-ja

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English[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ja

  1. (colloquial) You, ya; only used after a /d/ sound.

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Emilian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

-ja (personal, nominative case)

  1. (enclitic) Alternative form of a

Related terms[edit]


Estonian[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Cognate with Finnish -ja.

Suffix[edit]

-ja (genitive -ja, partitive -jat)

  1. -er; appended to verbal stems to form agent nouns, especially human ones

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]


Etymology 2[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Suffix[edit]

-ja

  1. derives various adverbs
    sala "secretly" → salaja "secretly"

Finnish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *-ja.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ja (front vowel harmony variant -jä)

  1. Forms agent nouns, especially human ones; -er
    katsoa (to watch)katsoja (a watcher, spectator)
    tehdä (to do)tekijä (a doer; a writer, author, playwright; a factor)
    syyttää (to blame)syyttäjä (prosecutor)

Usage notes[edit]

  • If the stem ends in -e-, this changes to -i- before adding -ja.
juosta; juokse- -> juoksija
näytellä; näyttele- -> näyttelijä

Declension[edit]

The original verb affects the declension type of the derivation.

If the -ja ending is preceded by -i-, it is declined as kulkija.

Inflection of -ja (Kotus type 12/kulkija, no gradation)
nominative -ja -jat
genitive -jan -joiden
-joitten
partitive -jaa -joita
illative -jaan -joihin
singular plural
nominative -ja -jat
accusative nom. -ja -jat
gen. -jan
genitive -jan -joiden
-joitten
-jainrare
partitive -jaa -joita
inessive -jassa -joissa
elative -jasta -joista
illative -jaan -joihin
adessive -jalla -joilla
ablative -jalta -joilta
allative -jalle -joille
essive -jana -joina
translative -jaksi -joiksi
instructive -join
abessive -jatta -joitta
comitative -joineen
Possessive forms of -ja (type kulkija)
possessor singular plural
1st person -jani -jamme
2nd person -jasi -janne
3rd person -jansa

Otherwise, it is declined as koira.

Inflection of -ja (Kotus type 10/koira, no gradation)
nominative -ja -jat
genitive -jan -jien
partitive -jaa -jia
illative -jaan -jiin
singular plural
nominative -ja -jat
accusative nom. -ja -jat
gen. -jan
genitive -jan -jien
-jainrare
partitive -jaa -jia
inessive -jassa -jissa
elative -jasta -jista
illative -jaan -jiin
adessive -jalla -jilla
ablative -jalta -jilta
allative -jalle -jille
essive -jana -jina
translative -jaksi -jiksi
instructive -jin
abessive -jatta -jitta
comitative -jineen
Possessive forms of -ja (type koira)
possessor singular plural
1st person -jani -jamme
2nd person -jasi -janne
3rd person -jansa

Derived terms[edit]


See also[edit]


Gothic[edit]

Romanization[edit]

-ja

  1. Romanization of -𐌾𐌰

Hungarian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ja

  1. (possessive suffix) his, her, its, -'s, of (third-person singular, single possession)
    barát (friend)a barátja (his/her/its friend)
    kapu (gate)a kapuja (his/her/its gate)
    palota (palace)a palotája (his/her/its palace)
    palota (“palace”) → a király palotája (“the king’s palace”)
    kapu (“gate”) → a ház kapuja (“the gate of the house”)
  2. (possessive suffix, after a plural possessor) -s', of-s (third-person plural, single possession)
    palota (“palace”) → az uralkodók palotája (“the rulers’ palace”)
  3. (with time expressions, referring to a point in time) ago
    Egy órája ment el.S/he left one hour ago.
    Synonym: -val/-vel ezelőtt (e.g. egy órával ezelőtt)
  4. (with time expressions, referring to a duration of time preceding the point of time in question) for
    Egy órája várunk rád.We have been waiting for you for an hour.

Usage notes[edit]

  • (possessive suffix) Variants:
    -a is added to back-vowel words ending in a consonant
    -e is added to front-vowel words ending in a consonant
    -ja is added to back-vowel words ending in a consonant or a vowel. Final -a changes to -á-; final -o changes to -ó-.
    -je is added to front-vowel words ending in a consonant or a vowel. Final -e changes to -é-; final changes to -ő-.
    • This suffix (in all forms) is normally used for the third-person singular possessive (single possession) but, after an explicit plural possessor, it also expresses the third-person plural possessive (single possession), e.g. “the children's ball” (a gyerekek labdája). If the possessor is implicit (not named, only marked by a suffix), the plural possessive suffix must be used, e.g. “their ball” (a labdájuk, see -juk and its variants).

Declension[edit]

Inflection (stem in long/high vowel, back harmony)
singular plural
nominative -ja
accusative -ját
dative -jának
instrumental -jával
causal-final -jáért
translative -jává
terminative -jáig
essive-formal -jaként
essive-modal -jául
inessive -jában
superessive -ján
adessive -jánál
illative -jába
sublative -jára
allative -jához
elative -jából
delative -járól
ablative -jától
non-attributive
possessive - singular
-jáé
non-attributive
possessive - plural
-jáéi

Suffix[edit]

-ja

  1. (personal suffix) Used to form the definite third-person singular present tense of back-vowel verbs (both in indicative and subjunctive mood).
    tud (to know)Tudja, hogy mit akar. (“He/she knows what he/she wants”; literally, “He/she knows that which he/she wants.”)
    tartalmaz (to contain)tartalmazza (it contains [that])

Usage notes[edit]

  • (personal suffix) The j assimilates to the final s, sz, z, dz. See harmonic variants in the tables below.

See also[edit]


Maltese[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

See the lemma.

Suffix[edit]

-ja

  1. Alternative form of -a (feminine, plural, or singulative ending), used with stems ending in -i, -j.

Etymology 2[edit]

From Arabic يَ(ya), alternative form of ي().

Suffix[edit]

-ja

  1. Alternative form of -i (1st-person singular non-verbal pronominal suffix), used with stems ending in vowels or diphthongs.

Serbo-Croatian[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ja (Cyrillic spelling -ја)

  1. Suffix appended to words to create a masculine noun, usually denoting a profession, performer or a feature, usually negative.

See also[edit]