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U+6BCB, 毋
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6BCB

[U+6BCA]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6BCC]
See also:

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
毋-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 80 +0, 4 strokes, cangjie input 田十 (WJ), four-corner 77500)

  1. Kangxi radical #80, (do not).

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 588, character 23
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 16721
  • Dae Jaweon: page 980, character 29
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2380, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+6BCB

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alt. forms vernacular Hakka and Min Nan
vernacular Hakka and Min Nan
vernacular Min Nan
vernacular Min Nan

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script
毋-bronze.svg 毋-bigseal.svg 毋-seal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*mɯːs, *mɯː, *mɯːs
*mlɯːʔ, *mɯːʔ
*hmlɯːʔ
*ʔmɯː, *ʔmɯːʔ
*mɯ
*mɯʔ
*mɯʔ
*mɯʔ
*mɯʔ, *mɯs, *maːʔ
*mɯʔ
*mɯʔ
*mɯs, *mɯːʔ, *mɯːs
*mɯs, *mɯː, *mɯːs
*mrɯʔ, *mrɯŋʔ
*mrɯŋʔ
*mrɯŋʔ
*ma
*mɯː
*mɯː
*mɯː
*mɯːʔ
*mɯːs
*mɯːs, *hmɯːs
*hmɯːs
*hmɯːs
*hmɯːʔ, *hmɯːs
*mrɯl

In the oracle bone script, (“mother”) was borrowed to represent this character. It was later specialized to distinguish it from “mother”, replacing the two dots with one stroke. Compare (from ).

Etymology[edit]

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions. You can also discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.
Particularly: “related to 無?”

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • Sixian:
    • mù - literary;
    • m̀ - vernacular.
  • Meixian:
    • vu2 - literary;
    • m2 - vernacular.
Note:
  • bû - literary;
  • m̄ - vernacular.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (4)
Final () (24)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/mɨo/
Pan
Wuyun
/mio/
Shao
Rongfen
/mio/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/muə̆/
Li
Rong
/mio/
Wang
Li
/mĭu/
Bernard
Karlgren
/mi̯u/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ mju ›
Old
Chinese
/*mo/
English don"t

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 9301
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ma/
Notes

Definitions[edit]

  1. (literary) do not
  2. (literary or Hakka, Hokkien) not
    捌字 [Min Nan]  ―  Góa pat-jī. [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  I'm illiterate (literally: I don't know characters)
  3. (literary) Alternative form of (, “to not have”).
  4. A surname​.

Synonyms[edit]

Dialectal synonyms of (“not”)
Variety Location Words
Classical Chinese
Formal (Written Standard Chinese)
Mandarin Beijing
Taiwan
Jinan
Xi'an
Wuhan
Chengdu
Yangzhou
Hefei
Cantonese Guangzhou
Hong Kong
Taishan
Yangjiang
Gan Nanchang
Hakka Meixian
Miaoli (N. Sixian)
Liudui (S. Sixian)
Hsinchu (Hailu)
Dongshi (Dabu)
Zhuolan (Raoping)
Yunlin (Zhao'an)
Jin Taiyuan
Min Bei Jian'ou 𣍐
Min Dong Fuzhou 𣍐
Min Nan Xiamen
Quanzhou
Zhangzhou
Taipei
Kaohsiung
Chaozhou
Shantou
Wu Shanghai
Wenzhou
Xiang Changsha
Shuangfeng

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

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Readings[edit]

Usage notes[edit]

Not used in Japanese shinjitai in isolation – instead the unsimplified is used – but simplified form is used universally in compound jōyō characters, such as , .

However, not used in hyōgaiji, which are written in kyūjitai, such as .


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(mu) (hangeul , revised mu, McCune-Reischauer mu, Yale mu)

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Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

()

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