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U+4EBA, 人
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4EBA

[U+4EB9]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4EBB]
See also: and

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
人-order.gif

Alternative forms[edit]

  • (when used as a left radical)

Han character[edit]

(radical 9 +0, 2 strokes, cangjie input 人 (O), four-corner 80000)

  1. Kangxi radical #9, (man).

Usage notes[edit]

In print, 人 may have symmetric legs. However in handwriting, to distinguish from , the right leg will be shorter, the shape looking like a ʎ; in 入 the left leg is shorter.

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 91, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 344
  • Dae Jaweon: page 190, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 101, character 10
  • Unihan data for U+4EBA

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alt. forms component
𠆢 component

𠔽
𤯔

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bamboo and silk script Large seal script Small seal script
人-oracle.svg 人-bronze.svg 人-silk.svg 人-bigseal.svg 人-seal.svg





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (large seal) and
  • Xu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*sn̥ʰiːn
*sn̥ʰiːn
*sn̥ʰiːn, *sn̥ʰiːns
*sn̥ʰiːn
*sn̥ʰiːn
*sn̥ʰiːn
*sn̥ʰiːn
*njin
*njin
*njin
*neːŋs

Pictogram (象形) – resembles the legs of a human being. The ancient version of this character depicted a man with arms and legs. Compare .

Etymology 1[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • 3nyin - colloquial;
  • 3zen - literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ʐən³⁵/
Harbin /ʐən²⁴/
/in²⁴/
Tianjin /in⁴⁵/
/ʐən⁴⁵/
Jinan /ʐẽ⁴²/
Qingdao /iə̃⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ʐən⁴²/
Xi'an /ʐẽ²⁴/
Xining /ʐə̃²¹³/
Yinchuan /ʐəŋ⁵³/
Lanzhou /ʐə̃n⁵³/
Ürümqi /ʐɤŋ⁵¹/
Wuhan /nən²¹³/
Chengdu /zən³¹/
Guiyang /zen²¹/
Kunming /ʐə̃³¹/
Nanjing /ʐən²⁴/
Hefei /ʐən⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /zəŋ¹¹/
Pingyao /ʐəŋ¹³/
Hohhot /ʐə̃ŋ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /ȵiŋ²³/
/zəŋ²³/
Suzhou /zən¹³/
/ȵin¹³/
Hangzhou /zen²¹³/
Wenzhou /zaŋ³¹/ 文讀
/ȵaŋ³¹/ 白讀
/naŋ³¹/ 訓讀
Hui Shexian /iʌ̃⁴⁴/
/niʌ̃⁴⁴/
Tunxi /ian⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /ʐən¹³/
Xiangtan /in¹²/
Gan Nanchang /ȵin⁴⁵/
/lɨn⁴⁵/ ~參
Hakka Meixian /ŋin¹¹/
Taoyuan /ŋin¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /jɐn²¹/
Nanning /jɐn²¹/
Hong Kong /jɐn²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /lin³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /iŋ⁵³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /neiŋ³³/
Shantou (Min Nan) /ziŋ⁵⁵/
/naŋ⁵⁵/ 訓讀
Haikou (Min Nan) /zin³¹/
/naŋ³¹/ 訓儂

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (38)
Final () (43)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ȵiɪn/
Pan
Wuyun
/ȵin/
Shao
Rongfen
/ȵʑjen/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ȵin/
Li
Rong
/ȵiĕn/
Wang
Li
/ȵʑĭĕn/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ȵʑi̯ĕn/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
rén
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
rén
Middle
Chinese
‹ nyin ›
Old
Chinese
/*ni[ŋ]/
English (other) person

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 10800
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*njin/

Definitions[edit]

  1. man; person; people   (Classifier: )
  2. human being (Homo sapiens)
  3. body
  4. everybody; everyone
    • 人人  ―  rénrén  ―  everybody
    • 手一冊 / 手一册  ―  rénshǒu yīcè  ―  It's a bestseller. (lit. Everyone has a copy.)
  5. physical, psychological or moral quality or condition; character; personality
  6. a person associated with a particular identity or trait; -er
  7. manpower; worker; employee
  8. talent; person of talent
  9. other people; others
    • 云亦云  ―  rényún yìyún  ―  to follow the crowd (lit. to say what others say)
  10. common people; commoner
  11. adult; grown-up
  12. reason; cause
  13. sexual intercourse
    •   ―  réndào  ―  sexual intercourse
    •   ―  rénshì  ―  sexual intercourse
  14. company; companion; friend
  15. artificial; man-made
  16. mortal; bodily; earthly
    • /   ―  rénjiān  ―  the mortal world
  17. Alternative form of (rén, “kernel”).
  18. Alternative form of (rén, “charity”).
  19. Alternative form of (rén, “loving; kind”).

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic ():

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

simp. and trad.
alt. forms
𠆧

The Min native word for “person”; used as a replacement character for . Use of is recommended by Taiwan's Ministry of Education.

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Definitions[edit]

(Min)

  1. man; person; people; human being; Homo sapiens
  2. a person associated with a particular identity or trait; -er
  3. physical, psychological or moral quality or condition

Pronunciation 2[edit]


Definitions[edit]

(Min)

  1. other people
  2. I; me

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
ひと
Grade: 1
kun'yomi

/pi1to2/ → */pitə//fito//hito/

From Old Japanese.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(counter , hiragana ひと, katakana ヒト, romaji hito)

  1. person
  2. human
  3. someone else
Derived terms[edit]
Synonyms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
にん
Grade: 1
on'yomi

From Middle Chinese (nyin, person). The goon, so likely the earlier borrowing.

Pronunciation[edit]

Counter[edit]

‎(hiragana にん, romaji -nin)

  1. people
Usage notes[edit]

The nin reading is used when counting three people or more. When counting one or two people as in 一人(hitori, one person) or 二人(futari, two people), the reading is (-ri).

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
じん
Grade: 1
on'yomi

From Middle Chinese (nyin, person). The kan'on, so likely a later borrowing.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

‎(hiragana じん, romaji -jin)

  1. person from that group
    アジア (じん)、イギリス (じん)、スペイン (じん)、ドイツ (じん)、アメリカ (じん)、スコットランド (じん)
    Ajiajin, Igirisujin, Supeinjin, Doitsujin, Amerikajin, Sukottorandojin
    an Asian, an Englishman, a Spaniard, a German, an American, a Scot
  2. person who does the activity of the suffixed word

References[edit]

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. 2.0 2.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3
  3. 3.0 3.1 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13143-0

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(in)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul):  (revised: in, McCune-Reischauer: in, Yale: in)
  • Name (hangeul): 사람 (revised: saram, McCune-Reischauer: saram, Yale: salam)
  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Noun[edit]

‎() ‎(counter )

  1. person
  2. human
  3. someone else

Compounds[edit]


Vietnamese[edit]

Hán tự in this word

Han character[edit]

(nhân, nhơn)

  1. (Northern Vietnam) Hán tự form of nhân, “human
  2. (Southern Vietnam) Hán tự form of nhơn, “human

Noun[edit]

  1. Abbreviation of người. (only in handwriting)
    con = con người

Alternative forms[edit]

References[edit]