-ka

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Basque[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ka

  1. Used to form adverbs from nouns.
    tarte (gap, interval) + ‎-ka → ‎tarteka (intermittently)
    1. looking for
      ote (gorse, furze) + ‎-ka → ‎oteka (looking for gorse)
    2. divided in, distributed in
      talde (group) + ‎-ka → ‎taldeka (in groups)

Derived terms[edit]


Curripaco[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ka

  1. progressive tense marker
    nuiraka : I am drinking

References[edit]

  • Swintha Danielsen, Tania Granadillo, Agreement in two Arawak languages, in The Typology of Semantic Alignment (edited by Mark Donohue, Søren Wichmann) (2008, →ISBN), page 398

Czech[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *-ъka.

Suffix[edit]

-ka

  1. Appended to words to create a feminine version of a noun, especially a profession, origin, or proper name.
    lékař + ‎-ka → ‎lékařka
  2. Appended to words to create a diminutive form of a noun.
    vlna + ‎-ka → ‎vlnka

Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • -ka in Slovník afixů užívaných v češtině, 2017

Finnish[edit]

Clitic[edit]

-ka

  1. Back vowel variant of -kä

Usage notes[edit]

Only found fossilized in derived terms, as the clitic is now only attached to forms of the negative verb, all of which have front vowel harmony.


Hungarian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Finno-Ugric. Compare Finnish -kka.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ka

  1. (diminutive suffix) Added to a word to express smallness, youth, unimportance, or endearment. When added to present participles, it can also express the instrument or place of the action indicated in the base word.
    cukor (sugar)cukorka (candy)
    asztal (table)asztalka (small table)
    jár (to walk)járó (walking)járóka (playpen)

Usage notes[edit]

  • (diminutive suffix) Harmonic variants:
    -ka is added to back vowel words
    -ke is added to front vowel words

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]


Ilocano[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *ka.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

-ka

  1. Second-person absolutive enclitic personal pronoun

See also[edit]


Ingrian[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *-ka. Cognates include Finnish -ka.

Pronunciation[edit]

Clitic[edit]

-ka (front-vowel variant -kä)

  1. Used to turn a clause interrogative.
  2. Used after negative verbs to express exclusiveness; neither, nor
Usage notes[edit]
  • In the interrogative function, when added to verbs, -ka is only used after the consonant -t. Otherwise, the reduced form -k is used.

Suffix[edit]

-ka (front vowel variant -kä)

  1. (unproductive) Used in some words to introduce an interrogative aspect.
    Proto-Finnic *mi- + ‎-ka → ‎mikä
    Proto-Finnic *ku- + ‎-ka → ‎kuka
  2. (unproductive) Used in some words to introduce a negative aspect.
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Akin to dialectal Finnish -kaa and Estonian -ga.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ka (front vowel variant -kä)

  1. Used to form the comitative case when added to a genitive of a noun.

References[edit]

  • Ruben E. Nirvi (1971) Inkeroismurteiden Sanakirja, Helsinki: Suomalais-Ugrilainen Seura, page 118

Japanese[edit]

Romanization[edit]

-ka

  1. Rōmaji transcription of

Kambera[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

-ka

  1. first person singular accusative enclitic

Particle[edit]

-ka

  1. perfective aspect enclitic
    Na-mutung-ka.
    It burned down.

See also[edit]


Lower Sorbian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *-ъka.

Suffix[edit]

-ka f

  1. added to masculine nouns to form a feminine
  2. added to feminine nouns to form a diminutive

Derived terms[edit]


Maquiritari[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ka

  1. Forms privative transitive verbs from nouns, with a meaning of ‘to deprive of X’, ‘to extract X from’, ‘to X away’: dis-, ex-.
Usage notes[edit]

This suffix exists in related languages but is rare in spontaneous speech and possibly non-productive in Maquiritari. When it does occur, it can trigger syllable reduction and in some cases become -kkwa.

Etymology 2[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ka

  1. Allomorph of -a (nonpast or past imperfective suffix) used for stems with a reducing final syllable that begins with k.

References[edit]

  • Cáceres, Natalia (2011), “-ka”, in Grammaire Fonctionnelle-Typologique du Ye’kwana, Lyon, page 148

Polish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *-ъka.

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ka/
  • (file)
  • Rhymes: -a
  • Syllabification: ka

Suffix[edit]

-ka f

  1. feminine noun suffix
    Azjata + ‎-ka → ‎Azjatka
    Synonym: -na
  2. diminutive noun suffix
    część + ‎-ka → ‎cząstka

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ka n

  1. genitive singular of -ko
  2. nominative plural of -ko
  3. vocative plural of -ko

Further reading[edit]

  • -ka in Wielki słownik języka polskiego, Instytut Języka Polskiego PAN
  • -ka in Polish dictionaries at PWN

Serbo-Croatian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *-ъka.

Suffix[edit]

-ka (Cyrillic spelling -ка)

  1. Suffix appended to words to create a feminine noun, denoting a part, profession, feature, membership, origin, social status, complexion, proper name, abstract noun or animal's name.

See also[edit]


Slovak[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *-ъka.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ka

  1. Denotes that the word is a feminine version of the word it is appended to.
    Talian m (Italian (man)) + -ka = Talianka f (Italian (woman))
  2. Sometimes denotes a word as a diminutive.
    mucha f (fly) + -ka = muška f (small fly)

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]


Somali[edit]

Article[edit]

-ka (feminine -ta)

  1. The masculine definite article; the

Usage notes[edit]

  • This form is used after the consonants -b, -d, -f, -l, -n, -r, -s and -sh.
  • After words ending in -g, -aa, -i, -y and -w, the form -ga is used.

References[edit]

  • Puglielli, Annarita; Mansuur, Cabdalla Cumar (2012), “ka”, in Qaamuuska Af-Soomaliga, Rome: RomaTrE-Press, →ISBN

Upper Sorbian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *-ъka.

Suffix[edit]

-ka

  1. added to masculine nouns to form a feminine
  2. added to feminine nouns to form a diminutive

Derived terms[edit]