Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to: navigation, search
See also:
Character
Unicode name CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E0D
Code point U+4E0D
Entity number 不
Unicode block CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4E0C] [U+4E0E]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
不-order.gif

Etymology[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script
不-oracle.svg 不-bronze.svg 不-seal.svg

Pictogram (象形)

The character originated as a pictograph of the calyx of a flower. It was then composed into a phono-semantic character with the pictograph for mouth ( ), to form , representing "no", negation. This composed meaning then spread back to the original character 不, making it a synonym of 否. A new character of was eventually created to represent the original meaning of calyx.

A seed under the ground () with roots at the bottom. Original form of , embryo. In some form of the large seal script, the character is inside another element, probably a womb. The seed has been linked to the meaning of negation by saying that the root is the unwanted part of the plant. But the current meaning comes from sound loan.

Karlgren and Wieger interpret it as a bird flying toward the sky (). The sky being the limit for the bird, thus the idea of negation.

References[edit]

  • “不”, in 字源[1] (in Mandarin), accessed 2014-02-24
  • Richard Sears (accessed 2014-02-24), “不”, in Chinese Etymology[2] (in English/Mandarin)

Han character[edit]

(radical 1 +3, 4 strokes, cangjie input 一火 (MF), four-corner 10900, composition)

Descendants[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 76, character 15
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 19
  • Dae Jaweon: page 149, character 4
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 11, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+4E0D

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Pronunciation[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/4

Initial: (1)
Final:
Division: III

Openness: Open
Tone: Level (Ø)

Fanqie:
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/pɨu/ /pi̯ə̯u/ /piu/ /piu/ /puw/ /pĭəu/ /piəu/
Character (), Pronunciation 2/4

Initial: (1)
Final:
Division: III

Openness: Open
Tone: Rising (X)

Fanqie:
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/pɨuX/ /pi̯ə̯uX/ /piuX/ /piuX/ /puwX/ /pĭəuX/ /piəuX/
Character (), Pronunciation 3/4

Initial: (1)
Final:
Division: III

Openness: Closed
Tone: Checked (Ø)

Fanqie:
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/pɨut̚/ /pi̯uət̚/ /piuət̚/ /piut̚/ /put̚/ /pĭuət̚/ /piuət̚/
Character (), Pronunciation 4/4

Initial: (1)
Final:
Division: I

Openness: Closed
Tone: Checked (Ø)

Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/puət̚/ /puət̚/ /puət̚/ /puot̚/ /pwət̚/ /puət̚/ /puət̚/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
‹ pjuw › /*pə/ not
‹ pjuw › /*pə/ 不律 writing brush (pron. in Wú 吳 ap. Shuōwén; E. Hàn)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
1025 0 /*pɯ/
1029 0 /*pɯʔ/ 象花柎與本同源
1048 1 /*pɯ'/ 中古才促化

Definitions[edit]

  1. not
    黑暗黑暗接受 [MSC, trad.]
    黑暗黑暗接受 [MSC, simp.]
    From: John 1.5
    Guāng zhào zài hēi'àn lǐ, hēi'àn què jiēshòu guāng. [Pinyin]
    And the light shineth in darkness; and the darkness comprehended it not.
    日本人  ―  shì rìběnrén.  ―  I am not Japanese.
    這個 / 这个  ―  Zhège hǎo.  ―  This is not good.
  2. no
    日本人 / 日本人  ―  Nǐ shì rìběnrén ma? shì.  ―  “Are you Japanese? No.”

Usage notes[edit]

  • The tone changes from fourth to second tone when followed by a fourth-tone syllable.
  • When negating the verb (yǒu) (to have), (méi) is used instead of (i.e. 沒有没有 (méiyǒu), rather than *不有).
  • The word no does not have a translation in Chinese. To answer "no" to a yes/no question (either "affirmative-negative questions" (正反問句正反问句) or a (ma) question), you have to use the verb of the question in negative form, i.e. preceded by (or by (méi) in the case of (yǒu)).
    認識認識 / 认识认识  ―  Nǐ rènshí tā ma? rènshí.  ―  Do you know him? No.
    認識認識 / 认识认识  ―  Nǐ rèn rènshí tā? rènshí.  ―  Do you know [not know] him? No.
    • If there is no verb to negate in the context, 不是 (bùshì) is used.
    • "No" can be translated by (fǒu) alone, but this is formal and not standard Chinese.
    • When a verb is two characters long, truncating it to the first character before may sound more natural, as in the example above (認識认识 as opposed to 認識認識认识认识)
  • 不 is similar to a verb prefix that forms a stative verb with the verb to be negated. Therefore the predicates of the sentences that contain the new compound verbs can not be modified by the perfective aspect marker (le), which modifies only dynamic verbs.
    當兵 / 当兵  ―  dāngbīng le.  ―  I am no longer a soldier.
    • When 了 appears in a 不 sentence, it usually functions as a marker of "currently relevant state" instead. See the sentence above and notice that it does not mean "I have not become a soldier".

Synonyms[edit]

  • (méi) used to negate (yǒu)
  • (fǒu) no (formal)
  • 不是 (bùshì) no (as answer of a yes/no question)
  • () ("do not"; dialectal "not")

Antonyms[edit]

  • (shì) yes (as answer to a question)

Prefix[edit]

  1. un-; negation prefix
      ―  xìng  ―  unfortunate
      ―  ān  ―  uneasy ("unpeaceful")

Synonyms[edit]

  • () (prefix) without, -less

See also[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Derived terms[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. not, non-, un-

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Prefix[edit]

‎(hiragana , romaji fu-)

  1. un-, non-, in-

‎(hiragana , romaji bu-)

  1. un-, non-, in-
  2. bad, poor

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(bu, bul, bi)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul): , ,  (revised: bu, bul, bi, McCune-Reischauer: pu, pul, pi, Yale: pwu, pwu, pi)
  • Name (hangeul): 아닐, 아닐,  (revised: anil, anil, keul, McCune-Reischauer: anil, anil, k'ǔl, Yale: anil, anil, khul)
  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

References[edit]


Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(bất, phầu, phủ, phi, bứt)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

References[edit]

  • Thiều Chửu : Hán Việt Tự Điển Hà Nội 1942
  • Trần Văn Chánh: Từ Điển Hán Việt NXB Trẻ, Ho Chi Minh Ville, 1999
  • Vũ Văn Kính: Đại Tự Điển Chữ Nôm, NXB Văn Nghệ, Ho Chi Minh Ville, 1999