-t

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English[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle English -te (preterite ending), -t (past participle ending), from Old English -te, -de (first and third person preterite ending), -t, -d (past participle ending), from Proto-Germanic *-id- (preterite stem ending of class 1 weak verbs) and *-idaz (past participle ending of class 1 weak verbs).

In some verbs, like lose/lost, the -t-/-t was merely an alteration of earlier -d-/-d during the Middle English period. See -ed.

Suffix[edit]

-t

  1. Forms the past tense and/or past participle of some verbs (leapt, kept, dreamt, blest, etc.)
Usage notes[edit]

Some verbs have both an -ed and a -t form. The -t form has become obsolete for many verbs, e.g. toucht.

Usually for verbs with "eep" or "end" at the end (e.g. kept for keep, slept for sleep, wept for weep, bent for bend, sent for send, went for wend). More rarely, for nasals (e.g. burnt for burn, dreamt for dream).

Derived terms[edit]
Related terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Probably resulting from -s + the, or various other words beginning with th-, t-.

Suffix[edit]

-t

  1. An excrescent ending appended to words suffixed with -s.
    against, amidst, amongst, betwixt, whilst, twicet
Usage notes[edit]

As with -st, in many cases when there is a shorter synonymous word (as in among/amongst), the form with -t is considered more formal, old-fashioned, affected, and British.

Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

From Middle English -t, from Old English -t, variant of (-th) following spirant/fricative sounds, from Proto-Germanic *-þiz. More at -th.

Suffix[edit]

-t

  1. (no longer productive) Alternative form of -th
    arise + ‎-t → ‎arist
    drive + ‎-t → ‎drift
    see + ‎-t → ‎sight
    thieve + ‎-t → ‎theft
    thrive + ‎-t → ‎thrift


Etymology 4[edit]

Suffix from Middle English -ten, from Old English -ettan, from Proto-Germanic *-atjaną.

Suffix[edit]

-t

  1. Verbs formed from nouns or adjectives (compare English -ate, -ize), frequently having a causative force, or modified from an existing verb into a frequentative verb (no longer productive)
    yeet, grunt, fidget, botch, haunt (via French), elt (via Old Norse).



Albanian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

See ((of) the).

Suffix[edit]

-t

  1. Adverb suffix. -ly, -y
    afërsi +‎ -sh +‎ -t
    vazhdim +‎ -i +‎ -sh +‎ -t
  2. Nominative/definite/plural suffix.
    mal (mountain) +‎ -e (-s) +‎ -t (-the)
  3. Accusative/definite/plural suffix.
    mal (mountain) +‎ -e (-s) +‎ -t (-the)
  4. Genitive/definite/singular suffix.
    mal (mountain) +‎ -i (-of/-s) +‎ -t (-the)
  5. Genitive/definite/plural suffix.
    mal (mountain) +‎ -e (-s) +‎ -ve (-of/-s) +‎ -t (-the)
  6. Dative/definite/singular suffix.
    mal (mountain) +‎ -i (-of/-s) +‎ -t (-the)
  7. Dative/definite/plural suffix.
    mal (mountain) +‎ -e (-s) +‎ -ve (-of/-s) +‎ -t (-the)
  8. Ablative/definite/singular suffix.
    mal (mountain) +‎ -i (-out of) +‎ -t (-the)
  9. Ablative/definite/plural suffix.
    mal (mountain) +‎ -e (-s) +‎ -ve (-out of) +‎ -t (-the)

Declension[edit]

See also[edit]

  • -të, (the)
  • -a (the), e ((of)the)
  • -i (the), -u (id), i ((of) the)
  • -isht (-ly)
  • -sht (-ly)

Azerbaijani[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-t

  1. Causative suffix.

Derived terms[edit]



Chickasaw[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-t

  1. Participle-forming dependent verb suffix.
    pisat aya
    to go see
    impat ishtaya
    to begin eating
    malit kaniya
    to run away (lit. to go away running)

Danish[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-t

  1. Used to form adverbs from adjectives; -ly.
  2. Used to make neuter forms of adjectives.
  3. Used to form past participles of some verbs, like -et does.
    spis, spise, spiser, spiste, spisteat!, eat, eats, ate, eaten

Dutch[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-t

  1. forms the second and third person singular of the present tense
    redden - jij redt, hij redt
  2. forms the gij - form in both present and past tense
    breken - gij breekt - gij braakt
  3. (archaic) forms the plural form of the imperative
    staken - staakt!
  4. forms the past participle of weak verbs the root of which ends in a voiceless consonant
    bedanken - bedankt
  5. forms certain verbal nouns, mostly of strong verbs
    geven - gift

Egyptian[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Afroasiatic *-t, *-Vt (feminine suffix). See also Arabic ة().

Pronunciation[edit]

 
  • (reconstructed) IPA(key): /at/, /it/, /ut//aʔ/, /iʔ/, /uʔ//ə/, /aʔ/, /eʔ/, /øʔ/

Suffix[edit]

t
  1. Used to form feminine singular forms of nouns.
  2. (Old Egyptian, Middle Egyptian) Used to form feminine singular forms of adjectives.
  3. (Late Egyptian) An unpronounced graphical suffix occasionally added to adjectives without regard for gender.
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Afroasiatic *-i (genitive-possessive case ending) + the ancestor of the above suffix -t (feminine ending).

Pronunciation[edit]

 

Suffix[edit]

t
  1. Converts nouns and prepositions into feminine adjectives: the feminine nisba adjective ending.

Etymology 3[edit]

Suffix[edit]

t
  1. Forms adverbs from certain adjectives; -ly

Etymology 4[edit]

Suffix[edit]

t
  1. (Old Egyptian, Middle Egyptian) Forms the infinitive of anomalous verbs, weak verbs (except for fourth weak verbs with a geminated stem), and causative biliteral verbs.
  2. (Late Egyptian) Forms the pronominal state of the infinitive of transitive third-weak verbs, and occasionally also biliteral and triliteral verbs, used when a suffix pronoun is attached to the infinitive.
Alternative forms[edit]
Descendants[edit]
  • Egyptian: -j (infinitival ending)

Etymology 5[edit]

Suffix[edit]

t
  1. (Old Egyptian, Middle Egyptian) Forms the complementary infinitive of all verbs.
Usage notes[edit]

Weak verbs can alternatively take the endings -wt or -yt to form the complementary infinitive.

Etymology 6[edit]

Suffix[edit]

t
  1. Forms the subjunctive of the irregular verb jnj and the anomalous verb jwj.
Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology 7[edit]

Suffix[edit]

t
  1. (Old Egyptian, Middle Egyptian) Forms the terminative of all verbs.
Usage notes[edit]

Third-weak verbs can alternatively take the ending -yt to form the terminative, more frequently when passive than when active.

When this ending is attached to a verb ending in d or t, it is occasionally left unwritten.

Alternative forms[edit]

References[edit]

  • Loprieno, Antonio (1995) Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN
  • James P[eter] Allen (2010) Middle Egyptian: An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs, 2nd edition, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, etc. page 314–315, etc..
  • Junge, Friedrich (2005) Late Egyptian Grammar: An Introduction, second English edition, Oxford: Griffith Institute, page 65, 81
  1. ^ Loprieno, Antonio (1995) Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 57–58

Emilian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

-t (personal)

  1. (enclitic, after a vowel) Alternative form of et
  2. (enclitic, after a vowel) Alternative form of te

Related terms[edit]


Finnish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *-t, from Proto-Uralic *-t.

Suffix[edit]

-t

  1. (case suffix) Forms the nominative plural.
    kissakissat (cats)
  2. (case suffix) Forms the accusative forms of the personal pronouns and the interrogative pronoun ken.
    minut (me)
    kenet? (who(m)?)
Usage notes[edit]
  • Suffixed to the genitive singular stem. The accusative plural is identical with the nominative plural and is used for certain direct objects.
  • The personal pronouns and ken have this ending in the accusative; they are the only words that have different genitive and accusative singular forms.
nominative accusative
minä minut
sinä sinut
hän hänet
me meidät
te teidät
he heidät
kuka kenet

See also[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *-t, from Proto-Uralic *-t, probably related to second-person pronouns *tinä, *te.

Suffix[edit]

-t

  1. (personal) Forms the second person singular of verbs.
Usage notes[edit]

Suffixed to the same stem as the first person singular suffix both in the present and the past tense.

Further reading[edit]

See also[edit]


German[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-t

  1. -ed (used to form adjectives from nouns)
  2. verb suffix for the second-person plural

Derived terms[edit]



Hungarian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Pronominal adverbs from case suffixes (cf. postpositions)
case suffix who? what? this that he/she
(it)*
v. pr. c.
nom. ki mi ez az ő* / Ø
az / Ø
acc. -t / -ot /
-at / -et / -öt
kit mit ezt azt őt* / Ø
azt / Ø
c1
c2
dat. -nak / -nek kinek minek ennek annak neki neki- c
ins. -val / -vel kivel mivel ezzel/
evvel
azzal/
avval
vele (vele-) c
c-f. -ért kiért miért ezért azért érte c
tra. -vá / -vé kivé mivé ezzé azzá c
ter. -ig meddig eddig addig c
e-f. -ként (kiként) (miként) ekként akként c
e-m. -ul / -ül c
ine. -ban / -ben kiben miben ebben abban benne c
sup. -n/-on/-en/-ön kin min ezen azon rajta (rajta-) c
ade. -nál / -nél kinél minél ennél annál nála c
ill. -ba / -be kibe mibe ebbe abba bele bele- c
sub. -ra / -re kire mire erre arra rá- c
all. -hoz/-hez/-höz kihez mihez ehhez ahhoz hozzá hozzá- c
el. -ból / -ből kiből miből ebből abból belőle c
del. -ról / -ről kiről miről erről arról róla c
abl. -tól / -től kitől mitől ettől attól tőle c
*: Ő and őt refer to human beings; the forms below them might be
construed likewise. – Forms in parentheses are uncommon. All »

[end of 12th century] Of debated origin. According to the most accepted theory, it is from a possessive suffix that originated either from a *t-initial demonstrative pronoun or from the Proto-Uralic *tȣ̈ (you) personal pronoun.[1]

Suffix[edit]

-t

  1. (accusative suffix) Used to form the accusative case.
    külföldi (foreigner)Sok külföldit láttam a városban. (I saw many foreigners in the city.)
    óra (clock, watch, hour)Vettem egy órát. (I bought a watch.)
    ember (human)Sok embert láttunk. (We saw many people.)
    kettő (two)Hány könyvet vettél? ― Kettőt. (How many books did you buy? ― Two.)
Usage notes[edit]
  • (accusative suffix): It can be added to nouns, adjectives, numerals and pronouns. Whether a suffix-initial vowel (linking vowel) will be used is hard to predict and thus needs to be learned with each word. A rule of thumb, however, is that older and shorter words tend to incorporate a vowel, rather than simply use -t. Variants:
    -t is added to words ending in a vowel. Final -a changes to -á-. Final -e changes to -é-. Final -o in foreign words changes to -ó-.
    -ot is added to most back-vowel words ending in a consonant
    -at is added to some back-vowel words ending in a consonant
    -et is added to unrounded (and some rounded) front-vowel words ending in a consonant
    -öt is added to most rounded front-vowel words ending in a consonant
    • Note that this suffix is optional and is commonly omitted after possessive suffixes, especially in the singular but sometimes also in the plural (and sometimes after multiple-possession forms as well), except for the third-person singular (as it ends in a vowel so its single -t suffix creates no new syllable).
      Elviszem a kabátom(at), Elviszed a kabátod(at), Elviszi a kabátt (!), Elvisszük a kabátunk(at), Elviszitek a kabátotok(at), elviszik a kabátjuk(at).I’ll bring along my coat, you’ll bring along your coat, he/she…, we…, [plural] you…, they….

Etymology 2[edit]

  • Past-participle suffix: From Proto-Uralic *-tt. [1055]
  • Past-tense suffix: From the past-participle suffix. [end of 12th century] [1]

Suffix[edit]

-t

  1. (past-tense suffix) -ed, -t. Used to form the past tense of a verb.
    él (to live)élt (lived)
    Kínában élt 10 évig ― He lived in China for 10 years.
  2. (past-participle suffix) -ed, -t. Used to form the past participle of a verb.
    zár (to close)zárt (closed)
    Zárt ajtók mögött tanácskoztak. ― They discussed behind closed doors.
Usage notes[edit]
  • (past-participle and past-tense suffix) Harmonic variants:
    -t is added to monosyllabic verbs ending in j, l, ly, n, ny, r (fáj, szel, fon, huny, sír) and to many bisyllabic verbs ending in -ad/-ed (akad, ered)
    -tt is added to verbs ending in a vowel (sző, , , , , )
    -ott is added to back-vowel verbs
    -ett is added to unrounded front-vowel verbs
    -ött is added to rounded front-vowel verbs

Etymology 3[edit]

[1055] From Proto-Uralic *-tt.[1]

Suffix[edit]

-t

  1. (noun-forming suffix) Added to a verb to form a noun.
    lesz (to become something)t (existence, life)
    tesz (to make, do, place)t (bet)
Derived terms[edit]
  • -ta/-te (noun-forming suffix, supplemented with a fixed possessive suffix)

Etymology 4[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Suffix[edit]

-t

  1. (locative suffix, archaic) in (added to a noun or an adjective to form the locative case)
    Kaposvár (Kaposvár, Hungarian town)Kaposvárt (in Kaposvár)
    köz (gap)közt (between, among)
Usage notes[edit]

Etymology 5[edit]

[end of 12th century] From Proto-Uralic *-tt.[1]

Suffix[edit]

-t

  1. (verb-forming suffix, now improductive) The causative (kelt, teremt) or instantaneous (ért, tilt) suffix for verbs.
    Synonyms: -at/-et, -tat/-tet, -aszt/-eszt/-öszt
    terem (to come into existence)teremt (to create)
Derived terms[edit]


See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Zaicz, Gábor. Etimológiai szótár: Magyar szavak és toldalékok eredete (’Dictionary of Etymology: The origin of Hungarian words and affixes’). Budapest: Tinta Könyvkiadó, 2006, →ISBN

Lushootseed[edit]

Affix[edit]

-t-

  1. variation of transitive suffix "-d" when used before other suffixes.

Luxembourgish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle High German -ede, from Old High German -ida, from Proto-Germanic *-iþō. Cognate with rare German -de, Dutch -te, English -th.

Suffix[edit]

-t f (plural -ten)

  1. forms nouns from adjectives: -th, -ness
    déif (deep) + ‎-t → ‎Déift (depth)
    stëll (still, quiet) + ‎-t → ‎Stëllt (stillness, quietness)

Etymology 2[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-t

  1. used to form the second-person plural present and imperative of all verbs (except those with a stem in -d or -t, see usage note)
    laachen (to laugh) + ‎-t → ‎dir laacht (you [lot] laugh)
  2. used to form the third-person singular present of all regular and some irregular verbs
    laachen (to laugh) + ‎-t → ‎hie laacht (he laughs)
  3. used to form the past participle of all regular and some irregular verbs (often with the prefix ge-, see there)
    laachen (to laugh) + ‎-t → ‎gelaacht (laughed)
  4. used to form the first-person singular, third-person singular, and second-person plural past tense and past subjunctive of some irregular verbs
    mussen (must, to have to) + ‎-t → ‎ech musst (I had to)
    mussen (must, to have to) + ‎-t → ‎ech misst (I would have to)
Usage notes[edit]
  • With verb stems in -d, this letter becomes -t unless followed by a vowel and the ending is thus omitted, as it is with stems that end in -t to begin with.

Manx[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-t

  1. Alternative form of -it

Mayo[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Uto-Aztecan *-ci.

Suffix[edit]

-t (plural -chim)

  1. Diminutive suffix

Derived terms[edit]



Northern Sami[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Phonetik.svg This entry needs pronunciation information. If you are familiar with the IPA then please add some!

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Samic *-ktē.

Suffix[edit]

-t (with odd-syllable stems -it)

  1. Forms adverbs of manner from adjectives.
Usage notes[edit]

This suffix triggers the weak grade on a preceding stressed syllable. When affixed to stems ending in -i and -u, there are two possible alternative forms. In the first, the suffix added with no change, while in the second, the final vowel lowered to e and o respectively and diphthong simplification is performed on the preceding syllable.

Derived terms[edit]


Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Samic *-tē (partitive/ablative).

Suffix[edit]

-t

  1. Forms adverbs of time.
Usage notes[edit]

This suffix triggers the strong grade on a preceding stressed syllable.

Derived terms[edit]


Etymology 3[edit]

From Proto-Samic *-mpē.

Suffix[edit]

-t (with odd-syllable stems -it or -eabbo)

  1. Forms the comparative of adjectives.
Usage notes[edit]

This suffix triggers the weak grade on a preceding stressed syllable.

Inflection[edit]

This adjective needs an inflection-table template.

Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

From Proto-Samic *-ntë. Cognate with Finnish -s.

Suffix[edit]

-t

  1. Forms ordinal numbers from cardinals.
Usage notes[edit]

This suffix triggers the weak grade on a preceding stressed syllable.

Inflection[edit]
Odd, no gradation
Attributive
Nominative -t
Genitive -da
Attributive
Singular Plural
Nominative -t -dat
Accusative -da -diid
Genitive -da -diid
Illative -dii -diidda
Locative -dis -diin
Comitative -diin -diiguin
Essive -din
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 5[edit]

From Proto-Samic *-k, from Proto-Uralic *-t. Cognate with Finnish -t.

Suffix[edit]

-t

  1. The ending of the nominative plural.
Usage notes[edit]

This suffix triggers the weak grade on a preceding stressed syllable.

Etymology 6[edit]

From Proto-Samic *-tēk. Cognate with Finnish -a, -da.

Suffix[edit]

-t

  1. The ending of the infinitive.
Usage notes[edit]

This suffix triggers the strong grade on a preceding stressed syllable.


Norwegian Nynorsk[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-t

  1. Used to form adverbs from adjectives
  2. Used to make neuter forms of adjectives
  3. Used to make past participle of some weakly inflected verbs

Old Norse[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-t

  1. Alternative form of -a, used in between vowels
  2. Alternative form of -t, used following hard consonants
  3. Used to form adverbs from adjectives
  4. Used to make neuter forms of adjectives

Pipil[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-t

  1. Plural verb suffix.
    Titakwikat
    We sing
  2. Nominal absolutive suffix.
    *siwa-siwat
    *tutu-tutut

Usage notes[edit]

  • The nominal absolutive suffix -t is a truncated form of -ti used for vowel-ending stems.
  • Opposed to absolutive suffixes, construct suffixes used are -w (for vowel-ending stems), -(zero) (for consonant-ending stems) and -yu ("inalienable possession" marker)

Swedish[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-t

  1. Suffix to create the definite singular form of neuter nouns ending in an unstressed vowel: hjärta (heart)hjärtat (the heart)
  2. Suffix for creating adverbs out of adjectives: långsam (slow)långsamt (slowly)
  3. Suffix used on the positive form of adjectives to denote that the corresponding noun is of neuter gender, indefinite form: en gul bil (a yellow car)ett gult hus (a yellow house), the latter being neuter. However, the -a suffix is used for definite form independent of gender: den gula bilen (the yellow car)det gula huset (the yellow house).
  4. Suffix to form the past participle of weakly inflected verbs, to be used when the corresponding participle belongs with a neuter noun in indefinite singular form.
  5. Suffix for forming supine of verbs of the first (ar-verbs) and second (weak er-verbs) conjugations; see also -it and -tt

Turkish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Ottoman Turkish ت(-t, causative suffix), from Proto-Turkic *-t (causative suffix). Cognate with Old Turkic 𐱃(-(ï)t, causative suffix).

Suffix[edit]

-t

  1. Forms causative verbs usually from polysyllabic stems ending in a vowel or 'l' or 'r'.

Related terms[edit]

  • -ıt
  • -tur (used after monosyllabic stems and polysyllabic stems ending in a consonant other than 'l' or 'r'

See also[edit]