]”, in フィフス・ドーン [Fifth Dawn], Wizards of the Coast:
        (わたし)(おう)かもしれないが、(へい)()(ひと)(びと)なくしては、(わたし)(なに)(もの)でもないのだ。
        Watashi wa ō kamo shirenai ga, heishi ya hitobito naku shite wa, watashi wa nanimono demo nai no da.
        I may be king, but without my soldiers and my people, I am nobody.
    2. an individual
      Synonym: 個人 (kojin)
    3. mankind, people
      Synonyms: 人類 (jinrui), 人間 (ningen)
    4. character, personality
      Synonyms: 人格 (jinkaku), 人柄 (hitogara)
    5. an average person
      Synonym: 世人 (sejin, yohito)
    6. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
      Synonyms: (kata), (mono)
    7. (law) This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
    8. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
    9. an adult
      Synonyms: 大人 (otona), 成人 (seijin)
    10. someone (else)
    Usage notes[edit]
    • When scientifically referring to humans, this term is often spelled in katakana, as ヒト.
    • From Old Japanese or Middle Japanese development, hito is sometimes shifted to -uto, -udo, -to, -tto, or -do.
    Derived terms[edit]

    Pronoun[edit]

    (ひと) (hito

    1. (archaic) second-person personal pronoun: you

    Etymology 2[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC ȵiɪn). The 呉音 (goon, literally Wu sound), so likely the earlier or initial borrowing from Middle Chinese. (This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium. Particularly: “Explain nasal basis for goon reading/borrowing”)

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (にん) (nin

    1. a personality
    2. the role of that person
    Derived terms[edit]

    Counter[edit]

    (にん) (-nin

    1. counter for number of people
    See also[edit]

    Affix[edit]

    (にん) (nin

    1. man

    Etymology 3[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC ȵiɪn). The 漢音 (kan'on, literally Han sound), so likely a later borrowing from Middle Chinese. (This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium. Particularly: “Explain plosive basis for kan'on reading/borrowing”)

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Suffix[edit]

    (じん) (-jin

    1. person from that group
      アジア(じん)イギリス(じん)スペイン(じん)ドイツ(じん)アメリカ(じん)スコットランド(じん)
      Ajiajin, Igirisujin, Supeinjin, Doitsujin, Amerikajin, Sukottorandojin
      an Asian, an Englishman, a Spaniard, a German, an American, a Scot
    2. person who does the activity of the suffixed word
    Derived terms[edit]

    Affix[edit]

    (じん) (jin

    1. man
    2. Short for 人造 (jinzō): artificial, synthetic

    Etymology 4[edit]

    Possibly a shift from -tari below.

    Counter[edit]

    () (-ri

    1. counter for number of people
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 5[edit]

    (This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

    Counter[edit]

    (たり) (-tari

    1. counter for number of people
    Derived terms[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
    2. ^ 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    3. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC ȵiɪn).

    Historical readings

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 사람 (saram in))

    1. Hanja form? of (human; person).

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

    Kunigami[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana ちゅー, romaji chū)

    1. person
    2. human

    Miyako[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana ぴぃとぅ, romaji psïtu)

    1. person
    2. human

    Okinawan[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana っちゅ, rōmaji tchu)

    1. person
    2. human
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana ぴとぅ, rōmaji pitu)

    1. people
    2. person
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana にん, rōmaji nin)

    1. person; type of person
    Derived terms[edit]

    Counter[edit]

    (hiragana にん, rōmaji -nin)

    1. counter for number of people
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 4[edit]

    Counter[edit]

    (hiragana , rōmaji -i)

    1. counter for number of people
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 5[edit]

    Counter[edit]

    (hiragana たい, rōmaji -tai)

    1. counter for number of people
    Derived terms[edit]

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Hán Tự[edit]

    : Hán Việt readings: nhân ((như)(lân)(thiết))[1][2]
    : Nôm readings: nhơn[1][2][3][4], nhân[1][4], người[1]

    1. (Northern Vietnam) Hán tự form of nhân (human).
    2. (Southern Vietnam) Hán tự form of nhơn (human).

    References[edit]


    Yaeyama[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana ぴぃとぅ, romaji pïtu)

    1. person
    2. human

    Yonaguni[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana っとぅ, romaji ttu)

    1. person
    2. human