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See also: , 𠆢, , and
009 - ren2 - man.svg
U+4EBA, 人
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4EBA

[U+4EB9]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4EBB]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
2 strokes
Stroke order
人-order.gif

Alternative forms[edit]

  • (when used as a left radical)

Han character[edit]

(radical 9, +0, 2 strokes, cangjie input 人 (O), four-corner 80000, composition丿)

  1. Kangxi radical #9, .

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

Wikidata has structured data related to:

Wikidata

  • KangXi: page 91, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 344
  • Dae Jaweon: page 190, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 101, character 10
  • Unihan data for U+4EBA

Chinese[edit]

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Odd character Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
人-bronze-shang.svg 人-oracle.svg 人-bronze.svg 人-bronze-spring.svg 人-bronze-warring.svg 人-silk.svg 人-slip.svg 儿-seal.svg 人-seal.svg 人-bigseal.svg





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*sn̥ʰiːn
*sn̥ʰiːn
*sn̥ʰiːn, *sn̥ʰiːns
*sn̥ʰiːn
*sn̥ʰiːn
*sn̥ʰiːn
*sn̥ʰiːn
*njin
*njin
*njin
*neːŋs

Pictogram (象形) – side view of a standing man, highlighting the arms and legs. Compare .

Etymology 1[edit]

simp. and trad.
variant forms
 
component
𠆢 component
component
component

𠔽
𤯔

Unknown.

Sagart (1999) relates it to Tibetan ཉེན (nyen, relative), from ཉེ (nye, near) + nominalizing suffix -n; if so, from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-naːj ~ *s-nej (near).

Schuessler (2007) proposes two etymologies:

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • nyin4 - vernacular;
  • liin4 - literary.
  • Hakka
  • Jin
  • Min Bei
  • Min Dong
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • rêng5 - Jieyang;
    • ring5 - other places.
  • Wu
  • Note:
    • 3nyin - colloquial;
    • 3zen - literary.
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /ʐən³⁵/
    Harbin /ʐən²⁴/
    /in²⁴/
    Tianjin /in⁴⁵/
    /ʐən⁴⁵/
    Jinan /ʐẽ⁴²/
    Qingdao /iə̃⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /ʐən⁴²/
    Xi'an /ʐẽ²⁴/
    Xining /ʐə̃²¹³/
    Yinchuan /ʐəŋ⁵³/
    Lanzhou /ʐə̃n⁵³/
    Ürümqi /ʐɤŋ⁵¹/
    Wuhan /nən²¹³/
    Chengdu /zən³¹/
    Guiyang /zen²¹/
    Kunming /ʐə̃³¹/
    Nanjing /ʐən²⁴/
    Hefei /ʐən⁵⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /zəŋ¹¹/
    Pingyao /ʐəŋ¹³/
    Hohhot /ʐə̃ŋ³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /ȵiŋ²³/
    /zəŋ²³/
    Suzhou /zən¹³/
    /ȵin¹³/
    Hangzhou /zen²¹³/
    Wenzhou /zaŋ³¹/ 文讀
    /ȵaŋ³¹/ 白讀
    /naŋ³¹/ 訓讀
    Hui Shexian /iʌ̃⁴⁴/
    /niʌ̃⁴⁴/
    Tunxi /ian⁴⁴/
    Xiang Changsha /ʐən¹³/
    Xiangtan /in¹²/
    Gan Nanchang /ȵin⁴⁵/
    /lɨn⁴⁵/ ~參
    Hakka Meixian /ŋin¹¹/
    Taoyuan /ŋin¹¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /jɐn²¹/
    Nanning /jɐn²¹/
    Hong Kong /jɐn²¹/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /lin³⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /iŋ⁵³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /neiŋ³³/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /ziŋ⁵⁵/
    /naŋ⁵⁵/ 訓讀
    Haikou (Min Nan) /zin³¹/
    /naŋ³¹/ 訓儂

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (38)
    Final () (43)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ȵiɪn/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ȵin/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ȵʑjen/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ȵin/
    Li
    Rong
    /ȵiĕn/
    Wang
    Li
    /ȵʑĭĕn/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ȵʑi̯ĕn/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    rén
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    rén
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ nyin ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ni[ŋ]/
    English (other) person

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 10800
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*njin/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. man; person; people (Classifier: m c;  h)
    2. human being (Homo sapiens)
    3. body
    4. everybody; everyone
    5. physical, psychological or moral quality or condition; character; personality
    6. a person associated with a particular identity or trait; -er
    7. manpower; worker; employee
    8. talent; person of talent
    9. other people; others
      • 云亦云  ―  rényún yìyún  ―  to follow the crowd (lit. to say what others say)
    10. common people; commoner
    11. adult; grown-up
    12. reason; cause
    13. sexual intercourse
      •   ―  réndào  ―  sexual intercourse
      •   ―  rénshì  ―  sexual intercourse
    14. company; companion; friend
    15. artificial; man-made
    16. mortal; bodily; earthly
    17. Alternative form of (rén, “kernel”).
    18. Alternative form of (rén, “charity”).
    19. Alternative form of (rén, “loving; kind”).
    20. (Beijing) Lenition of 人家 (rénjia).
    21. (Taishanese) paternal grandmother
    Synonyms[edit]
    Dialectal synonyms of (“man; person”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese)
    Mandarin Beijing
    Taiwan
    Tianjin
    Harbin
    Shenyang
    Jinan
    Muping
    Luoyang
    Jiedian
    Xi'an
    Qingdao
    Zhengzhou
    Xining
    Xuzhou
    Yinchuan
    Lanzhou
    Ürümqi
    Wuhan
    Chengdu
    Guiyang
    Guilin
    Liuzhou
    Kunming
    Yangzhou
    Nanjing
    Hefei
    Nantong
    Malaysia
    Singapore
    Cantonese Guangzhou
    Hong Kong
    Hong Kong (San Tin Weitou)
    Foshan
    Shunde
    Zhongshan (Shiqi)
    Doumen (Shangheng Tanka)
    Taishan
    Kaiping (Chikan)
    Dongguan
    Yunfu
    Yangjiang
    Xinyi
    Nanning
    Wuzhou
    Yulin
    Hepu
    Danzhou
    Kuala Lumpur
    Gan Nanchang
    Lichuan
    Pingxiang
    Hakka Meixian
    Luchuan
    Changting
    Wuping
    Liancheng
    Ninghua
    Yudu
    Miaoli (N. Sixian)
    Liudui (S. Sixian)
    Hsinchu (Hailu)
    Dongshi (Dabu)
    Hsinchu (Raoping)
    Yunlin (Zhao'an)
    Hong Kong
    Sabah
    Senai
    Singkawang
    Huizhou Jixi
    Shexian
    Tunxi
    Jin Taiyuan
    Xinzhou
    Min Bei Jian'ou
    Dikou
    Songxi
    Zhenghe
    Zhenqian
    Jianyang
    Wuyishan
    Shibei
    Min Dong Fuzhou
    Changle
    Fuqing
    Pingtan
    Yongtai
    Gutian
    Fu'an
    Ningde
    Shouning
    Zhouning
    Fuding
    Matsu
    Min Nan Xiamen
    Quanzhou
    Zhangzhou
    Taipei
    Kaohsiung
    Tainan
    Taichung
    Wuqi
    Hsinchu
    Taitung
    Lukang
    Sanxia
    Yilan
    Kinmen
    Magong
    Penang
    Singapore
    Philippines (Manila)
    Pingnan
    Chaozhou
    Shantou
    Haifeng
    Johor Bahru
    Wenchang
    Haikou
    Leizhou
    Puxian Min Putian
    Xianyou
    Pinghua Nanning
    Guilin
    Wu Shanghai
    Suzhou
    Hangzhou
    Wenzhou
    Chongming
    Danyang
    Jinhua
    Tangxi
    Ningbo
    Xiang Changsha
    Shuangfeng
    Xiangtan
    Loudi
    Quanzhou
    Dialectal synonyms of 祖母 (“paternal grandmother”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese 祖母
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 祖母
    Mandarin Beijing 奶奶,
    Taiwan 奶奶
    Harbin 奶奶,
    Shenyang 奶奶
    Jinan 奶奶
    Muping , 婆婆
    Luoyang 奶奶,
    Jiedian
    Xi'an , suburbs, 拿拿 Hui
    Qingdao 奶奶
    Zhengzhou 奶奶,
    Xining 奶奶
    Xuzhou 奶奶
    Yinchuan 奶奶
    Lanzhou 奶奶
    Ürümqi 奶奶, 阿奶 Hui
    Wuhan , 奶奶, 婆婆 dated
    Chengdu 婆婆, 奶奶
    Guiyang 太太, 奶奶, 老太太
    Liuzhou , 阿奶,
    Kunming , 奶奶
    Yangzhou 奶奶, 太太 dated
    Nanjing 奶奶,
    Hefei 奶奶
    Nantong 奶奶
    Cantonese Guangzhou 阿嫲
    Hong Kong 阿嫲, 嫲嫲
    Hong Kong (San Tin Weitou) 阿婆, 阿嫲
    Foshan 阿嫲
    Shunde 阿人
    Zhongshan (Shiqi) 阿婆
    Doumen (Shangheng Tanka) 阿婆
    Taishan 阿人,
    Kaiping (Chikan) 阿人
    Dongguan 阿嫲, 嫲嫲, 阿婆
    Shaoguan 阿婆, 阿嫲
    Yunfu 阿奶
    Yangjiang 阿婆, 阿嫲
    Xinyi 阿婆
    Lianjiang 阿嫲
    Nanning
    Kuala Lumpur 阿嫲
    Gan Nanchang 婆婆, 奶奶, 奶子
    Lichuan 姆媽
    Pingxiang 婆婆
    Hakka Meixian 阿婆
    Xingning 阿婆
    Huidong 阿婆
    Qujiang 娭姐
    Xiaosanjiang 阿婆
    Luchuan 阿婆
    Changting 娭姐
    Pingyu 阿婆
    Wuping 娭姐
    Liancheng 阿姐,
    Ninghua 媽媽
    Yudu 婆婆, , 婆奶
    Ruijin 奶奶
    Shicheng
    Shangyou 奶奶
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 阿婆
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 阿婆, 阿嬤
    Hsinchu (Hailu) 阿婆
    Dongshi (Dabu) 阿婆, 阿奶
    Hsinchu (Raoping) 阿嬤, 阿婆
    Yunlin (Zhao'an) 阿媽
    Hong Kong 阿婆
    Sabah 阿婆
    Senai 阿婆
    Singkawang 阿婆
    Huizhou Jixi , 阿婦
    Shexian 奶奶, 老姨
    Jin Taiyuan 奶奶
    Pingyao 娘娘
    Xinzhou 娘娘啊, 呀娘, 娘娘
    Min Bei Jian'ou 奶奶, 嫲嫲
    Min Dong Fuzhou 依媽
    Fuqing , 阿媽
    Matsu 依媽
    Min Nan Xiamen 阿媽, 俺媽, 內媽
    Quanzhou 媽仔, 俺媽, 內媽
    Zhangzhou 阿媽, 咉媽, 內媽
    Taipei 阿媽, 內媽 mT
    Kaohsiung 阿媽
    Tainan 阿媽
    Taichung 阿媽
    Wuqi 阿媽
    Hsinchu 阿媽
    Taitung 阿媽
    Lukang 阿媽, 俺媽
    Sanxia 阿媽
    Yilan 阿媽
    Kinmen 俺媽
    Magong 阿媽
    Penang 阿媽,
    Singapore 俺媽, 阿媽
    Pingnan
    Chaozhou 阿媽
    Shantou 阿媽
    Haifeng
    Johor Bahru 阿媽
    Haikou 阿媽, ,
    Leizhou , , 尼媽, 尼嬭
    Puxian Min Putian 阿媽
    Xianyou 阿媽
    Pinghua Nanning , 太婆
    Wu Shanghai 爾奶, 阿奶, 奶奶
    Suzhou 好婆, 好親婆, 親婆
    Hangzhou 奶奶
    Wenzhou 娘娘, 祖婆, 祖婆娘
    Chongming 裡婆, 親婆, , 阿婆, 婆阿
    Danyang 嫚嫚
    Jinhua 媽媽
    Ningbo 阿娘
    Xiang Changsha 娭毑
    Shuangfeng 奶奶
    Xiangtan 娭毑
    Loudi 佳婆, 奶奶
    Quanzhou 奶奶
    Note mT - mainstream Taiwan (no particular region identified)

    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic ():

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    simp. and trad.
    variant forms
    𠆧

    The Min native word for “person”; used as a replacement character for . Use of is recommended by Taiwan's Ministry of Education.

    Pronunciation 1[edit]


    Definitions[edit]

    (coastal Min)

    1. man; person; people; human being; Homo sapiens (Classifier: mn;  md)
    2. a person associated with a particular identity or trait; -er
    3. physical, psychological or moral quality or condition

    Pronunciation 2[edit]


    Definitions[edit]

    (Min)

    1. other people
    2. I; me

    References[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    ひと
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    ⟨pi1to2 → */pʲitə//fito//hito/

    From Old Japanese, from Proto-Japonic *pitə.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (counter , hiragana ひと, katakana ヒト, rōmaji hito)

    1. a person, human
      • 2004 June 4, “レオニンのじゅうしゃ [Leonin Squire]”, in フィフス・ドーン [Fifth Dawn] (in Japanese), Wizards of the Coast:
         (わたし) (おう)かもしれないが、 (へい) () (ひと) (びと)なくしては、 (わたし) (なに) (もの)でもないのだ。
        Watashi wa ō kamo shirenai ga, heishi ya hitobito naku shite wa, watashi wa nanimono demo nai no da.
        I may be king, but without my soldiers and my people, I am nobody.
    2. an individual
      Synonym: 個人 (kojin)
    3. mankind, people
      Synonyms: 人類 (jinrui), 人間 (ningen)
    4. character, personality
      Synonyms: 人格 (jinkaku), 人柄 (hitogara)
    5. an average person
      Synonym: 世人 (sejin, yohito)
    6. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
      Synonyms: (kata), (mono)
    7. (law) This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
    8. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
    9. an adult
      Synonyms: 大人 (otona), 成人 (seijin)
    10. someone (else)
    Usage notes[edit]
    • When scientifically referring to humans, this term is often spelled in katakana, as ヒト.
    • From Old Japanese or Middle Japanese development, hito is sometimes shifted to -uto, -udo, -to, -tto, or -do.
    Derived terms[edit]

    Pronoun[edit]

    (hiragana ひと, rōmaji hito)

    1. second-person personal pronoun: you

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    にん
    Grade: 1
    goon

    From Middle Chinese (MC ȵiɪn). The 呉音 (goon, literally Wu sound), so likely the earlier or initial borrowing from Middle Chinese.

    EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions. You can also discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.
    Particularly: “Explain nasal basis for goon reading/borrowing”

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana にん, rōmaji nin)

    1. a personality
    2. the role of that person
    Derived terms[edit]

    Counter[edit]

    (hiragana にん, rōmaji -nin)

    1. counter for number of people

    Derived terms[edit]

    Usage notes[edit]

    The -nin reading is commonly used when counting three or more people. When counting one or two persons as in 一人 (hitori, one person) or 二人 (futari, two people), the reading is (-ri) or たり (-tari).

    Affix[edit]

    (hiragana にん, rōmaji nin)

    1. man

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    じん
    Grade: 1
    kan’on

    From Middle Chinese (MC ȵiɪn). The 漢音 (kan'on, literally