-la

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Azerbaijani[edit]

Other scripts
Cyrillic -ла
Abjad -لا

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

preceding vowel
A / I / O / U E / Ə / İ / Ö / Ü
-la -lə

-la

  1. Form of -lə after the vowels A / I / O / U.

Derived terms[edit]

See -lə.

Basque[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • -ela (in certain environments, see usage notes)

Conjunction[edit]

-la

  1. that
    Erantzuna dakizula uste dut.I think that you know the answer.
  2. while, as
    Menditik nenbilela istripu bat izan nuen.I had an accident while hiking on the mountains.
Usage notes[edit]

The form taken by this clitic depends on the ending of the verbal form to which it is attached.

  • In verb forms ending with -ke, the result is -keela. Forms like naitekela are nonstandard but widespread.
    naiteke (I can) + ‎-la → ‎naitekeela (that I can).
  • In verb forms ending with -n (excluding second-person singular informal feminine forms, see below), the -n is removed.
    nintzen (I was) + ‎-la → ‎nintzela (that I was).
  • In verb forms ending with -t, the result is -dala.
    dakit (I know it) + ‎-la → ‎dakidala (that I know it).
  • In second-person singular informal forms, the endings in -k or -n become -ala and -nala respectively.
    duk (you (masculine) have it) + ‎-la → ‎duala (that you (masculine) have it).
    dun (you (feminine) have it) + ‎-la → ‎dunala (that you (feminine) have it).
  • In verb forms ending in -u where the ending is not related to the -gu, -zu person markers, the result is -uela.
    ditu (he has them) + ‎-la → ‎dituela (that he has them).
  • In auxiliary forms ending in -a the ending becomes -ela.
    dira (they are) + ‎-la → ‎direla (that they are).
  • All other forms ending in a vowel take the suffix -la and those ending in -z the variant -ela.
    naiz (I am) + ‎-la → ‎naizela (that I am).
    zarete (you are) + ‎-la → ‎zaretela (that you are).
    dakartza (he carries them) + ‎-la → ‎dakartzala (that he carries them).
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Unknown, perhaps related to the allative suffix -ra.[1]

Suffix[edit]

-la

  1. Used to form adverbs from interrogative and demonstrative pronouns/determiners.
    nor (who?) + ‎-la → ‎nola (how?)
Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ -la” in Etymological Dictionary of Basque by R. L. Trask, sussex.ac.uk

Estonian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *-la. Cognate with Finnish -la.

Suffix[edit]

-la (genitive -la, partitive -lat)

  1. Forms nouns that signify a place.
    haige (sick) + ‎-la → ‎haigla (hospital)
    kana (chicken) + ‎-la → ‎kanala (chicken coop)

Inflection[edit]

Declension of -la (ÕS type 1/ohutu, no gradation)
singular plural
nominative -la -lad
accusative nom.
gen. -la
genitive -late
partitive -lat -laid
illative -lasse -latesse
-laisse
inessive -las -lates
-lais
elative -last -latest
-laist
allative -lale -latele
-laile
adessive -lal -latel
-lail
ablative -lalt -latelt
-lailt
translative -laks -lateks
-laiks
terminative -lani -lateni
essive -lana -latena
abessive -lata -lateta
comitative -laga -latega

Derived terms[edit]

Finnish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *-la, from Proto-Finno-Ugric [Term?]. Cognate with Estonian -la.

Suffix[edit]

-la (front vowel harmony variant -lä, linguistic notation -lA)

  1. Forms nouns that signify a place, such as an abode, a house, a land of, etc. Often denotes a farm in many place names.
    Kaleva + ‎-la → ‎Kalevala (the land of Kaleva)
    kana (hen) + ‎-la → ‎kanala (henhouse)
    ravinto (nourishment) + ‎-la → ‎ravintola (restaurant)
    Jussi + ‎-la → ‎Jussila (the farm of Jussi)
  2. Forms some nouns or adjectives, originally with a diminutive meaning.

Usage notes[edit]

  • About 12% of Finns have a surname ending in -la/-lä, transferred from names of farms and small villages (oikonyms, talonnimi).

Declension[edit]

Inflection of -la (Kotus type 12/kulkija, no gradation)
nominative -la -lat
genitive -lan -loiden
-loitten
partitive -laa -loita
illative -laan -loihin
singular plural
nominative -la -lat
accusative nom. -la -lat
gen. -lan
genitive -lan -loiden
-loitten
-lainrare
partitive -laa -loita
inessive -lassa -loissa
elative -lasta -loista
illative -laan -loihin
adessive -lalla -loilla
ablative -lalta -loilta
allative -lalle -loille
essive -lana -loina
translative -laksi -loiksi
abessive -latta -loitta
instructive -loin
comitative See the possessive forms below.
Possessive forms of -la (Kotus type 12/kulkija, no gradation)
first-person singular possessor
singular plural
nominative -lani -lani
accusative nom. -lani -lani
gen. -lani
genitive -lani -loideni
-loitteni
-lainirare
partitive -laani -loitani
inessive -lassani -loissani
elative -lastani -loistani
illative -laani -loihini
adessive -lallani -loillani
ablative -laltani -loiltani
allative -lalleni -loilleni
essive -lanani -loinani
translative -lakseni -loikseni
abessive -lattani -loittani
instructive
comitative -loineni
second-person singular possessor
singular plural
nominative -lasi -lasi
accusative nom. -lasi -lasi
gen. -lasi
genitive -lasi -loidesi
-loittesi
-laisirare
partitive -laasi -loitasi
inessive -lassasi -loissasi
elative -lastasi -loistasi
illative -laasi -loihisi
adessive -lallasi -loillasi
ablative -laltasi -loiltasi
allative -lallesi -loillesi
essive -lanasi -loinasi
translative -laksesi -loiksesi
abessive -lattasi -loittasi
instructive
comitative -loinesi
first-person plural possessor
singular plural
nominative -lamme -lamme
accusative nom. -lamme -lamme
gen. -lamme
genitive -lamme -loidemme
-loittemme
-laimmerare
partitive -laamme -loitamme
inessive -lassamme -loissamme
elative -lastamme -loistamme
illative -laamme -loihimme
adessive -lallamme -loillamme
ablative -laltamme -loiltamme
allative -lallemme -loillemme
essive -lanamme -loinamme
translative -laksemme -loiksemme
abessive -lattamme -loittamme
instructive
comitative -loinemme
second-person plural possessor
singular plural
nominative -lanne -lanne
accusative nom. -lanne -lanne
gen. -lanne
genitive -lanne -loidenne
-loittenne
-lainnerare
partitive -laanne -loitanne
inessive -lassanne -loissanne
elative -lastanne -loistanne
illative -laanne -loihinne
adessive -lallanne -loillanne
ablative -laltanne -loiltanne
allative -lallenne -loillenne
essive -lananne -loinanne
translative -laksenne -loiksenne
abessive -lattanne -loittanne
instructive
comitative -loinenne
third-person possessor
singular plural
nominative -lansa -lansa
accusative nom. -lansa -lansa
gen. -lansa
genitive -lansa -loidensa
-loittensa
-lainsarare
partitive -laansa -loitaan
-loitansa
inessive -lassaan
-lassansa
-loissaan
-loissansa
elative -lastaan
-lastansa
-loistaan
-loistansa
illative -laansa -loihinsa
adessive -lallaan
-lallansa
-loillaan
-loillansa
ablative -laltaan
-laltansa
-loiltaan
-loiltansa
allative -lalleen
-lallensa
-loilleen
-loillensa
essive -lanaan
-lanansa
-loinaan
-loinansa
translative -lakseen
-laksensa
-loikseen
-loiksensa
abessive -lattaan
-lattansa
-loittaan
-loittansa
instructive
comitative -loineen
-loinensa

Derived terms[edit]

Ingrian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *-la. Cognates include Finnish -la and Estonian -la.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-la (front vowel variant -lä)

  1. Used to form place names.
    (name) Soikko + ‎-la → ‎Soikkola
  2. Used to form nouns signifying a place.
    seppo (smith) + ‎-la → ‎seppola (house of a smith)

Declension[edit]

Declension of -la (type 3/kana, no gradation)
singular plural
nominative -la -lat
genitive -lan -loin
partitive -laa -loja
illative -laa -loihe
inessive -laas -lois
elative -last -loist
allative -lalle -loille
adessive -laal -loil
ablative -lalt -loilt
translative -laks -loiks
essive -lanna, -laan -loinna, -loin
exessive1) -lant -loint
1) obsolete
*) the accusative corresponds with either the genitive (sg) or nominative (pl)
**) the comitative is formed by adding the suffix -ka? or -kä? to the genitive.

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  • A. V. Krjukov (2018), “К этимологии топонима Сойкино/Soikkola”, in Притяжение Севера: язык, литература, социум. Ч. 1: материалы I Международной научно-практической конференции, pages 531-542

Italian[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

-la

  1. (enclitic) Alternative form of la
    dare (to give)darla (to give her)
    vendere (to sell)venderla (to sell her)
    servire (to serve)servirla (to serve her)

Usage notes[edit]

  • Appended to present active infinitive verb forms to derive accusative forms when the object is third singular feminine person. The final -e of the original infinitive is removed :
-are-arla
-ere-erla
-ire-irla

Where the verb ends in -rre, the final re is removed, leaving behind just an -r:

introdurre (to introduce)introdurla (to introduce her)

In any case, after the suffixation, there is only a single r and no vowels immediately before -la.

Anagrams[edit]

Khalaj[edit]

Suffix[edit]

preceding vowel
A / I / O / U E / Ə / İ / Ö / Ü
-la -lə

-la

  1. Form of -lə after the vowels A / I / O / U.

Latin[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-la

  1. inflection of -lus:
    1. nominative/vocative feminine singular
    2. nominative/accusative/vocative neuter plural

Suffix[edit]

-lā

  1. ablative feminine singular of -lus

Old Norse[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *-lōną.

Suffix[edit]

-la

  1. frequentative verbal suffix
Conjugation[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *-ilǭ (diminutive suffix).

Suffix[edit]

-la f (strong masculine -ill)

  1. forms diminutive nouns
    mey + ‎-la → ‎meyla
Declension[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-la

  1. inflection of -ill (agent noun):
    1. indefinite accusative plural
    2. indefinite genitive plural
  2. inflection of -ill (diminutive noun):
    1. indefinite accusative plural
    2. indefinite genitive plural
  3. inflection of -ull (diminutive noun):
    1. indefinite accusative plural
    2. indefinite genitive plural
  4. inflection of -ull (deverbative adjective):
    1. positive degree strong feminine accusative singular
    2. positive degree strong feminine accusative masculine
    3. positive degree weak masculine oblique singular
    4. positive degree weak feminine nominative singular
    5. positive degree weak neuter singular

Pitjantjatjara[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

-la (first person plural nominative, bound form of nganaṉa)

  1. we (3 or more people)

Usage notes[edit]

Bound pronouns can be used instead of the regular "long form" pronouns. They act as clitics that attach to the last word of the first noun phrase in the sentence, or the conjunctions ka or munu if present.

Related terms[edit]

Pitjantjatjara personal pronouns (nominative case)
Singular Dual Plural
First person ngayulu (I)
Bound form: -ṉa
ngali (we two)
Bound form: -li
nganaṉa (we, more than two)
Bound form: -la
Second person nyuntu (you)
Bound form: -n
nyupali (you two) nyura (you, more than two)
Third person paluṟu (he/she/it) pula (they two) tjana (they, more than two)
Bound form: -ya

Preposition[edit]

-la

  1. at, on, in, near, with, etc. for proper nouns that end with a vowel. The equivalent of -ngka, and -ta.
  2. an ending that you use before -kutu and -nguru with proper nouns.

Usage notes[edit]

This preposition is added to the end of the proper noun. Sometimes a helper vowel can be added before -la to make it end with a vowel. -ta should be used instead if the word ends with n or l.

Suffix[edit]

-la

  1. Makes "la" class verbs into commands.

Usage notes[edit]

It is added to the end of the verb stem (of the last verb in the series if there is a series of verbs in the command). Sometimes the pronoun -ya can be added after -la, this makes the command addressed to a group of people. Here that pronoun means second person plural instead of third person.

Salar[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Cognate to Turkish -le.

Adverb[edit]

-la

  1. with
    Men senla varğur.
    I will come with you.

Usage notes[edit]

  1. Lacks vowel harmony. Therefore, sometimes it is not accepted as a suffix.

References[edit]

  • 林 (Lin), 莲云 (Lianyun) (1985), “la”, in 撒拉语简志 [A Brief History of Salar], Beijing: 民族出版社: 琴書店, →OCLC, page 85

Tsuut'ina[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-la

  1. marks the end of a sentence, (it was)
    nuwa diya-la
    He walked over there.

References[edit]

Turkish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Ottoman Turkishـله(-la, -le), from Proto-Turkic *-la.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-la

  1. with, shortened form of ile
    babamla okula gidiyorum
    I am going to school with my father
  2. by, shortened form of ile
    okula kaykayla gidiyorum
    I am going to school by skateboard
Usage notes[edit]
  • If the word's last vowel is a front vowel (e, i, ö, ü), the ending becomes -le.
    annemle / trenle - with my mother / by train
    kuzenimle - with my cousin
    gözünle / troleybüsle - with your eye / by trolley bus
  • If the word ends in a vowel, the ending becomes -yla, or after front vowel, -yle.
    arabayla - by car
    korkuyla - with fear
    gemiyle - by ship
    sevgiyle - with love
  • If the ending is added to a proper noun, it must be used with an apostrophe.
    Barış'la - with Barış.
    Buğra'yla - with Buğra.
  • Unlike most Turkish suffixes, this suffix is always unstressed; the stress in the combined word remains where it was in the word before suffixing.
  • When -yla is added to a word ending in the back vowel "ı", the latter is raised to the front vowel "i" in the pronunciation; for example, the word dolayısıyla ("consequently") is pronounced as if it were dolayısiyla, thus violating the usual vowel harmony. This change in pronunciation is not reflected in the orthography.

Etymology 2[edit]

From Ottoman Turkishـلا(-la).

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-la

  1. A suffix creating verbs from nouns.
    parmak (finger) + ‎-la → ‎parmaklamak (to poke)
    sabah (morning) + ‎-la → ‎sabahlamak (to stay awake till morning, spend a night)
    ter (sweat) + ‎-la → ‎terlemek (to sweat)
  2. A suffix added to foreign verbs to create verb stems and allow for conjugation.
    favlamak ("to fave"), likelamak ("to like"), ghostlamak ("to ghost"), winlemek ("to win"), pushlamak ("to push"), burstlemek ("to burst"), etc.

Vilamovian[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-la

  1. Appended to words to create a diminutive form of a noun.

Wutunhua[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • -ra (less common)

Etymology[edit]

Unknown (per Sandman).

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-la

  1. (after nouns) from; indicates the source of an action.
    aga dadada gguan-la lai-lio.
    Elder brother just came from the temple.
    (Quoted in Janhunen et al., p. 60)
    gunse-la ha-lai-gu-ge-lio ze-li.
    S/he was dismissed from the company.
    (Quoted in Janhunen et al., p. 60)
  2. (after verbs) if, when; indicates that the action of the verb is conditional, hypothetical, or set in the future.
    rolang sho-de je da nga-n-de mula ren se-gu-la diando rolang qhe-lai-li sho-de gu-li.
    As for this thing called ro-langs [type of Tibetan zombie], it is said that if a person among us dies, there will appear a ro-langs instead.
    (Quoted in Janhunen et al., p. 114)

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  • Juha Janhunen, Marja Peltomaa, Erika Sandman, Xiawu Dongzhou (2008) Wutun (LINCOM's Descriptive Grammar Series), volume 466, LINCOM Europa, →ISBN
  • Erika Sandman (2016) A Grammar of Wutun[1], University of Helsinki (PhD), →ISBN