不知

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Chinese[edit]

not; no to know; to be aware
simp. and trad.
(不知)

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/3 2/3 3/3 1/1
Initial () (1) (1) (1) (9)
Final () (136) (136) (60) (11)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Rising (X) Checked (Ø) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open Open Closed Open
Division () III III III III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/pɨu/ /pɨuX/ /pɨut̚/ /ʈiᴇ/
Pan
Wuyun
/piu/ /piuX/ /piut̚/ /ʈiɛ/
Shao
Rongfen
/piəu/ /piəuX/ /piuət̚/ /ȶjɛ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/puw/ /puwX/ /put̚/ /ʈiə̆/
Li
Rong
/piu/ /piuX/ /piuət̚/ /ȶie/
Wang
Li
/pĭəu/ /pĭəuX/ /pĭuət̚/ /ȶǐe/
Bernard
Karlgren
/pi̯ə̯u/ /pi̯ə̯uX/ /pi̯uət̚/ /ȶie̯/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
fōu fǒu fu zh-
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
zhī
Middle
Chinese
‹ pjuw › ‹ trje ›
Old
Chinese
/*pə/ /*tre/
English not know

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/3 2/3 3/3 1/1
No. 1025 1029 1048 11495
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0 0 1 0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*pɯ/ /*pɯʔ/ /*pɯ'/ /*ʔl'e/
Notes

Verb[edit]

不知

  1. to not know; to have no idea of; to be ignorant of
    不知其中奧妙 / 不知其中奥妙  ―  bùzhī qízhōng àomiào  ―  to be ignorant of the marvels therein
    犯錯不知悔改 [MSC, trad.]
    犯错不知悔改 [MSC, simp.]
    fàncuò hòu hái bùzhī huǐgǎi [Pinyin]
    to not mend one's ways after making a mistake
    不知何時相見 [MSC, trad.]
    不知何时相见 [MSC, simp.]
    Ài, wǒ bùzhī héshí zài néng yǔ tā xiàngjiàn. [Pinyin]
    Alas, I do not know when I will see him again.
  2. to wonder if (as used in a question or request)
    不知是否時間 [MSC, trad.]
    不知是否时间 [MSC, simp.]
    Bùzhī nín shìfǒu yǒu shíjiān. [Pinyin]
    I wonder if you might have time.

Synonyms[edit]

  • (to not know):
edit

Antonyms[edit]

  • (to not know):
edit

Derived terms[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 4

Grade: 2
on’yomi

Etymology[edit]

() (fu, not) + () (chi, know)

Noun[edit]

()() (fuchi

  1. ignorance (not knowing)
  2. ignorance (lacking intelligence)

Synonyms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

References[edit]


Old Korean[edit]

Etymology[edit]

The basic negating root of the Old Korean negatives is disputed. Because all conventional reconstructions begin with *ant-, many South Korean linguists, including Lee Seung-jae, have proposed that the base form was *anto-, producing 不冬 (*ANtol), 不只 (*ANTOk), and (via deletion of the minimal vowel <o>) 不知 (*ANti). Other scholars, including both Koreans and Alexander Vovin, have argued that the negative root is *an and that *tol, *tok, and *ti are as of yet poorly understood suffixes. Vovin notes that likely borrowings in Tungusic appear to suggest that the root was *an-. In the case of 不知, the orthographic variation, perhaps reflecting dialectal differences, may also be suggestive of an originally *an- root.

This was probably borrowed at some very ancient period into Proto-Northern Tungusic as *anti, producing forms such as Udege language anči and Even language āt.

Alternative forms[edit]

  • 安徐 (entirely phonogramic form, Idu script variant)
  • 不喻 (Idu script variant, believed to be a different term by Vovin; also see Usage Notes)
  • 非知, 未知 (different logogram, gugyeol variant depending on Chinese original text)
  • 未知 (different logogram, gugyeol variant depending on Chinese original text)

Noun[edit]

不知 (*ANti)

  1. Noun negating an adjacent noun or noun phrase

Reconstruction notes[edit]

The existence of the entirely phonogramic variant 安徐 establishes the first syllable of this word, usually represented by the logogram , as *an-, corresponding to Middle and Modern Korean 아니 (ani, “not”).

The second syllable is somewhat more difficult to deal with because the variants appear to imply different phonetic values. These may reflect some sort of otherwise unknown dialectal variation, or reflect different suffixes (but apparently without semantic difference?) to a hypothetical stem *an-. However, the phonogram most commonly used in the corpus is , whose Middle Chinese value is reconstructed as */ʈiɛ̝/ and whose fifteenth-century Sino-Korean pronunciation was (Yale: ti). The syllable is accordingly conventionally reconstructed as *ti, and the entire lemma as *ANti.

Usage notes[edit]

This noun, which was probably a dependent noun that could not occur independently, was restricted to negating nouns (including nominalized verbs). Verbs were negated with the adverb 不冬 (*ANtol) instead. In every uncontroversial example in the currently known corpus, adjectives were nominalized and then negated with 不知 (*ANti). Whether this represents a genuine grammatical phenomenon in Old Korean or simply coincidence due to the very limited corpus is not clear.

Its Middle Korean form served as both a noun and an adverb, having displaced 不冬, and the Modern reflex behaves solely as an adverb. The form 아니다 (anida), showing an incorporation of the copula 이다 (ida) which usually combines with nouns, remains as a vestige of the Old Korean function.

Vovin argues that the Idu script variant 不喻 should be seen as a related but different form, which he reconstructs as approximately *AN-koy. Both would be derived from the hypothetical negative vowel root *an-. The conventional view in Korean scholarship is to read 不喻 as a graphic variant of 不知 because fifteenth- and sixteenth-century Idu manuals in Hangul, which conserve significant elements of the Old Korean reading of phonograms, gloss the former sequence as 아닌디 (Yale: aninti). Furthermore, there appears to be no semantic difference between 不知 and 不喻. On the other hand, it is difficult to explain how could ever have been taken as a phonogram for *ti.

Descendants[edit]

  • Middle Korean: 아니 (ani, not)
    • Korean: 아니 (ani, not)
  • Southeastern Korean: [Term?]
  • Middle Korean: 아니다 (anita, to not be)
    • Korean: 아니다 (anida, to not be)
  • Proto-Northern Tungusic: *anti

See also[edit]

  • 不冬 (*ANtol) (verbal negator)
  • 毛冬 (*mwotol) (marker of inability)
  • 不只 (*ANTOk) (marker of inability)

References[edit]

  • 이용 (Yi Yong) (2003) , “釋讀口訣에 나타난 不定詞의 機能에 대하여 [On the functions of the negative particles in interpretive gugyeol]”, in Gugyeol Yeon'gu, volume 11, pages 249–273
  • 남풍현 (Nam Pung-hyeon) (2010) , “獻花歌의 解讀 [Readings of the "Heonhwa-ga"]”, in Gugyeol Yeon'gu, volume 24, pages 5–35
  • 박지용 外 (Park Ji-yong et al.) (2012) 향가 해독 자료집 [A Sourcebook of Hyangga Interpretations], Seoul National University, page 18
  • Alexander Vovin (2018) , “Two Tungusic Etymologies”, in Studia Orientalia Slovaca[1], volume 17, pages 125–134