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See also:
U+4FC2, 係
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4FC2

[U+4FC1]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4FC3]

Translingual[edit]

Japanese
Simplified
Traditional

Han character[edit]

(radical 9, +7, 9 strokes, cangjie input 人竹女火 (OHVF), four-corner 22293, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 104, character 4
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 663
  • Dae Jaweon: page 220, character 4
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 164, character 8
  • Unihan data for U+4FC2

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp. *

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
係-oracle.svg 係-bronze.svg 係-seal.svg 係-bigseal.svg



References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *keːɡs): semantic  + phonetic  (OC *ɡeːɡs).

Simplified form also exists as a traditional character, and is also used to simplify .

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (28)
Final () (39)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () IV
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/keiH/
Pan
Wuyun
/keiH/
Shao
Rongfen
/kɛiH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kɛjH/
Li
Rong
/keiH/
Wang
Li
/kieiH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/kieiH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ kejH ›
Old
Chinese
/*kˁek-s/
English tie (v.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 13426
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*keːɡs/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to relate; to bear on
  2. (formal, literary; or Cantonese, Hakka) to be (copula)
    北京人 / 北京人  ―  Qí mǔ Běijīngrén.  ―  His mother is a native of Beijing.
    烏龍茶 [Guangzhou Cantonese, trad.]
    乌龙茶 [Guangzhou Cantonese, simp.]
    Wu1 lung4-2 caa4 hai6 caa4 ge3 jat1 zung2. [Jyutping]
    Oolong tea is a type of tea.
  3. (Cantonese, Hakka) yes (as answer to a question)

Usage notes[edit]

  • (Cantonese) Not to be confused with (hai2).
  • (Cantonese, Hakka) 係/系 is used in vernacular contexts, while (shì) is used in literary or formal contexts.

Synonyms[edit]

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Noun[edit]

(かかり) (kakari

  1. person in charge

Alternative forms[edit]

Suffix[edit]

(がかり) (-gakari

  1. person in charge
    カメラ(がかり)
    kamera-gakari
    cameraman
    (さつ)(えい)(がかり)
    satsuei-gakari
    photographer

Alternative forms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Indonesian: gakari

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(eum (gye))

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

: Hán Nôm readings: hệ, hể, hề, hễ

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

References[edit]