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See also: and 𠮷

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 30 +2, 5 strokes, cangjie input 十口 (JR), four-corner 40600, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 171, character 8
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 3233
  • Dae Jaweon: page 380, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 568, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+53E4

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alt. forms 𠖠 archaic

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bamboo and silk script Large seal script Small seal script
古-oracle.svg 古-bronze.svg 古-silk.svg 古-bigseal.svg 古-seal.svg

Ideogrammic compound (會意):  ‎(ten) +  ‎(mouth; generation) – ten generations; ancient.

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *r-ga ‎(old). Cognate with (OC *kaːs, “old things; former; dead”) and Tibetan རྒ་བ ‎(rga ba, to be old; aged).

Pronunciation[edit]

Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: (28)
Final: (23)
Tone: Rising (X)

Openness: Open
Division: I
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: gǔ
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/kuoX/ /kuoX/ /koX/ /kɔX/ /koX/ /kuX/ /kuoX/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
‹ kuX › /*kˤaʔ/ ancient

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
4219 0 /*kaːʔ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. the past; ancient times
      ―  jīn  ―  ancient and modern times
  2. old; ancient
  3. classic; old-styled
  4. simple; unaffected; unsophisticated
  5. things in the past; antiquities; history
  6. (Cantonese, Hakka, Min Nan) story
    / [Cantonese]  ―  gong2 gu2 [Jyutping]  ―  to tell a story
  7. Abbreviation of 古體詩古体诗 (“ancient-style poem”).
  8. A surname​.

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology[edit]

inisipe > inisiɸe > inisiwe > inisie. Literally "that which has passed". From the verb pass ‎(inu) in adverbial form ini, the past marker ‎(ki) in attributive form si, and ‎(pe, time, direction).

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana いにしえ, romaji inishie, historical hiragana いにしへ)

  1. the past
  2. ancient times

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(go)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul):  (revised: go, McCune-Reischauer: ko)
  • Name (hangeul):  (revised: ye, McCune-Reischauer: ye)
  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

References[edit]


Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(cổ, cỗ, kẻ, khương)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.