-ка

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Russian[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Particle[edit]

-ка (-ka)

  1. now, just (usually appended to an imperative verb to express a pressing request)
    Иди́те-ка сюда́Idíte-ka sjudáJust come here!
    Послу́шай-ка, па́реньPoslúšaj-ka, párenʹNow listen, lad!

Etymology 2[edit]

From a conflation of two suffixes Proto-Slavic *-ьka and Proto-Slavic *-ъka. The former always came to be used after velars (hence the occurrence of the Slavic first palatalization), while the latter always came to be used after -л- (hence the lack of palatalization of -л- before -ка).

Suffix[edit]

-ка (-ka)

  1. (added to (normally feminine) nouns, forms diminutives, sometimes with a further change in meaning)
    жи́ла (žíla, vein)жи́лка (žílka, veinlet, small vein)
    моги́ла (mogíla, grave)моги́лка (mogílka, small grave)
    бума́га (bumága, paper, document)бума́жка (bumážka, small document)
    ку́кла (kúkla, doll, puppet) (genitive plural ку́кол (kúkol)) → ку́колка (kúkolka, small doll, pupa)
    пчела́ (pčelá, bee)пчёлка (pčólka, small bee)
    вода́ (vodá, water)во́дка (vódka, vodka) (originally, "something diluted with water")
  2. (added to nouns denoting classes of people, forms the feminine equivalent; replaces the suffix -ец (-ec) if present)
    бисексуа́л (bisɛksuál, bisexual)бисексуа́лка (bisɛksuálka, female bisexual)
    ленингра́дец (leningrádec, resident of Leningrad)ленингра́дка (leningrádka, female resident of Leningrad)
  3. (added to verbs, forms abstract nouns or nouns indicating the result of the action)
    закали́ть (zakalítʹ, to temper, to harden)зака́лка (zakálka, tempering, hardening; training (for endurance))
    мочи́ть (močítʹ, to soak, to wet)мо́чка (móčka, soaking, wetting)
    отде́лать (otdélatʹ, to finish, to trim)отде́лка (otdélka, finishing, trimming; finish, trim)
    подде́лать (poddélatʹ, to counterfeit, to fake)подде́лка (poddélka, counterfeit, imitation, fake, forgery)
    блоки́ровать (blokírovatʹ, to block)блокиро́вка (blokiróvka, blocking, blockage)
  4. (added to verbs, forms instruments or tools)
    заколо́ть (zakolótʹ, to attach with a pin)зако́лка (zakólka, barrette)
    пили́ть (pilítʹ, to saw)пи́лка (pílka, fretsaw; fingernail file)
  5. (added to adjectives or numerals, forms colloquial nouns with the meaning of a carrier of the adjective's or numeral's properties)
    минера́льный (minerálʹnyj, mineral (attributive))минера́лка (minerálka, mineral water (colloquial); mineral fertilizer (colloquial))
    зени́тный (zenítnyj, zenith (attributive); anti-aircraft (attributive))зени́тка (zenítka, anti-aircraft gun (colloquial))
    полтора́ (poltorá, one and a half) (oblique cases полу́тора (polútora)) → полу́торка (polútorka, small apartment consisting of a medium-sized room and a small room (colloquial); GAZ-AA-brand truck with a 1.5-ton payload (colloquial))
Usage notes[edit]

Note the following properties:

Declension[edit]
Derived terms[edit]


Related terms[edit]
See also[edit]

Serbo-Croatian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *-ъka.

Suffix[edit]

-ка (Latin spelling -ka)

  1. Suffix appended to words to create a feminine noun, denoting a part, profession, feature, membership, origin, social status, complexion, proper name, abstract noun or animal's name.

See also[edit]