-ja

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English[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ja

  1. (colloquial) You, ya; only used after a /d/ sound.

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]


Estonian[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Cognate with Finnish -ja.

Suffix[edit]

-ja (genitive -ja, partitive -jat)

  1. -er; appended to verbal stems to form agent nouns, especially human ones

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]


Etymology 2[edit]

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions. You can also discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.

Suffix[edit]

-ja

  1. derives various adverbs
    sala "secretly" → salaja "secretly"

Finnish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *-ja.

Suffix[edit]

-ja (front vowel harmony variant -jä)

  1. Forms agent nouns, especially human ones; -er
    katsoa (to watch)katsoja (a watcher, spectator)
    tehdä (to do)tekijä (a doer; a writer, author, playwright; a factor)

Usage notes[edit]

  • If the stem ends in -e-, this changes to -i- before adding -ja.
juosta; juokse- -> juoksija
näytellä; näyttele- -> näyttelijä
  • After /i/, the /j/ may be silent or almost silent.

Declension[edit]

The original verb affects the declension type of the derivation.

If the -ja ending is preceded by -i-, it is declined as kulkija.

Inflection of -ja (Kotus type 12/kulkija, no gradation)
nominative -ja -jat
genitive -jan -joiden
-joitten
partitive -jaa -joita
illative -jaan -joihin
singular plural
nominative -ja -jat
accusative nom. -ja -jat
gen. -jan
genitive -jan -joiden
-joitten
-jainrare
partitive -jaa -joita
inessive -jassa -joissa
elative -jasta -joista
illative -jaan -joihin
adessive -jalla -joilla
ablative -jalta -joilta
allative -jalle -joille
essive -jana -joina
translative -jaksi -joiksi
instructive -join
abessive -jatta -joitta
comitative -joineen

Otherwise, it is declined as koira.

Inflection of -ja (Kotus type 10/koira, no gradation)
nominative -ja -jat
genitive -jan -jien
partitive -jaa -jia
illative -jaan -jiin
singular plural
nominative -ja -jat
accusative nom. -ja -jat
gen. -jan
genitive -jan -jien
-jainrare
partitive -jaa -jia
inessive -jassa -jissa
elative -jasta -jista
illative -jaan -jiin
adessive -jalla -jilla
ablative -jalta -jilta
allative -jalle -jille
essive -jana -jina
translative -jaksi -jiksi
instructive -jin
abessive -jatta -jitta
comitative -jineen

See also[edit]


Gothic[edit]

Romanization[edit]

-ja

  1. Romanization of -𐌾𐌰

Hungarian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ja

  1. (possessive suffix) his, her, its (third-person singular, single possession)
    barát (friend)a barátja (his/her/its friend)
    kapu (gate)a kapuja (his/her/its gate)
    palota (palace)a palotája (his/her/its palace)

Declension[edit]

Inflection (stem in long/high vowel, back harmony)
singular plural
nominative -ja
accusative -ját
dative -jának
instrumental -jával
causal-final -jáért
translative -jává
terminative -jáig
essive-formal -jaként
essive-modal -jául
inessive -jában
superessive -ján
adessive -jánál
illative -jába
sublative -jára
allative -jához
elative -jából
delative -járól
ablative -jától

Usage notes[edit]

  • (possessive suffix) Variants:
    -a is added to back vowel words ending in a consonant
    -e is added to front vowel words ending in a consonant
    -ja is added to back vowel words ending in a consonant or a vowel. Final -a changes to -á-.
    -je is added to front vowel words ending in a consonant or a vowel. Final -e changes to -é-.

Suffix[edit]

-ja

  1. (personal suffix) Used to form the third-person singular present tense of verbs (both in indicative and subjunctive mood, definite conjugation).
    tud (to know)Tudja, hogy mit akar. - He/she knows what he/she wants.
    tartalmaz (to contain)tartalmazza (it contains)

Usage notes[edit]

  • (personal suffix) The j assimilates to the final s, sz, z, dz. See harmonic variants in the tables below.

See also[edit]


Serbo-Croatian[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ja (Cyrillic spelling -ја)

  1. Suffix appended to words to create a masculine noun, usually denoting a profession, performer or a feature, usually negative.

See also[edit]