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See also: and 𠮷
U+53E4, 古
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-53E4

[U+53E3]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+53E5]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
5 strokes
Stroke order
古-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(Kangxi radical 30, +2, 5 strokes, cangjie input 十口 (JR), four-corner 40600, composition)

  1. Shuowen Jiezi radical №53

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 171, character 8
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 3233
  • Dae Jaweon: page 380, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 568, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+53E4

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms 𠖠
Wikipedia has articles on:

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
古-oracle.svg 古-bronze.svg 古-silk.svg 古-seal.svg 古-bigseal.svg

Unknown.

Fang (1982) finds evidence for the 十 component originally being a depiction of a piece of food and the character originally being a depiction of someone spitting out a piece of food. Thus, Fang argues this character is the original form of ().

Shuowen: Ideogrammic compound (會意): (ten) + (mouth).

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *r-ga (old). Cognate with (OC *kaːs, “old things; former; dead”) and Tibetan རྒ (rga, to be old; aged). May be also related to Indonesian kuno.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note: kū - in 古田 (Kŭ-chèng).

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (28)
Final () (23)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kuoX/
Pan
Wuyun
/kuoX/
Shao
Rongfen
/koX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kɔX/
Li
Rong
/koX/
Wang
Li
/kuX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/kuoX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
gu2
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ kuX ›
Old
Chinese
/*kˁaʔ/
English ancient

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 4219
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kaːʔ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. the past; ancient times
      ―  jīn  ―  ancient and modern times
  2. old; ancient
  3. classic; old-styled
  4. simple; unaffected; unsophisticated
  5. things in the past; antiquities; history
  6. (Cantonese, Hakka, Min Nan) story (Classifier: c)
    / [Cantonese]  ―  gong2 gu2 [Jyutping]  ―  to tell a story
  7. Short for 古體詩古体诗 (“ancient-style poem”).
  8. A surname​.

Compounds[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: () (ko)
  • Korean: (, go)
  • Vietnamese: cổ ()

Others:

  • Vietnamese:

References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Kanji in this term
いにしえ
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

/inisipe1/ > /inisiɸe/ > /inisiwe/ > /inisie/. Literally "that which has passed". From the verb 往ぬ (inu, pass) in adverbial form ini, the past marker (ki) in attributive form si, and (pe, time, direction).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(いにしえ) (inishieいにしへ (inisife)?

  1. the past
  2. ancient times

References[edit]

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(eumhun (yet go))

  1. Hanja form? of (old; ancient).

Compounds[edit]


Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

: Hán Việt readings: cổ ((công)(thổ)(thiết))[1][2][3][4][5]
: Nôm readings: cổ[1][2][4][5][6], cỗ[2][3][7][4][6], của[1][2], [1], cỏ[1], kẻ[3]

  1. chữ Hán form of cổ (ancient; old).
  2. Nôm form of cổ (neck).

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]