dress

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See also: Dress

English[edit]

Etymology[edit]

PIE word
*dwís

The verb is inherited from Middle English dressen, dresse (to lay, place, put; to adjust, arrange, put in order; to adorn, ornament; to position; to stand up; to arrange (a dish) for serving; to serve (a dish); to dress; to arm; to mend, redress, repair; to get ready, prepare; to build, form, make; to bring about, cause; to turn; to direct, guide, steer; to use; to devote (oneself to something); to control, subdue; to teach; to bring up (a child); to send; to address; to give, offer; to go, move; to get out of bed; to advance, proceed; to approach; to deal with, treat) [and other forms],[1] from Anglo-Norman dresser, drescer, drescier [and other forms], and Middle French, Old French dresser, drecier, drescer, drescier (to erect; to lift, raise; to stand up; to direct, guide; to travel; to draw up (a document, etc.); to arrange, prepare; to correct, put right) (modern French dresser), from Late Latin *directiare, from Latin dīrēctus (arranged in lines, laid straight; direct, straight; upright; directed, steered; distributed, scattered),[2] the perfect passive participle of dīrigō (to arrange in lines, lay straight; to direct, steer; to distribute, scatter), from dis- (prefix meaning ‘apart; asunder; in two’) + regō (to direct, govern, rule; to guide, steer; to manage, oversee) (ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *h₃reǵ- (to right oneself, straighten; just; right)). Doublet of direct.

The noun is derived from the verb.[3]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

dress (third-person singular simple present dresses, present participle dressing, simple past dressed, past participle dressed or (obsolete) drest)

  1. (transitive)
    1. (also reflexive and figuratively) To put clothes (or, formerly, armour) on (oneself or someone, a doll, a mannequin, etc.); to clothe. [from 15th c.]
      Synonyms: attire, don; see also Thesaurus:clothe
      Antonyms: strip, undress; see also Thesaurus:undress
      He was dressed in the latest fashions.
      • 1606 (date written), [Francis Beaumont; John Fletcher], The VVoman Hater. [], London: [] [Robert Raworth], and are to be sold by John Hodgets [], published 1607, OCLC 80464646, Act III, scene iv:
        O rich! rich! vvhere ſhould I get clothes to dreſſe her in?
      • 1640 (date written), H[enry] M[ore], “ΨΥΧΟΖΩΙΑ [Psychozōia], or A Christiano-platonicall Display of Life, []”, in ΨΥΧΩΔΙΑ [Psychōdia] Platonica: Or A Platonicall Song of the Soul, [], Cambridge, Cambridgeshire: [] Roger Daniel, printer to the Universitie, published 1642, OCLC 1049141463, book 3, stanza 56, page 51:
        Their face with love and vigour vvas ydreſt, / VVith modeſty and joy, their tongue with juſt beheſt.
      • 1897 December (indicated as 1898), Winston Churchill, chapter II, in The Celebrity: An Episode, New York, N.Y.: The Macmillan Company; London: Macmillan & Co., Ltd., OCLC 222716698, page 15:
        Sunning himself on the board steps, I saw for the first time Mr. Farquhar Fenelon Cooke. He was dressed out in broad gaiters and bright tweeds, like an English tourist, and his face might have belonged to Dagon, idol of the Philistines.
      • 1963, Margery Allingham, “Justifiably Angry Young Men”, in The China Governess: A Mystery, London: Chatto & Windus, OCLC 483591931, page 93:
        I remember a lady coming to inspect St. Mary's Home where I was brought up and seeing us all in our lovely Elizabethan uniforms we were so proud of, and bursting into tears all over us because "it was wicked to dress us like charity children". We nearly crowned her we were so offended.
      1. (specifically) To attire (oneself or someone) for a particular (especially formal) occasion, or in a fashionable manner.
        • c. 1580, Philippe Sidnei [i.e., Philip Sidney], “[The First Booke] Chapter 6”, in Fulke Greville, Matthew Gwinne, and John Florio, editors, The Covntesse of Pembrokes Arcadia [The New Arcadia], London: [] [John Windet] for William Ponsonbie, published 1590, OCLC 801077108; republished in Albert Feuillerat, editor, The Countesse of Pembrokes Arcadia (Cambridge English Classics: The Complete Works of Sir Philip Sidney; I), Cambridge, Cambridgeshire: University Press, 1912, OCLC 318419127, page 40:
          [A]ll the men there shoulde dresse themselves like the poorest sorte of the people in Arcadia, having no banners, but bloudie shirtes hanged upon long staves, []
        • 1624, Democritus Junior [pseudonym; Robert Burton], “Artificiall Allurements of Loue, Causes and Provocations to Lust. Gestures, Cloathes, Dowre &c.”, in The Anatomy of Melancholy: [], 2nd edition, Oxford, Oxfordshire: Printed by John Lichfield and James Short, for Henry Cripps, OCLC 54573970, partition 3, section 2, member 2, subsection 3, page 376:
          [] Anthony [i.e., Mark Antony] himſelfe was quite beſotted with Cleopatra’s ſweete ſpeeches, philters, beauty, pleaſing tires: for when ſhe ſailed along the riuer Cydnus, with ſuch incredible pompe in a guilded ſhip, her ſelfe dreſſed like Venus, her maides like the Graces, her Pages like ſo many Cupids, Anthony was amazed, & rapt beyond himſelfe.
        • 1667 April 4 (date written; Gregorian calendar), Samuel Pepys; Mynors Bright, transcriber, “March 25th, 1667 (Lady day)”, in Henry B[enjamin] Wheatley, editor, The Diary of Samuel Pepys [], volume VI, London: George Bell & Sons []; Cambridge: Deighton Bell & Co., published 1895, OCLC 1016700617, page 238:
          [H]e and I [] to the King's playhouse; and by and by comes Mr. Lowther and his wife and mine, and into a box, forsooth, neither of them being dressed, which I was almost ashamed of.
        • 1696 November (first performance), [John Vanbrugh], The Relapse; or, Virtue in Danger: [], [London]: [] Samuel Briscoe [], published 1697, OCLC 792776205, Act II, scene i, page 29:
          Naw if I find 'tis a good day, I reſalve to take a turn in the Park, and ſee the Fine Women: So huddle on my Cloaths, and get dreſt by One.
        • 1711 March 13 (Gregorian calendar), Joseph Addison; Richard Steele, “FRIDAY, March 2, 1710–1711”, in The Spectator, number 2; republished in Alexander Chalmers, editor, The Spectator; a New Edition, [], volume I, New York, N.Y.: D[aniel] Appleton & Company, 1853, OCLC 191120697, page 88:
          [B]eing ill-used by the above-mentioned widow, he was very serious for a year and a half; and though, his temper being naturally jovial, he at last got over it, he grew careless of himself, and never dressed afterwards.
        • 1749, Henry Fielding, “The History Draws Nearer to a Conclusion”, in The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling, volume VI, London: A[ndrew] Millar [], OCLC 928184292, book XVIII, page 279:
          [T]he Hour appointed by Mr. Weſtern now drew ſo near, that he had barely Time left to dreſs himſelf.
        • 1760, Oliver Goldsmith, “Letter XIV. From the Same [From Lien Chi Altangi, to Fum Hoam, First President of the Ceremonial Academy at Pekin, in China].”, in The Citizen of the World: Or, Letters from a Chinese Philosopher, [] (Parsons’s Select British Classics; XXVIII), volume I, London: [] J[ohn] Parsons, [], published 1794, OCLC 644274624, page 39:
          As I was dreſſed after the faſhion of Europe, ſhe had taken me for an Engliſhman, and conſequently ſaluted me in her ordinary manner: but when the footman informed her Grace that I was the gentleman from China, ſhe inſtantly lifted herself from the couch, while her eyes ſparkled with unuſual vivacity.
    2. To design, make, provide, or select clothes (for someone).
      The fashion designer was proud to have dressed the queen for the charity event.
    3. To arrange or style (someone's hair).
      • 1610, William Camden, “Romans in Britaine”, in Philémon Holland, transl., Britain, or A Chorographicall Description of the Most Flourishing Kingdomes, England, Scotland, and Ireland, [], London: [] [Eliot’s Court Press for] Georgii Bishop & Ioannis Norton, OCLC 1166778000, page 61:
        [Domitian] after his manner, with a cheerfull countenance and grieved heart, received the newes: being inwardly pricked, to think that his later counterfet triumph of Germany, wherin certain ſlaves bought for mony were attired and their haire dreſſed as captives of that country, was had in deriſion and iuſtly skorned abroad: []
      • 1663 July 23 (date written; Gregorian calendar), Samuel Pepys; Mynors Bright, transcriber, “July 13th, 1663”, in Henry B[enjamin] Wheatley, editor, The Diary of Samuel Pepys [], volume III, London: George Bell & Sons []; Cambridge: Deighton Bell & Co., published 1893, OCLC 1016700617, page 208:
        By and by the King and Queen, who looked in this dress (a white laced waistcoat and a crimson short pettycoat, and her hair dressed à la negligence) mighty pretty; and the King rode hand in hand with her.
    4. (also figuratively) To adorn or ornament (something). [from 15th c.]
      It was time to dress the windows for Christmas again.
      1. To arrange a display of goods in, or to decorate (a shop or shop window).
      2. (nautical) To ornament (a ship) by hoisting the national colours at the peak and mastheads, and setting the jack forward; when "dressed full", the signal flags and pennants are added.
    5. To apply a dressing to or otherwise treat (a wound); (obsolete) to give (a wounded person) medical aid. [from 15th c.]
      Synonyms: bandage, put a bandage on
    6. To fit or prepare (something) for use; to render (something) suitable for an intended purpose; to get ready.
      in mining and metallurgy, to dress ores by sorting and separating them
      1. To prepare, treat, or curry (animal hide or leather).
        • 1607, Edward Topsell, “Of the Dogge”, in The Historie of Fovre-footed Beastes. [], London: [] William Iaggard, OCLC 912897215, page 143:
          The ſkinnes of Dogges are dreſſed for gloues, and cloſe Bootes, the vvhich are vſed by ſuch as haue vicerous and ſvvelling Legges or Limbes, for by them the aflicted place receiueth a double reliefe; firſt, it reſiſteth the influent humors, and ſecondly, it is not exaſperated with VVoollen.
        • 1791, James Boswell, “[1776]”, in The Life of Samuel Johnson, LL.D. [], volume II, London: Printed by Henry Baldwin, for Charles Dilly, [], OCLC 1193162412, page 35:
          Very little buſineſs appeared to be going forward in Lichfield. I found however two ſtrange manufactures for ſo inland a place, ſail-cloth and ſtreamers for ſhips; and I obſerved them making ſome ſaddle-cloths, and dreſſing ſheepſkins; but upon the whole, the buſy hand of induſtry ſeemed to be quite ſlackened.
        • 1912 January, Zane Grey, “Silver Spruce and Aspens”, in Riders of the Purple Sage [], New York, N.Y.; London: Harper & Brothers Publishers, OCLC 6868219, page 115:
          He skinned the rabbits, and gave the dogs the one they had quarreled over, and the skin of this he dressed and hung up to dry, feeling that he would like to keep it. It was a particularly rich, furry pelt with a beautiful white tail.
      2. To prepare the surface of (a material, usually lumber or stone).
      3. (historical or England, regional) To remove chaff or impurities from (flour, grain, etc.) by bolting or sifting, winnowing, and other methods.
      4. (fishing) To prepare (an artificial fly) to be attached to a fish hook.
    7. (agriculture, horticulture) To cultivate or tend to (a garden, land, plants, etc.); especially, to add fertilizer or manure to (soil); to fertilize, to manure.
    8. (butchering) To cut up (an animal or its flesh) for food; specifically (hunting), to remove the internal organs (of a game animal) shortly after it has been killed so that the carcass cools more quickly; to field dress.
    9. (cooking) To prepare (food) for cooking or eating, especially by seasoning it; specifically, to add a dressing or sauce (to food, especially a salad). [from 15th c.]
    10. (film, television, theater)
      1. To design, make, or prepare costumes (for a play or other performance); also, to present (a production) in a particular costume style.
      2. To prepare (a set) by installing the props, scenery, etc.
        • 2012, Marvin Silbersher, chapter 22, in A Fistful of Stars, [Bloomington, Ind.]: Xlibris, →ISBN, page 106:
          Mallory, all night long, single-handedly painted and dressed the set so that at eight o'clock Sunday morning when we arrived to make breakfast in the kitchen, there she was sound asleep on the davenport in the set, every prop in place.
    11. (military) To arrange (soldiers or troops) into proper formation; especially, to adjust (soldiers or troops) into straight lines and at a proper distance from each other; to align.
      to dress the ranks
    12. (Northern England, archaic) To treat (someone) in a particular manner; specifically, in an appropriate or fitting manner; (by extension, ironic) to give (someone) a deserved beating; also, to give (someone) a good scolding; to dress down.
    13. (obsolete) To break in and train (a horse or other animal) for use.
  2. (reflexive, intransitive, obsolete) To prepare (oneself); to make ready. [14th–16th c.]
    • [1470–1485 (date produced), Thomas Malory, “Capitulum xviij”, in [Le Morte Darthur], book IV (in Middle English), [London: [] by William Caxton], published 31 July 1485, OCLC 71490786, leaf 222, recto; republished as H[einrich] Oskar Sommer, editor, Le Morte Darthur [], London: David Nutt, [], 1889, OCLC 890162034, lines 19–21, page 142:
      [S]yr Gawayns ſpere brak ⸝ but ſir marhaus ſpere helde ⸝ And therwith ſyre Gawayne and his hors ruſſhed doune to the erthe ⸝ And lyghtly ſyre Gawayne roſe on his feet ⸝ and pulled out his ſwerd ⸝ and dreſſyd hym toward syr Marhaus on foote ⸝ []
      Sir Gawain's spear broke, but Sir Marhaus's [i.e., Morholt of Ireland's] spear held; and therewith Sir Gawain and his horse rushed down to the earth, and lightly Sir Gawain rose on his feet, and pulled out his sword, and dressed [prepared] himself toward Sir Marhaus on foot, []]
  3. (intransitive)
    1. To put on clothes.
      Synonym: get dressed
      Antonyms: disrobe, get undressed, strip, undress
      I rose and dressed before daybreak.    It’s very cold out. Dress warm.
      1. (specifically) To attire oneself for a particular (especially formal) occasion, or in a fashionable manner.
        They returned home early to dress for dinner.
    2. Of a thing: to attain a certain condition after undergoing some process or treatment to fit or prepare it for use.
    3. (euphemistic, chiefly in the tailoring context) To allow one's penis to fall to one side or the other within one's trousers. [from 20th c.]
      While measuring him for his trousers, the tailor asked him if he dressed to the left or the right.
    4. (slang) Ellipsis of cross-dress.
    5. (butchering) Of an animal carcass: to have a certain quantity or weight after removal of the internal organs and skin; also, to have a certain appearance after being cut up and prepared for cooking.
    6. (military, sometimes imperative as a drill command) Of soldiers or troops: to arrange into proper formation; especially, to form into straight lines and at a proper distance from each other.
      Right, dress!
      (literally, “Form a straight line, and align yourself to the right!”)
    7. (sports) Of a sportsperson: to put on the uniform and have the equipment needed to play a sport.
      Due to a left ankle sprain, the basketball player did not dress for the game against Indiana.

Conjugation[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Sranan Tongo: dresi

Translations[edit]

The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout § Translations.

Noun[edit]

dress (countable and uncountable, plural dresses)

A 19th-century illustration of a woman wearing a dress (sense 1.1).
  1. (countable)
    1. An item of clothing (usually worn by a woman or young girl) which both covers the upper part of the body and includes a skirt below the waist.
      Amy and Mary looked very pretty in their dresses.
    2. (archaic) An item of outer clothing or set of such clothes (worn by people of all sexes) which is generally decorative and appropriate for a particular occasion, profession, etc.
    3. (film, television, theater) Ellipsis of dress rehearsal
  2. (uncountable)
    1. Apparel or clothing, especially when appropriate for a particular occasion, profession, etc.
      military dress
      He came to the party in formal dress.
    2. (archaic) The act of putting on clothes, especially fashionable ones, or for a particular (especially formal) occasion.
    3. (by extension)
      1. The external covering of an animal (for example, the feathers of a bird) or an object.
        • 1871, Charles Darwin, “Birds—concluded”, in The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex. [], volume II, London: John Murray, [], OCLC 156113994, Part II (Sexual Selection), page 187:
          When the adults [i.e., birds] of both sexes have a distinct winter and summer plumage, whether or not the male differs from the female, the young resemble the adults of both sexes in their winter dress or much more rarely in their summer dress, or they resemble the females alone; or the young may have an intermediate character; or again they may differ greatly from the adults in both their seasonal plumages.
      2. The appearance of an object after it has undergone some process or treatment to fit or prepare it for use; finish.
      3. (figuratively) The external appearance of something, especially if intended to give a positive impression; garb, guise.
        • 1610 (first performance), Ben[jamin] Jonson, The Alchemist, London: [] Thomas Snodham, for Walter Burre, and are to be sold by Iohn Stepneth, [], published 1612, OCLC 1008120557; reprinted Menston, Yorkshire: The Scolar Press, 1970, OCLC 52009618, Act IV, scene i:
          Sir, although / VVe may be ſaid to vvant the guilt, and trappings, / The dreſſe of Honor; yet vve ſtriue to keepe, / The ſeedes, and the Materialls.
        • 1663, Robert Boyle, Some Considerations Touching the Style of the H[oly] Scriptures. [], London: [] Henry Herringman, [], OCLC 228723505, pages 163–164:
          [] Eloquence, the Dreſs of our Thoughts, like the Dreſs of our Bodies, differs not only in ſeveral Regions, but in ſeveral Ages.
        • 1711 May 14 (Gregorian calendar), J[ohn] G[ay], The Present State of Wit, in a Letter to a Friend in the Country, London: [s.n.], OCLC 931244916, page 14:
          He has indeed reſcued it [i.e., learning] out of the hands of Pedants and Fools, and diſcover'd the true method of making it amiable and lovely to all mankind: In the dreſs he gives it, 'tis a moſt welcome gueſt at Tea-tables and Aſſemblies, and is reliſh'd and careſſed by the Merchants on the Change; []
      4. (archaic, historical) The system of furrows on the face of a millstone.
    4. (obsolete) The act of applying a dressing to or otherwise treating a wound; also, the dressing so applied.

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Translations[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ dressen, v.”, in MED Online, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 2007.
  2. ^ dress, v.”, in OED Online Paid subscription required, Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, December 2021; “dress, v.”, in Lexico, Dictionary.com; Oxford University Press, 2019–present.
  3. ^ dress, n.”, in OED Online Paid subscription required, Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, September 2021; “dress, n.”, in Lexico, Dictionary.com; Oxford University Press, 2019–present.

Further reading[edit]


Norwegian Bokmål[edit]

Norwegian Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia no

Etymology 1[edit]

From English dress, from Middle English dressen, from Old French dresser, drescer, drecier (to erect, set up, arrange, dress), from either Medieval Latin dīrēctiō (direction, aiming, correction) or Vulgar Latin dirēctiāre, from Latin dīrectus (straight, direct, directed), from Proto-Italic *dwizrektos, perfect passive participle of dīrigō (straighten, direct), from Proto-Italic *dwizregō, from both dis- (asunder, in pieces, apart, in two), from Proto-Italic *dwis-, from Proto-Indo-European *dwís (twice, doubly, in two) + regō (I make straight, rule), from Proto-Italic *regō, from Proto-Indo-European *h₃réǵeti (to straighten; right), from *h₃reǵ- (to straighten, to right oneself, just).

Noun[edit]

dress m (definite singular dressen, indefinite plural dresser, definite plural dressene)

  1. (clothing) a suit (either formal wear, or leisure or sports wear)

Etymology 2[edit]

Verb[edit]

dress

  1. imperative of dresse

References[edit]


Norwegian Nynorsk[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From English dress (verb: kle på seg)

Noun[edit]

dress m (definite singular dressen, indefinite plural dressar, definite plural dressane)

  1. (clothing) a suit (either formal wear, or leisure or sports wear)

References[edit]