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See also: and
U+6BCB, 毋
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6BCB

[U+6BCA]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6BCC]
U+2F4F, ⽏
KANGXI RADICAL DO NOT

[U+2F4E]
Kangxi Radicals
[U+2F50]
Commons:Category
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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
毋-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 80, +0, 4 strokes, cangjie input 田十 (WJ), four-corner 77500, composition ⿻⿻𠃋𠃌𠂇(GHTV) or ⿻⿻𠃋𠃌(JK))

  1. Kangxi radical #80, .

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 588, character 23
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 16721
  • Dae Jaweon: page 980, character 29
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 4, page 2380, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+6BCB

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms vernacular Hakka and Min Nan
vernacular Hakka and Min Nan
vernacular Min Nan
vernacular Min Nan

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
毋-bronze.svg 毋-seal.svg 毋-bigseal.svg

In the oracle bone script, (“mother”) was borrowed to represent this character. It was later specialized to distinguish it from “mother”, replacing the two dots with one stroke.

Etymology[edit]

Cognate with (OC *ma, “to not have”). Already in Zhou time, phonetically confused with and read like (OC *ma).

Cognate with (m4) in Cantonese, Teochew and Hakka.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • Sixian:
    • mù - literary;
    • m̀ - vernacular.
  • Meixian:
    • vu2 - literary;
    • m2 - vernacular.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • bû - literary;
    • m̄ - vernacular.

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (4)
    Final () (24)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /mɨo/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /mio/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /mio/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /muə̆/
    Li
    Rong
    /mio/
    Wang
    Li
    /mĭu/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /mi̯u/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ mju ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*mo/
    English don"t

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 9301
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ma/
    Notes

    Definitions[edit]

    1. (literary) do not, don't
    2. (literary or Hakka, Hokkien) not
      捌字 [Min Nan]  ―  Góa pat-jī. [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  I'm illiterate (literally: I don't know characters)
    3. (literary) Alternative form of (, “to not have”).
    4. A surname​.

    Synonyms[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

    1. do not, must not, be not
    2. "mother" radical

    Readings[edit]

    Usage notes[edit]

    Not used in Japanese shinjitai in isolation – instead the unsimplified is used – but simplified form is used universally in compound jōyō characters, such as , .

    However, not used in hyōgaiji, which are written in kyūjitai, such as .


    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (mu) (hangeul , revised mu, McCune–Reischauer mu, Yale mu)

    1. do not
    2. not
    3. surname
    4. rad. 80

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    ()

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.