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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
作-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 9 +5, 7 strokes, cangjie input 人竹尸 (OHS), four-corner 28211, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 99, character 7
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 518
  • Dae Jaweon: page 210, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 134, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+4F5C

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Pronunciation[edit]


Dialectal pronunciations ()
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /t͡suo⁵¹/
/t͡suo⁵⁵/
Harbin /t͡suo⁵³/ 工~
/t͡suo²⁴/ ~料
Tianjin /t͡suo⁵³/ 工~
/t͡suo²¹/ ~坊
Jinan /t͡suə²¹³/
/t͡suə²¹/
Qingdao /t͡suə⁴²/ ~息
/t͡suə⁵⁵/ 工~
Zhengzhou /t͡suo²⁴/ 工~
/t͡suo⁴²/ ~料
Xi'an /t͡suo²¹/
Xining /t͡su⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /t͡suə¹³/
Lanzhou /t͡suə¹³/
Ürümqi /t͡suɤ²¹³/
Wuhan /t͡suo²¹³/
Chengdu /t͡so³¹/
Guiyang /t͡so²¹/
Kunming /t͡so³¹/
Nanjing /t͡soʔ⁵/
Hefei /t͡suɐʔ⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /t͡suaʔ²/
Pingyao /t͡sʌʔ¹³/
Hohhot /t͡suaʔ⁴³/
Wu Shanghai /t͡soʔ⁵/
Suzhou /t͡soʔ⁵/
Hangzhou /t͡soʔ⁵/
Wenzhou /t͡so²¹³/
Hui Shexian /t͡sɔʔ²¹/
Tunxi /t͡so⁵/
Xiang Changsha /t͡so²⁴/
Xiangtan /t͡so²⁴/
Gan Nanchang /t͡sɔʔ⁵/
Hakka Meixian /t͡sok̚¹/
Taoyuan /t͡sok̚²²/
Cantonese Guangzhou /t͡sɔk̚³/
Nanning /t͡sɔk̚³³/
Hong Kong /t͡sɔk̚³/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /t͡sɔk̚³²/
/t͡soʔ³²/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /t͡sɔuʔ²³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /t͡sɔ²⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /t͡sak̚²/
/t͡soʔ²/
Haikou (Min Nan) /to⁵⁵/
Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/3

Initial: (13)
Final:
Division: I

Openness: Open
Tone: Departing (H)

Fanqie:
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/t͡suoH/ /t͡suoH/ /t͡soH/ /t͡suoH/ /t͡sɔH/ /t͡suH/ /t͡soH/
Character (), Pronunciation 2/3

Initial: (13)
Final:
Division: I

Openness: Open
Tone: Departing (H)

Fanqie:
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/t͡sɑH/ /t͡sɑH/ /t͡sɑH/ /t͡sɑH/ /t͡saH/ /t͡sɑH/ /t͡sɑH/
Character (), Pronunciation 3/3

Initial: (13)
Final:
Division: I

Openness: Open
Tone: Checked (Ø)

Fanqie:
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/t͡sɑk̚/ /t͡sɑk̚/ /t͡sɑk̚/ /t͡sɑk̚/ /t͡sak̚/ /t͡sɑk̚/ /t͡sɑk̚/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
zuò ‹ tsak › /*[ts]ˤak/ do, work
zuò ‹ tsuH › /*[ts]ˤak-s/ do, work

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
16641 0 /*ʔsaːɡs/
16653 0 /*ʔsaːɡs/ 祚原誤衤旁巾箱本不誤
16661 0 /*ʔsaːɡ/ 乍轉註字

Verb[edit]

  1. (chiefly Mandarin) to do, to perform
    什麼 [MSC, trad.]
    什么 [MSC, simp.]
    Nǐ zài zuò shénme? [Pinyin]
    What are you doing?
  2. to work
  3. to compose, to write
      ―  zuòzhě  ―  author
    乜嘢 [Guangzhou Cantonese, trad.]
    乜嘢 [Guangzhou Cantonese, simp.]
    Nei5 zok3 gan2 mat1 je5 aa3? [Jyutping]
    What are you writing?
  4. to act, to perform

Synonyms[edit]

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
さく
Grade: 2
on'yomi

From Middle Chinese ‎(tsak, to do, to work). Compare modern Cantonese reading zok3, Wu tsoq (T4).

Pronunciation 1[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana さく, romaji saku)

  1. a work, a production (particularly a cultural work, such as a work of art, of literature, or of theatre)

Pronunciation 2[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana さく, romaji saku)

  1. a crop, a harvest

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
つく(り)
Grade: 2
kun'yomi

The 連用形 ‎(ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verb 作る ‎(tsukuru, to make; to build; to work the land, to grow something), itself from Old Japanese.[2]

Pronunciation 1[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana つくり, romaji tsukuri)

  1. the workmanship or make of something, how something is made
     (つく)のいい家具 (かぐ)
    tsukuri no ii kagu
    furniture of good make or workmanship, well-made furniture
  2. make-up, dress, comportment: how one dresses and comports oneself
    派手 (はで) (つく) (きら)いだ。
    Hade na tsukuri wa kirai da.
    I dislike colorful / flashy dress.
  3. a helping or serving of fresh sashimi, usually several slices
     (しゃけ) (つく) (たの)しみにしている。
    Shake no tsukuri o tanoshimi ni shite iru.
    I'm looking forward to a helping of salmon sashimi.
Usage notes[edit]

More often spelled with the okurigana, as 作り.

Pronunciation 2[edit]

Suffix[edit]

‎(hiragana づくり, romaji -zukuri)

  1. the making of something, particularly as in cultivation
     (にわ) (づく)、バラ (づく)
    niwazukuri, barazukuri
    gardening / garden cultivation, rose cultivation / growing roses
Usage notes[edit]

More often spelled with the okurigana, as 作り.

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(jak, ju) (hangeul , , McCune-Reischauer chak, chu)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(tác, tố)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

References[edit]