This Wiktionary-specific transliteration system is based on the conventional system of transliteration for linguistics, with modifications, and exceptions to reflect Russian pronunciation instead of Cyrillic spelling.
|A a||B b||V v||G g, H h, X x, V v1||D d||E e, Je je, ɛ2, Jó jó, ó3||Jó jó, ó4||Ž ž||Z z||I i||J j||K k||L l||M m||N n||O o||P p||R r||S s||T t||U u||F f||X x||C c||Č č, Š š5||Š š||Šč šč||ʺ, -6||Y y||ʹ||E e||Ju ju, u7||Ja ja||I i||F f||Ě ě||I i|
- The letter “г” is transliterated as h when it is pronounced /ɣ/, as x when it is pronounced /x/, and as v in genitive/accusative masculine/neuter endings (e.g., “-ого” = -ovo, and “-его” = -(j)evo, pronounced /ovo/ like “-ово” and /(j)evo/ like “-ево”, respectively). E.g., “бог (bog)” is box, “лёгкий (ljóxkij)” is ljóxkij, “ого́ (ogó)” (interjection) is ohó or ogó, “кого́ (kogó)” is kovó and “сего́дня (segódnja)” is sevódnja.
- The letter “е” is transliterated as e after consonants, as je at the beginning of a word, or following a vowel or “ъ” or “ь”, and as ɛ in loanwords where the preceding consonant is not palatalised, e.g. “тест (tɛst)”
- In running texts (excluding dictionary or textbook material, books designed for young readers), the letter “ё” is seldom used by native speakers and it's written as letter “е”, without the dots. It's still pronounced and transliterated the same way as “ё”, e.g. “легкий (ljóxkij)” (such terms are treated as alternative spellings in Wiktionary, which uses a dictionary style, the main terms being those spelled with “ё”).
- The letter “ё” is transliterated as ó following the consonants “ж”, “ч”, “ш”, or “щ”. “ё” is transliterated as jó/ó by default as it is usually stressed, monosyllabic words, loanwords where indicating stress is not required or and rare multipart words, loanwords “ё” is NOT stressed must be transliterated as jo/o, e.g. monosyllabic words: лёд (ljod), Russian words prefixed with трёх- (trjox-), четырёх- (četyrjox-), rare loanwords with ustressed “ё”: Пёнтко́вский (Pjontkóvskij) (also Пентко́вский (Pentkóvskij).
- The letter “ч” is transliterated as š in the few words where it is pronounced /ʃ/ like “ш”: “что (čto)” is što, “коне́чно (konéčno)” is konéšno.
- The letter “ъ” at the end of a word—which was used in pre-1918 orthography—is not transliterated as it did not represent any sound: миръ (mir), міръ (mir).
- The letter “ю” is transliterated as u in the combinations “жю” and “шю”. For example, “жюри́ (žurí)” = žurí, “брошю́ра (brošúra)” = brošúra where “ю” doesn't produce the usual pronunciation.
There are no more exceptions if the pronunciation is expected and can be learned from the basics of Russian phonology, specifically:
- The reduction of vowels and voicing/devoicing of consonants are not reflected in the transliteration.
- Verb endings “-тся” and “-ться” are transliterated as written as -tsja and -tʹsja: оде́ться (odétʹsja), оде́нется (odénetsja).
- Silent consonants in consonant clusters are transliterated: “че́стный” is čéstnyj, not čésnyj.
- Sibilants changing pronunciation are transliterated letter by letter as per the table: “сча́стье” is sčástʹje, not ščástʹje.
- Combinations “жи”, “ши”, and “ци” are transliterated as ži, ši and ci, not žy, šy and cy.
- The letter “ь” at the end of words ending in “ж”, “ш”, “щ” and “ч” has no effect on the pronunciation, but is still transliterated as ʹ: рожь (rožʹ), мышь (myšʹ), вещь (veščʹ), печь (pečʹ), де́лаешь (délaješʹ).
Syllabic stress is indicated by an acute accent ´ over the stressed vowel:
- Roman: Á, á, É, é, ɛ́, Í, í, Ó, ó, Ú, ú and Ý, ý (já, jé, jó, jú, etc.).
- Cyrillic: “А́”, “а́”, “Е́”, “е́”, “И́”, “и́”, “О́”, “о́”, “У́”, “у́”, “Ы́”, “ы́”, “Э́”, “э́”, “Ю́”, “ю́”, “Я́”, “я́”.
E.g., “ры́ба (rýba)” (rýba, “fish”).
- The vowel “ё” is normally stressed in native Russian words, but occasionally it may be necessary to show the stress for this letter: “ё́” (not recommended for templates with automatic transliteration).