-li

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Alemannic German[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-li

  1. forms diminutives of nouns and adjectives

Derived terms[edit]



Chickasaw[edit]

Person Marker Suffix[edit]

-li (class I first-person singular subject marker)

  1. the subject of an active transitive verb
    I
  2. the subject of an active intransitive verb
    I

Verb Suffix[edit]

-li (transitive-forming verb suffix)

  1. forms or indicates an active transitive verb



Choctaw[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-li (verb-forming suffix)

  1. forms or indicates an active transitive verb

Etymology 2[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-li (class I first-person singular)

  1. the subject of an active transitive verb
    I
  2. the subject of an active intransitive verb
    I

Inflection[edit]


Eastern Huasteca Nahuatl[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Cognate to Classical Nahuatl -lin

Suffix[edit]

-li

  1. a suffix that makes nouns.

Etymology 2[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-li

  1. Alternative spelling of -lli.

Greenlandic[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-li (v-v?, additive?)

  1. (intransitive, with stative verbs) [verb] more
  2. (transitive, with stative verbs) cause to [verb] more

Usage notes[edit]

Fusions with three verbs in the following manner:

angivoq (be large)allivoq (become larger), allivaa (make larger, enlarge)
mikivoq (be small)millivoq (become smaller, shrink), millivaa (make smaller)
takivoq (be long)tallivoq (become longer), tallivaa (make longer)

Derived terms[edit]


Enclitic[edit]

-li

  1. but

Further reading[edit]


Igbo[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • -ri (Owerri, Umuahia)

Etymology[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-li

  1. Used to form simple past tenses of verbs.
    melili (as in Roger Federer melili Yoshihito Nishioka na US Open.)

Italian[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

-li

  1. enclitic form of li; appended to present active infinitive verb forms to accusative dative forms when the object is third plural masculine person
    dare (to give)darli (to give them)
    vendere (to sell)venderli (to sell them)
    servire (to serve)servirli (to serve them)

Usage notes[edit]

The final -e of the original infinitive is removed :

-are-arli
-ere-erli
-ire-irli

Where the verb ends in -rre, the final re is removed, leaving behind just an -r:

introdurre (to introduce)introdurli (to introduce them)

In any case, after the suffixation, there is only a single r and no vowels immediately before -li.


Latin[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-lī

  1. nominative masculine plural of -lus
  2. genitive masculine singular of -lus
  3. genitive neuter singular of -lus
  4. vocative masculine plural of -lus

Lower Sorbian[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation[edit]

Particle[edit]

-li

  1. used after a verb form to introduce a polar question
    Spiš-li?Are you sleeping?
    Sy-li Bóžy syn?Are you the Son of God?
    Wiźiš-li to?Do you see that?

Conjunction[edit]

-li

  1. if
    Coš-li, ga móžoš.If you want, then you may.
    Jo-li tam, ga jo derje.If he’s there, then it’s all right.
    Zmejoš-li pjeńeze, dosć změjoš pśijaśelow.If you have money, you’ll have plenty of friends.
    Maš-li to na mysli, ga cyń.If you’re thinking of it, do it.

Synonyms[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • -li in Manfred Starosta (1999): Dolnoserbsko-nimski słownik / Niedersorbisch-deutsches Wörterbuch. Bautzen: Domowina-Verlag.

Middle English[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-li

  1. Alternative form of -ly (adjectival suffix)

Etymology 2[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-li

  1. Alternative form of -ly (adverbial suffix)

Pennsylvania German[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-li

  1. (diminutive) -ling, -let

Derived terms[edit]


Pitjantjatjara[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

-li (first person dual nominative, bound form of ngali)

  1. we two

Usage notes[edit]

Bound pronouns can be used instead of the regular "long form" pronouns. They act as clitics that attach to the last word of the first noun phrase in the sentence, or the conjunctions ka or munu if present.

Related terms[edit]

Pitjantjatjara personal pronouns (nominative case)
Singular Dual Plural
First person ngayulu (I)
Bound form: -ṉa
ngali (we two)
Bound form: -li
nganaṉa (we, more than two)
Bound form: -la
Second person nyuntu (you)
Bound form: -n
nyupali (you two) nyura (you, more than two)
Third person paluṟu (he/she/it) pula (they two) tjana (they, more than two)
Bound form: -ya

Polish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Particle[edit]

-li

  1. (dated) interrogative particle: introduces a yes-no question
  2. (dated) emphatic particle

Synonyms[edit]


Turkish[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Ottoman Turkish ـلو‎, ـلی‎.

Suffix[edit]

-li

  1. with, containing; forms adjectives from nouns. This usage is treated as a "case suffix" and is separated from proper nouns by an apostrophe.
    kafein (caffeine) + ‎-li → ‎kafeinli (caffeinated, containing caffeine)
    Antonym: -siz
  2. of, from; of a nation or place. This usage is treated as a "word-forming suffix" and is not separated from proper nouns by an apostrophe. The demonym formed this way functions equally as an adjective and as a noun. It is commonly encountered in surnames derived from the names of towns and cities.
    İstanbul (Istanbul) + ‎-li → ‎İstanbullu ([a person] from Istanbul)
    Tokat (a city in northern Anatolia) + ‎-li → ‎Tokatlı ([a person] from Tokat)

Derived terms[edit]



Uzbek[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-li

  1. used to form descriptive adjectives from nouns

Wutunhua[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Mandarin (“inside”).

Suffix[edit]

-li

  1. Marks the locative case:
    1. in, at (location of an action)
      ggaiggan lhokang-li huaiqa kan-di-li.
      The teacher is reading a book in the classroom.
      (Quoted in Sandman, p. 52)
    2. to (direction of an action; optional for place names)
      ngu rongbo-li qhi-zhe.
      I am going to Longwu.
      (Quoted in Sandman, p. 52)

Etymology 2[edit]

Janhunen et al. speculates that this is from Mandarin (“to come”).

Suffix[edit]

-li

  1. An evidential suffix, marking that the subject has personally experienced the event/situation but that they were not personally responsible for instigating the event/situation, or did not have full control over the experience.

References[edit]

  • Juha Janhunen, Marja Peltomaa, Erika Sandman, Xiawu Dongzhou (2008) Wutun (LINCOM's Descriptive Grammar Series), volume 466, LINCOM Europa, →ISBN
  • Erika Sandman (2016) A Grammar of Wutun[1], University of Helsinki (PhD), →ISBN