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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
固-order.gif

Etymology[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Bronze inscriptions Bamboo and silk script Large seal script Small seal script
固-bronze.svg 固-silk.svg 固-bigseal.svg 固-seal.svg

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *kaːs): semantic  + phonetic  ‎(OC *kaːʔ)

Han character[edit]

(radical 31 +5, 8 strokes, cangjie input 田十口 (WJR), four-corner 60604, composition)

  1. to become solid, solidify
  2. strength

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 218, character 3
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 4745
  • Dae Jaweon: page 445, character 23
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 716, character 9
  • Unihan data for U+56FA

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Pronunciation[edit]

Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: (28)
Final: (23)
Tone: Departing (H)

Openness: Open
Division: I
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: gù
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/kuoH/ /kuoH/ /koH/ /kɔH/ /koH/ /kuH/ /kuoH/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
‹ kuH › /*[k]ˤa-s/ fortified, secure

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
4230 0 /*kaːs/

Definitions[edit]

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Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

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Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(go) (hangeul , revised go, McCune-Reischauer ko)

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Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(cố, , cuá)

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