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See also:
U+6BCB, 毋
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6BCB

[U+6BCA]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6BCC]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
毋-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 80 +0, 4 strokes, cangjie input 田十 (WJ), four-corner 77500)

  1. Kangxi radical #80, .

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 588, character 23
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 16721
  • Dae Jaweon: page 980, character 29
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2380, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+6BCB

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alt. forms vernacular Hakka and Min Nan
vernacular Hakka and Min Nan
vernacular Min Nan
vernacular Min Nan

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
毋-bronze.svg 毋-seal.svg 毋-bigseal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*mɯːs, *mɯː, *mɯːs
*mlɯːʔ, *mɯːʔ
*hmlɯːʔ
*ʔmɯː, *ʔmɯːʔ
*mɯ
*mɯʔ
*mɯʔ
*mɯʔ
*mɯʔ, *mɯs, *maːʔ
*mɯʔ
*mɯʔ
*mɯs, *mɯːʔ, *mɯːs
*mɯs, *mɯː, *mɯːs
*mrɯʔ, *mrɯŋʔ
*mrɯŋʔ
*mrɯŋʔ
*ma
*mɯː
*mɯː
*mɯː
*mɯːʔ
*mɯːs
*mɯːs, *hmɯːs
*hmɯːs
*hmɯːs
*hmɯːʔ, *hmɯːs
*mrɯl

In the oracle bone script, (“mother”) was borrowed to represent this character. It was later specialized to distinguish it from “mother”, replacing the two dots with one stroke.

Etymology[edit]

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions. You can also discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.
Particularly: “related to 無?”

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • Sixian:
    • mù - literary;
    • m̀ - vernacular.
  • Meixian:
    • vu2 - literary;
    • m2 - vernacular.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • bû - literary;
    • m̄ - vernacular.

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (4)
    Final () (24)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /mɨo/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /mio/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /mio/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /muə̆/
    Li
    Rong
    /mio/
    Wang
    Li
    /mĭu/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /mi̯u/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ mju ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*mo/
    English don"t

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 9301
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ma/
    Notes

    Definitions[edit]

    1. (literary) do not, don't
    2. (literary or Hakka, Hokkien) not
      捌字 [Min Nan]  ―  Góa pat-jī. [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  I'm illiterate (literally: I don't know characters)
    3. (literary) Alternative form of (, “to not have”).
    4. A surname​.

    Synonyms[edit]

    Dialectal synonyms of (“not”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese)
    Mandarin Beijing
    Taiwan
    Harbin
    Shenyang
    Jinan
    Muping
    Luoyang
    Jiedian
    Xi'an
    Xining
    Xuzhou
    Yinchuan
    Lanzhou
    Ürümqi
    Wuhan
    Chengdu
    Guiyang
    Liuzhou
    Kunming
    Yangzhou
    Nanjing
    Hefei
    Nantong
    Malaysia
    Singapore
    Cantonese Guangzhou
    Hong Kong
    Dongguan
    Taishan
    Yangjiang
    Gan Nanchang
    Lichuan
    Pingxiang
    Hakka Meixian
    Xingning
    Huidong
    Qujiang
    Xiaosanjiang
    Changting
    Pingyu
    Wuping
    Liancheng
    Ninghua
    Yudu
    Ruijin
    Shicheng
    Shangyou
    Miaoli (N. Sixian)
    Liudui (S. Sixian)
    Hsinchu (Hailu)
    Dongshi (Dabu)
    Zhuolan (Raoping)
    Yunlin (Zhao'an)
    Huizhou Jixi
    Jin Taiyuan
    Xinzhou
    Min Bei Jian'ou 𣍐
    Min Dong Fuzhou 𣍐
    Matsu 𣍐
    Min Nan Xiamen
    Quanzhou
    Zhangzhou
    Taipei
    Kaohsiung
    Penang
    Chaozhou
    Shantou
    Haikou
    Leizhou
    Pinghua Nanning
    Wu Shanghai
    Suzhou
    Hangzhou
    Wenzhou
    Chongming
    Danyang
    Jinhua
    Ningbo
    Xiang Changsha
    Shuangfeng
    Loudi

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

    1. do not
    2. must not
    3. be not
    4. mother radical (no. 80)

    Readings[edit]

    Usage notes[edit]

    Not used in Japanese shinjitai in isolation – instead the unsimplified is used – but simplified form is used universally in compound jōyō characters, such as , .

    However, not used in hyōgaiji, which are written in kyūjitai, such as .


    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (mu) (hangeul , revised mu, McCune-Reischauer mu, Yale mu)

    1. do not
    2. not
    3. surname
    4. rad. 80

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    ()

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.