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See also:
U+56FA, 固
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-56FA

[U+56F9]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+56FB]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
固-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 31, +5, 8 strokes, cangjie input 田十口 (WJR), four-corner 60604, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 218, character 3
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 4745
  • Dae Jaweon: page 445, character 23
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 716, character 9
  • Unihan data for U+56FA

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
固-bronze.svg 固-silk.svg 固-seal.svg 固-bigseal.svg

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *kaːs): semantic  + phonetic  (OC *kaːʔ).

Etymology[edit]

STEDT compares it to Proto-Sino-Tibetan *r-ka (earth; ground; soil). Compare Jingpho ga (earth), Garo ha (earth).

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (28)
Final () (23)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kuoH/
Pan
Wuyun
/kuoH/
Shao
Rongfen
/koH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kɔH/
Li
Rong
/koH/
Wang
Li
/kuH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/kuoH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ kuH ›
Old
Chinese
/*[k]ˁa-s/
English fortified, secure

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 4230
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kaːs/

Definitions[edit]

  1. firm
  2. solid
  3. to become solid; solidify
  4. strength
  5. firmly
  6. in the first place
  7. no doubt

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(eumhun 굳을 (gudeul go))

  1. Hanja form? of (solid).

Compounds[edit]


Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(cố, , cuá)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.