-nen

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See also: nen

Finnish[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-nen

  1. Forms diminutives nouns or terms expressing affection.
    lapsi ‎(child) → lapsonen ‎(kid)
    pala ‎(piece) → palanen ‎(small piece)
    kulta ‎(gold) → kultanen ‎(darling)
    tuuli ‎(wind) → tuulonen ‎(gentle wind, breeze)
    Ukko ‎(the God of Thunder) → ukkonen ‎(thunder)
  2. Forms surnames of association, by now devoid of meaning. Can be translated as "of", the genitive case.
    virta ‎(river) → Virtanen ‎(River's)

Declension[edit]

Back vowel harmony declension (includes vowels a, o, u)

Inflection of -nen (Kotus type 38/nainen, no gradation)
nominative -nen -set
genitive -sen -sten
-sien
partitive -sta -sia
illative -seen -siin
singular plural
nominative -nen -set
accusative nom.? -nen -set
gen. -sen
genitive -sen -sten
-sien
partitive -sta -sia
inessive -sessa -sissa
elative -sesta -sista
illative -seen -siin
adessive -sella -silla
ablative -selta -silta
allative -selleˣ -silleˣ
essive -sena -sina
translative -seksi -siksi
instructive -sin
abessive -setta -sitta
comitative -sineen

Front vowel harmony declension (includes vowels ä, ö, y)

Inflection of -nen (Kotus type 38/nainen, no gradation)
nominative -nen -set
genitive -sen -sten
-sien
partitive -stä -siä
illative -seen -siin
singular plural
nominative -nen -set
accusative nom.? -nen -set
gen. -sen
genitive -sen -sten
-sien
partitive -stä -siä
inessive -sessä -sissä
elative -sestä -sistä
illative -seen -siin
adessive -sellä -sillä
ablative -seltä -siltä
allative -selleˣ -silleˣ
essive -senä -sinä
translative -seksi -siksi
instructive -sin
abessive -settä -sittä
comitative -sineen

Usage notes[edit]

  • Surnames ending in -nen were first recorded in Savo and Karelia in early 16th century, with -nen affixed to nicknames (Korhonen) and vernacular forms of given names (Heikkinen). In the 19th century surnames were required of all Finns, and many new names were created by adding -nen to topographic terms (Ahonen) and to words describing natural phenomena (Aaltonen).
  • 38% of Finns had a surname ending in -nen in 1985.

Derived terms[edit]


See also[edit]

References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Romanization[edit]

-nen

  1. rōmaji reading of ねん