to

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English[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle English to (to), from Old English (to), from Proto-Germanic *tō, *ta (to), from Proto-Indo-European *de, *do (to). Cognate with Scots tae, to (to), North Frisian to, , tu (to), Saterland Frisian tou (to), Low German to (to), Dutch toe (to), German zu (to), West Frisian ta (to). Non-Germanic cognates include Albanian ndaj (towards), Irish do (to, for), Breton da (to, for), Welsh i (to, for), Russian до (do, to). Doublet of too.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (file)

Stressed

Unstressed

Particle[edit]

to

  1. A particle used for marking the following verb as an infinitive.
    I want to leave.
    He asked me what to do.
    I have places to go and people to see.
    To err is human.
    • 1711, Alexander Pope:
      To err is human, to forgive divine.
    • c. 1600, William Shakespeare, The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark, Act 3, Scene 1:
      To be, or not to be: that is the question: / []
    • 2010 July, Associated Press, headline [1]:
      Odds are, BP to get new CEO this year
    • 2011 April 10, Alistair Magowan, “Aston Villa 1 - 0 Newcastle”, in BBC Sport[2]:
      To that end, the home supporters were in good voice to begin with, but it was Newcastle who started the game in the ascendancy, with Barton putting a diving header over the top from Jose Enrique's cross.
  2. As above, with the verb implied.
    "Did you visit the museum?" "I wanted to, but it was closed."
    If he hasn't read it yet, he ought to.
  3. (expressing purpose) In order to.
    I went to the shops to buy some bread.
  4. A particle used to create phrasal verbs.
    I have to do laundry today.

Derived terms[edit]

Translations[edit]

Preposition[edit]

to

  1. Indicating destination: In the direction of, and arriving at.
    We are walking to the shop.
    • 2013 September 28, Kenan Malik, "London Is Special, but Not That Special," New York Times (retrieved 28 September 2013):
      Driven by a perceived political need to adopt a hard-line stance, Mr. Cameron’s coalition government has imposed myriad new restrictions, the aim of which is to reduce net migration to Britain to below 100,000.
  2. Used to indicate the target or recipient of an action.
    I gave the book to him.
    I spoke to him earlier.
    He devoted himself to education.
    They drank to his health.
  3. Used to indicate result of action.
    His face was beaten to a pulp.
  4. Used to indicate a resulting feeling or emotion.
    To everyone's great relief, the tuneless carol singers finally ceased their warbling.
  5. Used after an adjective to indicate its application.
    similar to ..., relevant to ..., pertinent to ..., I was nice to him, he was cruel to her, I am used to walking.
  6. Denotes the end of a range.
    It takes 2 to 4 weeks to process typical applications.
  7. (obsolete) As a.
    With God to friend (with God as a friend);   with The Devil to fiend (with the Devil as a foe);   lambs slaughtered to lake (lambs slaughtered as a sacrifice);   took her to wife (took her as a wife);   was sold to slave (was sold as a slave).
  8. (arithmetic) Used to indicate a ratio or comparison.
    one to one = 1:1
    ten to one = 10:1.
    I have ten dollars to your four.
    • 2012 April 22, Sam Sheringham, “Liverpool 0-1 West Brom”, in BBC Sport[3]:
      In total, the Reds had 28 shots to their opponent's nine, and 15 corners to the Baggies' three.
  9. (arithmetic) Used to indicate that the preceding term is to be raised to the power of the following value; indicates exponentiation.
    Three squared or three to the second power is nine.
    Three to the power of two is nine.
    Three to the second is nine.
  10. (time) Preceding.
    ten to ten = 9:50; We're going to leave at ten to (the hour).
  11. Used to describe what something consists of or contains.
    Anyone could do this job; there's nothing to it.
    There's a lot of sense to what he says.
    The name has a nice ring to it.
  12. (Canada, Newfoundland, West Midlands (UK)) At.
    Stay where you're to and I'll come find you, b'y.

Usage notes[edit]

In the sense of "as a", it is a fossil word (Standard English only), found usually only in set phrases like: "to take a woman to wife", "to have someone to friend", "to have something to birthright" etc.. In northern dialects, where it is rare, but still in common use, it is often used in combination with with.

Derived terms[edit]

Translations[edit]

The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout § Translations.
The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout § Translations.

See also[edit]

Adverb[edit]

to (not comparable)

  1. Toward a closed, touching or engaging position.
    Please push the door to.
  2. (nautical) Into the wind.
  3. Misspelling of too.

Synonyms[edit]

  • (toward a closed, touching or engaging position): closed, shut

Antonyms[edit]

  • (toward a closed, touching or engaging position): open, ajar

Translations[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • Andrea Tyler and Vyvyan Evans, "Spatial particles of orientation", in The Semantics of English Prepositions: Spatial Scenes, Embodied Meaning and Cognition, Cambridge University Press, 2003, 0-521-81430 8

Anagrams[edit]


Abinomn[edit]

Noun[edit]

to

  1. sago (tree)

Asturian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin tuus.

Adjective[edit]

to

  1. your

Related terms[edit]


Babine-Witsuwit'en[edit]

Noun[edit]

to

  1. water

References[edit]

  • Sharon Hargus, Wisuwit’en Grammar: Phonetics, Phonology, Morphology (2007), page 43

Babuza[edit]

Noun[edit]

to

  1. water

References[edit]

  • Naoyoshi Ogawa, English-Favorlang vocabulary (2003)
  • S. Tsuchida, A Comparative Vocabulary of Austronesian Languages of Sinicized Ethnic Groups in Taiwan, Part I: Western Taiwan, Memoirs of the Faculty of Letters, No. 7 (1982)

Bahnar[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Bahnaric *tɔʔ, from Proto-Mon-Khmer *tɔʔ. Cognates include Vietnamese đó, Khmer ដ៏ (dɑɑ).

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

to

  1. that, there

Bambara[edit]

Noun[edit]

to

  1. stiff porridge

Catalan[edit]

Etymology[edit]

First attested 1575, borrowed from Latin tonus, from Ancient Greek τόνος (tónos)[1]. Compare the doublet tro, inherited through a Vulgar Latin variant.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

to m (plural tons)

  1. (music) tone (specific pitch)
  2. (linguistics) tone (pitch of a word)
  3. tone or shade of a color

Further reading[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ “to” in Gran Diccionari de la Llengua Catalana, Grup Enciclopèdia Catalana.

Czech[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

to n

  1. it, this, that

Further reading[edit]


Dalmatian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin tuus. Compare Italian tuo, Romanian tău, Friulian to, French ton, Spanish tu.

Pronoun[edit]

to m (feminine toa)

  1. your; second-person masculine singular possessive pronoun

See also[edit]


Danish[edit]

Danish cardinal numbers
 <  1 2 3  > 
    Cardinal : to
    Ordinal : anden

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Norse tveir, from Proto-Germanic *twai, from Proto-Indo-European *dwóh₁ (two).

The modern Danish form is a merger of the original East Old Norse accusative masculine twā and the nominative/accusative feminine twāʀ (West tvær). The neuter (West tvau) is preserved in the adverb itu.

Pronunciation[edit]

Numeral[edit]

to

  1. two

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old Norse þvá (wash), from Proto-Germanic *þwahaną.

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

to (imperative to, infinitive at to, present tense tor, past tense toede, perfect tense har toet)

  1. (dated) wash

Esperanto[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

to (accusative singular to-on, plural to-oj, accusative plural to-ojn)

  1. The name of the Latin-script letter T.

See also[edit]


Ewe[edit]

Noun[edit]

to

  1. antelope
  2. (anatomy) ear
  3. father-in-law
  4. mortar
  5. mountain

Verb[edit]

to

  1. to crush
  2. to pound

Finnish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Abbreviation of torstai ("Thursday").

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˈto/, [ˈt̪o̞]
  • Rhymes: -o
  • Syllabification: to

Noun[edit]

to

  1. Thu (abbreviation of Thursday)

Friulian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin tuus.

Pronoun[edit]

to (second-person singular possessive of masculine singular, of feminine singular , of masculine plural tiei, of feminine plural tôs)

  1. (used attributively) your, thy; of yours, of thine
    che al sedi santifiât il to nom, che al vegni il to ream, — "Your kingdom come, your will be done," (third and fourth sentences of Lord's Prayer)
  2. (used predicatively) yours, thine
  3. (used substantively) yours, thine; the thing belonging to you/ thee

See also[edit]


Garifuna[edit]

Article[edit]

to

  1. feminine definite article
    Mutu toThe woman

Antonyms[edit]


Gonja[edit]

Noun[edit]

to

  1. language

References[edit]

  • Mary E. Kropp Dakubu, The Languages of Ghana

Hupa[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

to

  1. a body of water, such as a lake or ocean

References[edit]

  • The Phonology of the Hupa Language, part 1: The Individual Sounds, volume 5, by Roland Burrage Dixon, Samuel Alfred Barrett, Washington Matthews, Bill Ray (using the older orthography "tō")
  • Victor Golla, Hupa Language Dictionary Second Edition (1996), page 105 (to)

Ido[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

to

  1. (demonstrative) this (thing)

Itene[edit]

Noun[edit]

to

  1. eye

References[edit]

  • Čestmír Loukotka, ‎Johannes Wilbert (editor), Classification of South American Indian Languages (1968, Los Angeles: Latin American Studies Center, University of California), page(s) 162

Japanese[edit]

Romanization[edit]

to

  1. Rōmaji transcription of
  2. Rōmaji transcription of

Kongo[edit]

Conjunction[edit]

to

  1. or

Kwalhioqua-Tlatskanai[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

to

  1. water

References[edit]

  • Franz Boas, Pline Early Goddard, Vocabulary of an Athapascan dialect of the State of Washington, IJAL volume III, pages 39-45 (1924-1925)

Latvian[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

to

  1. that; accusative singular masculine form of tas
  2. with that; instrumental singular masculine form of tas
  3. of that; genitive plural masculine form of tas
  4. that; accusative singular feminine form of tas
  5. with that; instrumental singular feminine form of tas
  6. of that; genitive plural feminine form of tas

Lithuanian[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

to

  1. that; genitive singular masculine of tas

Louisiana Creole French[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From French tu sg (you, informal).

Pronoun[edit]

to

  1. you (singular), thou
    To té paʼlé gra. / To te pale gra.
    You spoke with an accent. (literally: "You had spoken thick.")

Lower Sorbian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

to n

  1. this

Determiner[edit]

to

  1. nominative neuter singular of ten
  2. accusative neuter singular of ten

Mauritian Creole[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From French tu

Pronoun[edit]

to (objective twa, formal ou)

  1. you (second-person singular nominative personal pronoun)

See also[edit]


Middle English[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old English , tāhe, from Proto-Germanic *taihwǭ (toe).

Noun[edit]

to (plural tos)

  1. (anatomy) toe
Alternative forms[edit]
Descendants[edit]
  • English: toe
  • Scots: tae

References[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old English , ta, te, from Proto-Germanic *tō, *ta.

Particle[edit]

to

  1. to (infinitive marker)
Alternative forms[edit]
Descendants[edit]
References[edit]

Preposition[edit]

to

  1. to
Alternative forms[edit]
Descendants[edit]
References[edit]

Adverb[edit]

to

  1. to
Alternative forms[edit]
Descendants[edit]
References[edit]

Adverb[edit]

to

  1. too
Alternative forms[edit]
  • two; ta (northern West Midlands)
Descendants[edit]
References[edit]

Conjunction[edit]

to

  1. until
  2. while
  3. so that
References[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Shortening of tone.

Pronoun[edit]

to

  1. the one (of two)
Alternative forms[edit]

Norwegian Bokmål[edit]

Norwegian Bokmål cardinal numbers
 <  1 2 3  > 
    Cardinal : to
    Ordinal : annen

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse tvá, accusative case of tveir, from Proto-Germanic *twai, from Proto-Indo-European *dwóh₁.

Pronunciation[edit]

Numeral[edit]

to

  1. two

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]


Norwegian Nynorsk[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Norse tvá, accusative case of tveir, from Proto-Germanic *twai, from Proto-Indo-European *dwóh₁.

Numeral[edit]

to

  1. two
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old Norse  n.

Noun[edit]

to n (definite singular toet, indefinite plural to, definite plural toa)

  1. fabric
  2. (figuratively, by extension) ability, nature

Etymology 3[edit]

From Old Norse  f.

Noun[edit]

to f (definite singular toa, indefinite plural tør, definite plural tørne)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

References[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Novial[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

to

  1. that (which is male)

Related terms[edit]


Old English[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *tō, *ta (to), from Proto-Indo-European *de, *do (to). Cognate with Old Saxon (to), Old High German zuo (to), Old Irish do.

Pronunciation[edit]

Preposition[edit]

  1. to, into
  2. at
  3. (grammar) used to mark the infinitive (supine) of the verb
    drīfenneto drive
  4. as
    ic wyrce īsensmiðeI work as an ironsmith
    þā nam ic hīe wīfethen I took her as a wife
    tō bōteto boot (literally: as an improvement, thus in addition)

Adverb[edit]

  1. besides
  2. in addition, also, too; moreover
  3. to an excessive degree; too

Descendants[edit]


Old Saxon[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Proto-Germanic *tō, whence also Old English and Old High German zuo

Preposition[edit]

  1. to

Descendants[edit]

  • Middle Low German: to
    • Low German: to

Polish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *to, from Proto-Indo-European *tód

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

to

  1. (demonstrative) this (nearby, neuter)

Declension[edit]

Note: tem and temi are archaic forms

Adverb[edit]

to

  1. (adverb) then (in that case)

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • to in Polish dictionaries at PWN

Selepet[edit]

Noun[edit]

to

  1. water

References[edit]

  • K. A. McElhanon, Selepet grammar (1972)
  • William A. Foley, The Papuan Languages of New Guinea (1986, →ISBN, page 257

Slovak[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *to.

Pronoun[edit]

to

  1. it
  2. that

Related terms[edit]


Slovene[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

tọ̑

  1. inflection of ta:
    1. accusative singular feminine
    2. nominative/accusative singular neuter

Tututni[edit]

Noun[edit]

to

  1. (Euchre Creek) water

References[edit]

  • Victor Golla, Tututni (Oregon Athapaskan), International Journal of American Linguistics, volume 42:3 (July 1976), pages 217-227

Vietnamese[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Compare Thai โต (dtoo), Lao ໂຕ (), ᦷᦎ (ṫo).

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

to (, , , , 𡚡, 𡚢, 𢀱, 𫰅)

  1. big, large
  2. great, considerable
  3. loud

Derived terms[edit]

Derived terms

See also[edit]


Welsh[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Brythonic *toɣ (covering).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

to m (plural toeau)

  1. roof

Derived terms[edit]

Mutation[edit]

Welsh mutation
radical soft nasal aspirate
to do nho tho
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Westrobothnian[edit]

Westrobothnian cardinal numbers
 <  1 2 3  > 
    Cardinal : to
    Ordinal : æænn
    Adverbial : tweifållt
    Multiplier : tofål
    Collective :
    Fractional : haḷv

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Norse tvá, accusative of tveir, from Proto-Germanic *twai, from Proto-Indo-European *dwóh₁.

Numeral[edit]

to (neuter tu or töuw)

  1. two
Alternative forms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old Norse (patch of grass).

Noun[edit]

to n (defninite toe)

  1. open space in the woods with shrubs or brushwood, valley in the woods

Zazaki[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Related to Persian تو(to).

Pronoun[edit]

to

  1. (informal) you (sg., acc.)