-ed

Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to navigation Jump to search

English[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle English -ede, -eden, from Old English -ode, -odon (class 2 weak past ending), from Proto-Germanic *-ōd-, *-ōdēdun. Cognate with Saterland Frisian -ede (-ed, first person singular past indicative ending), Swedish -ade (-ed), Icelandic -aði (-ed).

Suffix[edit]

-ed

  1. Used to form past tenses of (regular) verbs. In linguistics, it is used for the base form of any past form. See -t for a variant.
    pointed (as in He pointed at the dog.)

Translations[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Middle English -ed, from Old English -od (class 2 weak past participle), from Proto-Germanic *-ōdaz.

Suffix[edit]

-ed

  1. Used to form past participles of (regular) verbs. See -en and -t for variants.
    pointed (as in He has pointed at the dog.)

Etymology 3[edit]

From Middle English -ed, from Old English -od (adjective suffix), from Proto-Germanic *-ōdaz, from Proto-Indo-European *-eh₂tos. While identical in appearance to the past participle of class 2 weak verbs, this suffix was attached directly to nouns without any intervening verb. Compare also Latin -ātus.

Suffix[edit]

-ed

  1. Used to form adjectives from nouns, in the sense of having the object represented by the noun.
    pointed (as in A needle has a pointed end. - the end of a needle has a point.)
    horned (as in a horned antelope - an antelope possessing horns)
    hooved
    Antonym: -less
  2. As an extension of the above, when used along with an adjective preceding the noun, describes something that has an object of a particular quality.
    red-haired (having red hair)
    left-handed (having a left hand as more dexterous hand)
Derived terms[edit]


Translations[edit]

See also[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Breton[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Cognate to Cornish -es.

Suffix[edit]

-ed

  1. Suffix denoting plural of certain nouns
    kazhez (female cat) + ‎-ed → ‎kazhezed (female cats)

Derived terms[edit]



Hungarian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

-e- (linking vowel) +‎ -d (possessive suffix)

Suffix[edit]

-ed

  1. (possessive suffix) your (second-person singular, single possession)
    kert (garden)a kerted (your (singular, informal) garden)
Usage notes[edit]
  • (possessive suffix) Harmonic variants:
    -d is added to words ending in a vowel. Final -a changes to -á-. Final -e changes to -é-.
    -ad is added to some back-vowel words ending in a consonant
    -od is added to the other back-vowel words ending in a consonant
    -ed is added to unrounded (and some rounded) front-vowel words ending in a consonant
    -öd is added to most rounded front-vowel words ending in a consonant

Etymology 2[edit]

-e- (linking vowel) +‎ -d (personal suffix)

Suffix[edit]

-ed

  1. (personal suffix) Used to form the definite second-person singular present indicative of verbs.
    fest (to paint)fested (you paint [him/her/it], you are painting [him/her/it])
Usage notes[edit]
  • (personal suffix) See harmonic variants in the table below.

Etymology 3[edit]

-e- (linking vowel) +‎ -d (fraction and frequentative suffix)

Suffix[edit]

-ed

  1. (fraction suffix) Added to an cardinal number to form a fraction.
    ezer (thousand)ezred (thousandth)
  2. (frequentative suffix) Added to a stem to form a verb to indicate repetitive action. No longer productive.
    mond (to say)
Usage notes[edit]
  • (fraction suffix) Variants:
    -d is added to words ending in a vowel
    -ad is added to some back vowel words ending in a consonant
    -od is added to some other back vowel words ending in a consonant
    -ed is added to unrounded front vowel words ending in a consonant
    -öd is added to rounded front vowel words ending in a consonant
  • (frequentative suffix) Variants:
    -ad is added to back vowel words
    -ed is added to front vowel words
Derived terms[edit]


See also[edit]


Ido[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From French -ée, Italian -ata, Spanish -ada, ultimately from Latin -atus.

Suffix[edit]

-ed

  1. contents of, -ful.
    manuo (hand) + ‎-ed → ‎manuedo (handful)

Derived terms[edit]

Category Ido words suffixed with -ed not found

Middle English[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ed

  1. Alternative form of -hede

References[edit]


Old English[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ed

  1. formed into the likeness of, made into, shaped like, having the qualities of
    æppel (apple) + ‎-ed → ‎æppled (apple-shaped)

Old Irish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ed

  1. slender form of -ad

Welsh[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Brythonic *-hed, from Proto-Celtic *-isetos.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ed

  1. Forms an equative of an adjective of one or two syllables.
    gwan (weak) + ‎-ed → ‎gwanned (as weak)
    rhad (cheap) + ‎-ed → ‎rhated (as cheap)
    cynt (faster, earlier, sooner) + ‎-ed → ‎cynted (as fast, as early, as soon)
Usage notes[edit]

Causes fortition of final voiced consonant of adjectival roots.

Etymology 2[edit]

Reduced form of -fed. Cognate with Cornish -es.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ed

  1. Used to form the ordinal forms of five and six.
    pump (five) + ‎-ed → ‎pumed (fifth)
    chwech (six) + ‎-ed → ‎chweched (sixth)
    Synonyms: -edd, -fed, -ydd

Etymology 3[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ed

  1. Used to form verbal nouns.

Etymology 4[edit]

Cognate with Cornish -es.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ed

  1. Used to form nouns.
    colli (to lose) + ‎-ed → ‎colled (loss)
    sych (dry) + ‎-ed → ‎syched (thirst)
    cymuno (to take communion, to communicate) + ‎-ed → ‎cymuned (community)

Etymology 5[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ed

  1. Used to form plural nouns.
    pryf (bug, insect) + ‎-ed → ‎pryfed (bugs, insect)
    merch (girl) + ‎-ed → ‎merched (girls)
    Synonyms: -aid, -aint, -au, -edd, -en, -i, -iaid, -iau, -ion, -od, -oedd, -on, -ydd, -yr, -ys

Usage notes[edit]

-ed is only used in the above two plural forms in Modern Welsh.

Etymology 6[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ed

  1. (literary) verb suffix for the third-person singular imperative

Derived terms[edit]


References[edit]

R. J. Thomas, G. A. Bevan, P. J. Donovan, A. Hawke et al., editors (1950–present) , “-ed”, in Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru Online (in Welsh), University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh & Celtic Studies