-ja

Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to navigation Jump to search

English[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ja

  1. (colloquial, used only after a /d/ sound) You, ya.

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Emilian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

-ja (personal, nominative case)

  1. (enclitic) Alternative form of a

Related terms[edit]


Estonian[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Cognate with Finnish -ja.

Suffix[edit]

-ja (genitive -ja, partitive -jat)

  1. -er; appended to verbal stems to form agent nouns, especially human ones
Declension[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Suffix[edit]

-ja

  1. derives various adverbs
    sala "secretly" → salaja "secretly"

Finnish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *-ja, from Proto-Uralic *-ja.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ja (front vowel harmony variant -jä)

  1. Forms agent nouns, especially human ones; -er
    katsoa (to watch)katsoja (a watcher, spectator)
    tehdä (to do)tekijä (a doer; a writer, author, playwright; a factor)
    syyttää (to blame)syyttäjä (prosecutor)

Usage notes[edit]

  • If the stem ends in -e-, this changes to -i- before adding -ja.
juosta; juokse- → juoksija
näytellä; näyttele- → näyttelijä

Declension[edit]

The original verb affects the declension type of the derivation.

If the -ja ending is preceded by -i-, it is declined as kulkija (verbs of voida type are an exception, however).

Inflection of -ja (Kotus type 12/kulkija, no gradation)
nominative -ja -jat
genitive -jan -joiden
-joitten
partitive -jaa -joita
illative -jaan -joihin
singular plural
nominative -ja -jat
accusative nom. -ja -jat
gen. -jan
genitive -jan -joiden
-joitten
-jainrare
partitive -jaa -joita
inessive -jassa -joissa
elative -jasta -joista
illative -jaan -joihin
adessive -jalla -joilla
ablative -jalta -joilta
allative -jalle -joille
essive -jana -joina
translative -jaksi -joiksi
instructive -join
abessive -jatta -joitta
comitative -joineen
Possessive forms of -ja (type kulkija)
possessor singular plural
1st person -jani -jamme
2nd person -jasi -janne
3rd person -jansa

Otherwise, it is declined as koira.

Inflection of -ja (Kotus type 10/koira, no gradation)
nominative -ja -jat
genitive -jan -jien
partitive -jaa -jia
illative -jaan -jiin
singular plural
nominative -ja -jat
accusative nom. -ja -jat
gen. -jan
genitive -jan -jien
-jainrare
partitive -jaa -jia
inessive -jassa -jissa
elative -jasta -jista
illative -jaan -jiin
adessive -jalla -jilla
ablative -jalta -jilta
allative -jalle -jille
essive -jana -jina
translative -jaksi -jiksi
instructive -jin
abessive -jatta -jitta
comitative -jineen
Possessive forms of -ja (type koira)
possessor singular plural
1st person -jani -jamme
2nd person -jasi -janne
3rd person -jansa

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]


Garo[edit]

Affix[edit]

-ja

  1. Used on a verb before the case marker to indicate negation.

Gothic[edit]

Romanization[edit]

-ja

  1. Romanization of -𐌾𐌰

Hungarian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ja

  1. Possessive (and genitive) suffix: [from 1055]
    1. (with no possessor or with the 3rd-person pronoun as possessor, usually preceded by a definite article) his, her, its ……
      ház (ház)(a) háza, az ő háza (his/her/its house)
      élet (life)(az) élete, az ő élete (his/her/its life)
      barát (friend)(a) barátja (his/her/its friend)
      kapu (gate)(a) kapuja (his/her/its gate)
      palota (palace)(a) palotája (his/her/its palace)
      kert (garden)(a) kertje (his/her/its garden)
      betű (letter)(a) betűje (his/her/its letter)
      vese (kidney)(a) veséje (his/her/its kidney)
    2. (with a singular possessor) ……-'s, of …… (third-person singular, single possession)
      ház (house)Anna háza (Anna’s house)
      ház (house)a felkelő nap háza (the house of the rising sun)
      élet (life)Anna élete (Anna’s life)
      élet (life)a város élete (the life of the city)
      palota (palace)a király palotája (the king’s palace)
      kapu (gate)a ház kapuja (the gate of the house)
      kert (garden)Anna kertje (Anna’s garden)
      kert (garden)a tulipánok kertje (the garden of [the] tulips)
    3. (with a plural possessor) ……-s’, of ……-s (third-person plural, single possession)
      ház (house)a szüleim háza (my parents’ house)
      ház (house)a trópusi növények háza ([the] house of [the] tropical plants, literally the tropical plants’ house)
      élet (life)a szüleim élete (my parents’ lives, literally my parents’ life)
      élet (life)a könyvek élete ([the] lives of [the] books, literally the books’ life)
      palota (palace)az uralkodók palotája (the rulers’ palace)
      kert (garden)a szüleim kertje (my parents’ garden)
      kert (garden)Az elágazó ösvények kertje (The Garden of Forking Paths)
    4. (with time expressions, referring to a point in time) …… ago
      Egy évszázada ment el.S/he left one century ago.
      Két éve ment el.S/he left two years ago.
      Egy órája ment el.S/he left one hour ago.
      Sok/hosszú ideje ment el.S/he left a long time ago
      Synonym: -val/-vel ezelőtt (e.g. két évvel ezelőtt)
    5. (with time expressions, referring to a duration of time preceding the point of time in question) for ……
      Egy évszázada várunk rád.We have been waiting for you for a century.
      Két éve várunk rád.We have been waiting for you for two years.
      Egy órája várunk rád.We have been waiting for you for an hour.
      Sok/hosszú ideje várunk rád.We have been waiting for you for a long time.
    6. (mostly with quantities, often following -ik) of ……, out of …… (partitive sense)
      Synonym: (only with countable quantities) közül
      jó (jav-) (the greater/better part)a java még hátravan (the best/bulk is yet to come, literally its best/bulk is…)
      legnagyobbik (the biggest one)a bikák legnagyobbika (the biggest [one] of the bulls, synonymous with a legnagyobb bika)

Usage notes[edit]

  • (possessive suffix) Variants:
    -a is added to back-vowel words ending in a consonant
    -e is added to front-vowel words ending in a consonant
    -ja is added to back-vowel words ending in a consonant or a vowel. Final -a changes to -á-; final -o changes to -ó-.
    -je is added to front-vowel words ending in a consonant or a vowel. Final -e changes to -é-; final changes to -ő-.
    • This suffix (in all forms) is normally used for the third-person singular possessive (single possession) but, after an explicit plural possessor, it also expresses the third-person plural possessive (single possession), e.g. “the children's ball” (a gyerekek labdája). If the possessor is implicit (not named, only marked by a suffix), the plural possessive suffix must be used, e.g. “their ball” (a labdájuk, see -juk and its variants).

Declension[edit]

Inflection (stem in long/high vowel, back harmony)
singular plural
nominative -ja
accusative -ját
dative -jának
instrumental -jával
causal-final -jáért
translative -jává
terminative -jáig
essive-formal -jaként
essive-modal -jául
inessive -jában
superessive -ján
adessive -jánál
illative -jába
sublative -jára
allative -jához
elative -jából
delative -járól
ablative -jától
non-attributive
possessive - singular
-jáé
non-attributive
possessive - plural
-jáéi

Suffix[edit]

-ja

  1. (personal suffix) Used to form the definite third-person singular present tense of back-vowel verbs (both in indicative and subjunctive mood).
    tud (to know)Tudja, hogy mit akar. (“He/she knows what he/she wants”; literally, “He/she knows that which he/she wants.”)
    tartalmaz (to contain)tartalmazza (it contains [that])

Usage notes[edit]

  • (personal suffix) The j assimilates to the final s, sz, z, dz. See harmonic variants in the tables below.

See also[edit]


Maltese[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

See the lemma.

Suffix[edit]

-ja

  1. Alternative form of -a (feminine, plural, or singulative ending), used with stems ending in -i, -j.

Etymology 2[edit]

From Arabic يَ(ya), alternative form of ي().

Suffix[edit]

-ja

  1. Alternative form of -i (1st-person singular non-verbal pronominal suffix), used with stems ending in vowels or diphthongs.

Murui Huitoto[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ja

  1. Alternative form of -a

References[edit]

  • Katarzyna Izabela Wojtylak (2017) A grammar of Murui (Bue): a Witotoan language of Northwest Amazonia.[1], Townsville: James Cook University press (PhD thesis), page 134

Serbo-Croatian[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ja (Cyrillic spelling -ја)

  1. Suffix appended to words to create a masculine noun, usually denoting a profession, performer or a feature, usually negative.

See also[edit]