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See also: and 𠮷
U+53E4, 古
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-53E4

[U+53E3]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+53E5]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
5 strokes

Han character[edit]

(radical 30, +2, 5 strokes, cangjie input 十口 (JR), four-corner 40600, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 171, character 8
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 3233
  • Dae Jaweon: page 380, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 568, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+53E4

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms 𠖠
Wikipedia has articles on:

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
古-oracle.svg 古-bronze.svg 古-silk.svg 古-seal.svg 古-bigseal.svg

Unknown.

Shuowen: Ideogrammic compound (會意):  (ten) +  (mouth).

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *r-ga (old). Cognate with (OC *kaːs, “old things; former; dead”) and Tibetan རྒ (rga, to be old; aged). May be also related to Indonesian kuno.

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (28)
Final () (23)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kuoX/
Pan
Wuyun
/kuoX/
Shao
Rongfen
/koX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kɔX/
Li
Rong
/koX/
Wang
Li
/kuX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/kuoX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ kuX ›
Old
Chinese
/*kˁaʔ/
English ancient

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 4219
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kaːʔ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. the past; ancient times
      ―  jīn  ―  ancient and modern times
  2. old; ancient
  3. classic; old-styled
  4. simple; unaffected; unsophisticated
  5. things in the past; antiquities; history
  6. (Cantonese, Hakka, Min Nan) story
    / [Cantonese]  ―  gong2 gu2 [Jyutping]  ―  to tell a story
  7. Short for 古體詩古体诗 (“ancient-style poem”).
  8. A surname​.

Compounds[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: () (ko)
  • Korean: (, go)
  • Vietnamese: cổ ()

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology[edit]

inisipe > inisiɸe > inisiwe > inisie. Literally "that which has passed". From the verb 往ぬ (inu, pass) in adverbial form ini, the past marker (ki) in attributive form si, and (pe, time, direction).

Noun[edit]

(いにしえ) (inishie (historical kana いにしへ)

  1. the past
  2. ancient times

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(eumhun (yet go))

  1. Hanja form? of (old; ancient).

Compounds[edit]


Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

: Hán Việt readings: cổ ((công)(thổ)(thiết))[1][2][3][4][5]
: Nôm readings: cổ[1][2][4][5][6], cỗ[2][3][7][4][6], của[1][2], [1], cỏ[1], kẻ[3]

  1. Hán tự form of cổ (ancient; old).
  2. Nôm form of cổ (neck).

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]