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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
而-order.gif

Etymology[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script
而-oracle.svg 而-bronze.svg 而-bigseal.svg 而-seal.svg

Pictogram (象形) – a beard.

Han character[edit]

(radical 126 +0, 6 strokes, cangjie input 一月中中 (MBLL), four-corner 10227, composition ⿱⿱丿丨)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 961, character 18
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 28871
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1409, character 17
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2810, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+800C

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Pronunciation[edit]


Dialectal pronunciations ()
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /əɻ³⁵/
Harbin /ɚ²¹³/
Tianjin /əɻ⁴⁵/
Jinan /əɻ⁴²/
Qingdao /əɻ⁵⁵/
/ɭə⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /ɭ⁴²/
Xi'an /əɻ²¹/
Xining /ɛ²⁴/
Yinchuan /əɻ⁵³/
Lanzhou /ɯ⁵³/
Ürümqi /ɚ⁵¹/
Wuhan /ɯ²¹³/
Chengdu /əɻ³¹/
Guiyang /ɚ²¹/
Kunming /ə³¹/
Nanjing /əɻ²⁴/
Hefei /a⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /əɻ¹¹/
Pingyao /əɻ¹³/
Hohhot /aɻ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /əl¹³/
Suzhou /əl¹³/
Hangzhou /əl²¹³/
Wenzhou /zz̩³¹/
Hui Shexian /ɛ⁴⁴/
Tunxi /ə⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /ə¹³/
Xiangtan /e¹²/
Gan Nanchang /ɵ⁴⁵/
Hakka Meixian /i¹¹/
Taoyuan
Cantonese Guangzhou /ji²¹/
Nanning /ji²¹/
Hong Kong /ji²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /li³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /i⁵³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /œ²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /zɯ⁵⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /lɛ²¹³/
Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: (38)
Final:
Division: III

Openness: Open
Tone: Level (Ø)

Fanqie:
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/ȵɨ/ /ȵʑi/ /ȵiə/ /ȵɨ/ /ȵɨ/ /ȵʑĭə/ /ȵʑie/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
ér ‹ nyi › /*nə/ and, but

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
2720 0 /*njɯ/

Conjunction[edit]

  1. and
    偉大艱巨任務 / 伟大艰巨任务  ―  wěidà ér jiānjù de rènwù  ―  a great and arduous task
  2. and yet; but; nevertheless
    其實 / 其实  ―  yǒu qí míng ér wú qíshí  ―  in name but not in reality

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for names)

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Readings[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(i) (hangeul , revised i, McCune-Reischauer i, Yale i)

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Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(nhi)

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