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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
作-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 9 +5, 7 strokes, cangjie input 人竹尸 (OHS), four-corner 28211, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 99, character 7
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 518
  • Dae Jaweon: page 210, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 134, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+4F5C

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bamboo and silk script Large seal script Small seal script
作-oracle.svg 作-bronze.svg 作-silk.svg 作-bigseal.svg 作-seal.svg





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (large seal) and
  • Xu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ʔsaːɡs, *ʔsaːɡs, *ʔsaːɡ): semantic  ‎(man) + phonetic  ‎(OC *zraːɡs)

Pronunciation[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /t͡suo⁵¹/
/t͡suo⁵⁵/
Harbin /t͡suo⁵³/ 工~
/t͡suo²⁴/ ~料
Tianjin /t͡suo⁵³/ 工~
/t͡suo²¹/ ~坊
Jinan /t͡suə²¹³/
/t͡suə²¹/
Qingdao /t͡suə⁴²/ ~息
/t͡suə⁵⁵/ 工~
Zhengzhou /t͡suo²⁴/ 工~
/t͡suo⁴²/ ~料
Xi'an /t͡suo²¹/
Xining /t͡su⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /t͡suə¹³/
Lanzhou /t͡suə¹³/
Ürümqi /t͡suɤ²¹³/
Wuhan /t͡suo²¹³/
Chengdu /t͡so³¹/
Guiyang /t͡so²¹/
Kunming /t͡so³¹/
Nanjing /t͡soʔ⁵/
Hefei /t͡suɐʔ⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /t͡suaʔ²/
Pingyao /t͡sʌʔ¹³/
Hohhot /t͡suaʔ⁴³/
Wu Shanghai /t͡soʔ⁵/
Suzhou /t͡soʔ⁵/
Hangzhou /t͡soʔ⁵/
Wenzhou /t͡so²¹³/
Hui Shexian /t͡sɔʔ²¹/
Tunxi /t͡so⁵/
Xiang Changsha /t͡so²⁴/
Xiangtan /t͡so²⁴/
Gan Nanchang /t͡sɔʔ⁵/
Hakka Meixian /t͡sok̚¹/
Taoyuan /t͡sok̚²²/
Cantonese Guangzhou /t͡sɔk̚³/
Nanning /t͡sɔk̚³³/
Hong Kong /t͡sɔk̚³/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /t͡sɔk̚³²/
/t͡soʔ³²/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /t͡sɔuʔ²³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /t͡sɔ²⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /t͡sak̚²/
/t͡soʔ²/
Haikou (Min Nan) /to⁵⁵/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/3 2/3 3/3
Initial () (13) (13) (13)
Final () (23) (94) (103)
Tone (調) Departing (H) Departing (H) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open Open Open
Division () I I I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/t͡suoH/ /t͡sɑH/ /t͡sɑk̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/t͡suoH/ /t͡sɑH/ /t͡sɑk̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/t͡soH/ /t͡sɑH/ /t͡sɑk̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/t͡sɔH/ /t͡saH/ /t͡sak̚/
Li
Rong
/t͡soH/ /t͡sɑH/ /t͡sɑk̚/
Wang
Li
/t͡suH/ /t͡sɑH/ /t͡sɑk̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/t͡suoH/ /t͡sɑH/ /t͡sɑk̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
zuò zuo
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
zuò zuò
Middle
Chinese
‹ tsak › ‹ tsuH ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ts]ˤak/ /*[ts]ˤak-s/
English do, work do, work

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/3 2/3 3/3
No. 16641 16653 16661
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0 0 0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ʔsaːɡs/ /*ʔsaːɡs/ /*ʔsaːɡ/
Notes

Definitions[edit]

  1. (chiefly Mandarin) to do, to perform
    什麼 / 什么  ―  Nǐ zài zuò shénme?  ―  What are you doing?
  2. to work
  3. to compose, to write
      ―  zuòzhě  ―  author
    乜嘢 / 乜嘢 [Guangzhou Cantonese]  ―  Nei5 zok3 gan2 mat1 je5 aa3? [Jyutping]  ―  What are you writing?
  4. to act, to perform

Synonyms[edit]

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
さく
Grade: 2
on'yomi

From Middle Chinese ‎(tsak, to do, to work). Compare modern Cantonese reading zok3, Wu tsoq (T4).

Pronunciation 1[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana さく, romaji saku)

  1. a work, a production (particularly a cultural work, such as a work of art, of literature, or of theatre)

Pronunciation 2[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana さく, romaji saku)

  1. a crop, a harvest

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
つく(り)
Grade: 2
kun'yomi

The 連用形 ‎(ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verb 作る ‎(tsukuru, to make; to build; to work the land, to grow something), itself from Old Japanese.[2]

Pronunciation 1[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana つくり, romaji tsukuri)

  1. the workmanship or make of something, how something is made
     (つく)のいい家具 (かぐ)
    tsukuri no ii kagu
    furniture of good make or workmanship, well-made furniture
  2. make-up, dress, comportment: how one dresses and comports oneself
    派手 (はで) (つく) (きら)いだ。
    Hade na tsukuri wa kirai da.
    I dislike colorful / flashy dress.
  3. a helping or serving of fresh sashimi, usually several slices
     (しゃけ) (つく) (たの)しみにしている。
    Shake no tsukuri o tanoshimi ni shite iru.
    I'm looking forward to a helping of salmon sashimi.
Usage notes[edit]

More often spelled with the okurigana, as 作り.

Pronunciation 2[edit]

Suffix[edit]

‎(hiragana づくり, romaji -zukuri)

  1. the making of something, particularly as in cultivation
     (にわ) (づく)、バラ (づく)
    niwazukuri, barazukuri
    gardening / garden cultivation, rose cultivation / growing roses
Usage notes[edit]

More often spelled with the okurigana, as 作り.

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(jak, ju) (hangeul , , McCune-Reischauer chak, chu)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(tác, tố)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

References[edit]