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This is the new template for creating a Russian noun declension table.


Stress pattern, one of a b c d e f b' d' f' f''. See Appendix:Russian stress patterns. It can be omitted; to do so, leave out the argument entirely (i.e. shift all the remaining arguments down one). If omitted, defaults to a if the lemma stress is on the stem, b if the lemma stress is on the ending or if an explicitly specified declension is accented. (Also defaults to b in -ёнок and -ёночек nouns and +ой adjectival nouns, and defaults to d in stressed -и́н nouns.)
Lemma with appropriately placed accent(s); i.e. the nominative singular, or the nominative plural if the noun is a plurale tantum. However, if an explicit declension is specified, this should be just the stem (in this case, the declension usually looks like an ending, and the stem is the portion of the lemma minus the ending). In the first argument set (i.e. first set of arguments separated by or), defaults to page name; in later sets, defaults to lemma of previous set. A plural form can be given, and causes argument n= to default to n=p (plurale tantum). Normally, an accent is required if multisyllabic, and unaccented monosyllables will automatically be stressed; prefix with * to override both behaviors. See section below on auto-accenting. May be followed by // and a manual transliteration; see section below.
Declension modifiers; see below. This contains any extra information needed to properly decline the noun.
Specify a special plural stem; defaults to the stem of the lemma. This is only needed for a few nouns whose plural is based off of a different stem, e.g. у́хо (úxo, ear) with nominative plural у́ши (úši); не́бо (nébo, sky, heaven) with nominative plural небеса́ (nebesá); or хозя́ин (xozjáin, owner, landlord) with nominative plural хозя́ева (xozjájeva). It is not needed if only the endings are irregular, nor if the only difference between singular and plural stems is a ё in place of an unstressed е in the lemma, as with седло́ (sedló, saddle) with nominative plural сёдла (sjódla). Normally, the plural stem needs a stress mark if multisyllabic, as with the lemma. May be followed by // and a manual transliteration; see section below.
Number restriction: sg for singular-only, pl for plural-only, both for both. Defaults to both unless the lemma is plural, in which case it defaults to plural-only. (Only the first letter matters in the values for this argument, so for example s and sing are alternatives to sg.)
Animacy: an for animate, in for inanimate, bi or ai for bianimate (listing animate first when used by {{ru-noun+}}), ia for bianimate (listing inanimate first when used by {{ru-noun+}}); defaults to inanimate. (You can also use a or anim for animate, i or inan for inanimate, b or both for bianimate with animate listed first.)
Override the table title.
|nom_sg=, |gen_sg=, |dat_sg=, |acc_sg=, |ins_sg=, |pre_sg=, |nom_pl=, |gen_pl=, |dat_pl=, |acc_pl=, |ins_pl=, |pre_pl=, |par=, |loc=, |pauc=, |voc=
Override one or more declensional forms (nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, instrumental, prepositional, partitive, locative, vocative; singular, plural). Alternatives may be separated by commas. You can include one or more ~ characters anywhere in the override, which will replaced by the singular or plural stem, appropriately; or you can use ~~, which will be replaced by the unstressed version of the appropriate stem. You can also include + in |par= or |loc=, and if it is at the beginning of a word it will be replaced by the "expected" form for these cases (same as dative singular for the partitive, stress-shifted dative singular for the locative). Overridden forms, including comma-separated alternatives, will automatically be linked. Certain trailing symbols are recognized automatically; they will be superscripted and do not interfere with linking. See section below on usage notes. In more complex cases (e.g. with parens around a word), you should manually put brackets around a word to link it (stress marks in such words are handled correctly). Normally, multisyllabic words in overrides need a stress mark, as with the lemma. May be followed by // and a manual transliteration; see section below.
Add a suffix such as ся to all forms. This is useful in cases like уча́щийся (učáščijsja, student), where the part before -ся needs to be declined. May be followed by // and a manual transliteration; see section below.
Add a prefix to all forms. Present for completeness but less useful than |suffix= because the prefix can simply be included in the lemma. May be followed by // and a manual transliteration; see section below.

Footnote symbols

A system is in place for inserting usage notes into declension tables, in the form of footnotes. Footnote symbols attached to the end of a manual override are recognized automatically; they are automatically superscripted and do not interfere with linking. Examples of such symbols are *, @, ~ and various other ASCII symbols; numbers; _, which is automatically converted to a space; and most Unicode symbols (§, ¤, , , , etc.). You can also insert these symbols using parameters such as |pltail=. The usage note itself is inserted using |notes=.

Usage note(s) to insert into the table. Footnote symbols at the beginning of the note are automatically superscripted.
Specify text to append directly to the end of plural entries with more than one form (except those with explicit overrides). Normally used to add a footnote symbol to those entries, to add a usage note to alternate plural forms.
Same but for singular entries.
Like |pltail= but appends to all plural entries (except those with explicit overrides). Normally used to add a footnote symbol, in order to add a usage note about the plural forms.
Same but for singular entries.
Append a footnote symbol to the last form for a particular case/number combination. Note that this differs from |sgtail= and |pltail= in that it will be appended even if there's only one form. The possible values of CASE_NUM are the same as for overrides.
Same but append to all forms, as with |pltailall= and |sgtailall=.

Conjectural/disused forms

A system is in place for marking particular forms as conjectural or disused; these are forms that are described in Russian grammar books (such as those of A.A. Zaliznyak) as затрудни́тельный (zatrudnítelʹnyj), literally "difficult" or "awkward". Forms are marked as such either by putting a * at the beginning of a word in a manual override or using parameters such as |plhypall=y to mark all plural forms as conjectural/disused (hyp in the parameter name = "hypothetical"). These *hyp* parameters are exactly parallel to the *tail* parameters above. The most useful such parameters are |plhypall=y as described previously, and |CASE_NAME_tailall=y to mark all forms of a given case/number combination as conjectural/disused.

Declension modifiers

The third parameter consists of any additional modifiers needed to properly decline the noun. There are several different modifiers. If you need to specify more than one modifier, just jam them all together without any spaces between and in any order. The following modifiers are the most common:


The gender spec indicates the gender of the noun. Normally, this can be omitted and is autodetected from the ending of the noun. However, it is required in some cases, e.g. with lemmas ending in . If present, it should be one of m (masculine), f (feminine), n (neuter) or 3f (third-declension feminine; see below). The gender is required in the following cases:

  1. if the lemma ends in ;
  2. in regular (not adjectival) nouns, if the lemma is plural;
  3. for masculine animate nouns with the neuter ending -о in the nominative singular (e.g. солове́йко (solovéjko, nightingale), мазло́ (mazló, sloppy person));
  4. in {{ru-noun+}} whenever the actual gender disagrees with the normal gender of the nominative singular ending (e.g. дя́дя (djádja, uncle)).

In other cases, the gender is ignored.

3f is the same as f but in the case of a plural lemma in , it causes a third-declension feminine with singular in to be detected rather than a first-declension feminine with singular in or (used e.g. for но́вости (nóvosti) and сла́сти (slásti)).


The spec * indicates that the noun is "reducible". A reducible noun has an alternation between a е, ё or о before the last stem consonant in some forms, and no such vowel in other forms. Such nouns are of two types:

  1. Nouns where the extra vowel appears in the nominative singular but not in other forms. These are either masculine nouns ending in a consonant, or masculine or feminine nouns ending in . An example of the former is коне́ц (konéc, end) (genitive singular конца́ (koncá), nominative plural концы́ (koncý)). Examples of the latter are masculine ого́нь (ogónʹ, fire) (genitive singular огня́ (ognjá), masculine гре́бень (grébenʹ, comb) (genitive singular гре́бня (grébnja)), feminine любо́вь (ljubóvʹ, love) (genitive singular любви́ (ljubví)), and feminine вошь (vošʹ, louse) (genitive singular вши (vši)).
  2. Nouns where the extra vowel appears in the genitive plural but not in other forms. These are feminine or neuter nouns ending in a vowel. Examples are feminine ко́шка (kóška, cat) (genitive plural ко́шек (kóšek)), neuter се́рдце (sérdce, heart) (genitive plural серде́ц (serdéc)).

Note that when the vowel disappears, sometimes a ь or й appears in its place, e.g. па́лец (pálec, finger) (genitive singular па́льца (pálʹca)), инди́ец (indíjec, Indian) (genitive singular инди́йца (indíjca)), or other changes happen, e.g. воробе́й (vorobéj, sparrow) (genitive singular воробья́ (vorobʹjá)). When a vowel appears, sometimes it's е, sometimes ё and sometimes о, and sometimes a ь disappears. It turns out that all these changes are predictable, and are automatically handled by the module.

Adjectival nouns

These are nouns that are declined as if they were an adjective. Examples are masculine ру́сский (rússkij, a Russian) (genitive singular ру́сского (rússkovo)), feminine ва́нная (vánnaja, bathroom) (genitive singular ва́нной (vánnoj)), neuter моро́женое (moróženoje, ice cream) (genitive singular моро́женого (moróženovo)) and plural-only да́нные (dánnyje, facts, data) (genitive plural данных (dannyx)). To indicate this, use the code +.

Nouns with alternation between е and ё

Some nouns have an alternation between unstressed е and stressed ё. If the ё appears in the lemma, the module will automatically convert it to е when it becomes unstressed, e.g. галдёж (galdjóž, clatter, din) (genitive singular галдежа́ (galdežá)). But sometimes the е appears in the lemma, and ё appears in other forms. In this case, use to indicate this alternation. An example is седло́ (sedló, saddle) (nominative plural сёдла (sjódla)).

Anomalous plural endings

Use (1) to indicate a particular sort of anomalous nominative plural ending where masculine nouns take the neuter plural or instead of expected or , and neuter nouns take the masculine plural or instead of expected or .

Use (2) to indicate a particular sort of anomalous genitive plural ending where masculine nouns take the feminine/neuter null ending (which may manifest as no written ending or as or ) instead of expected -ов/-ев/-ёв, while neuter nouns take the masculine ending -ов/-ев/-ёв instead of the expected null ending, and feminine hard-stem nouns take the soft-stem ending -ей/-ёй instead of the expected null ending. When the variant code -ья is given (see below), the code (2) indicates a feminine-style genitive plural ending of -ей instead of masculine -ьев/-ьёв. An example of this is де́верь (déverʹ, brother-in-law (husband's brother)), with nominative plural деверья́ (deverʹjá) (hence it needs variant code -ья) and genitive plural девере́й (deveréj) (hence it needs code (2)). Since this noun ends in , it also needs the gender code m; the full spec is written m-ья(2), with the three codes jammed together (other orders are possible for the codes).

Older stuff to be cleaned up

One of the following for regular nouns:

  1. (blank)
  7. $ (for indeclinable words, especially in multi-word expressions)
  8. You can also append one or more of the special-case markers (1), (2), * or to any of the above.

For adjectival nouns, one of the following:

  1. +
  2. +short, +mixed or +proper

VARIANT specifies declension variants that override the normal declension in various ways: See also special cases (1) and (2) for specifying other types of plural variants.

  1. The -ья variant overrides the normal declension with the special plural declension with nominative plural -ья.
  2. The -ин variant is for animate masculines ending in -ин with nominative plural in -е. Most such nouns end in -анин or -янин, and these are autodetected, but other nouns in this declension such as боя́рин (bojárin, boyar) need an explicit variant annotation.
  3. The -ишко variant is for inanimate diminutive masculines (not neuters) ending in -шко (usually -ишко), with colloquial feminine forms in some of the singular cases, e.g. доми́шко (domíško, small house). Special case (1) must be specified along with this variant.
  4. The -ище variant is for animate augmentative masculines (not neuters) ending in -ище, with colloquial feminine forms in some of the singular cases, e.g. волчи́ще (volčíšče, large, mature wolf). Special case (1) must be specified along with this variant.

DECLTYPE is an explicit declension type. Normally you shouldn't use this, and should instead let the declension type be autodetected based on the ending. See the table below for the list of declension types (which normally have the form of the nominative singular ending). When an explicit declension type is provided, the lemma field should be just the stem, without the ending.

For adjectival nouns, you should normally supply just + and let the ending determine the declension; supply in the case of a possessive adjectival noun in -ий, which has an extra -ь- in most endings compared with normal adjectival nouns in -ий, but which can't be distinguished based on the nominative singular. You can also supply +short, +mixed or +proper, which constrains the declension appropriately but still autodetects the gender-specific and stress-specific variant. If you do supply a specific declension type, as with regular nouns you need to omit the ending from the lemma field and supply just the stem. Possibilities are +ый, +ое, +ая, +ій, +ее, +яя, +ой, +о́е, +а́я, +ьій, +ье, +ья, +-short or +#-short (masc), +о-short, +о-stressed-short or +о́-short, +а-short, +а-stressed-short or +а́-short, and similar for -mixed and -proper (except there aren't any stressed mixed declensions).

The DECLTYPE/DECLTYPE form is used for nouns with one declension in the singular and a different one in the plural (termed mixed declensions or slash declensions). This is intended for variations that -ья and special cases (1) and (2) below don't cover, e.g. о/ь-m to decline the singular with class о and the plural with class ь-m (as for коле́но (koléno, knee)). There is no autodetection of mixed declensions, and thus the lemma field needs to contain the bare stem. See examples below.

Special-case markers:

  • (1) for Zaliznyak-style alternate nominative plural ending: -а or -я for masculine, -и or -ы for neuter
  • (2) for Zaliznyak-style alternate genitive plural ending: none/-ь/-й for masculine, -ей for feminine, -ов/-ёв/-ев for neuter, -ей for declensional variant -ья
  • * for reducibles (nom sg or gen pl has an extra vowel before the final consonant as compared with the stem found in other cases)
  • for Zaliznyak-style alternation between last е in stem and ё

Declension classes

"Class" is the form used with the modern-style tables ({{ru-noun-table}}), while "old class" is used with old-style/pre-reform tables (|old=1). Note that explicit declension classes aren't normally required, as the declension can usually be autodetected.

Class Old class Nom sg Nom pl Gen pl Declension Typical gender Hardness Examples Notes
(blank), # ъ none ы/и ов, [шщчж]ей 2nd Masculine Hard заво́д, язы́к, ча́с gen pl -ей after sibilants
, #-а ъ-а none а ов, [шщчж]ей 2nd Masculine Hard рука́в/рукава́, по́езд/поезда́ gen pl -ей after sibilants
-ья, #-ья ъ-ья none ья ьёв/ьев 2nd Masculine Hard дру́г/друзья́
ин инъ ин е none 2nd Masculine Hard англича́нин, христиани́н
ёнок, онок, енок ёнокъ, онокъ, енокъ ёнок/о́нок я́та/а́та я́т/а́т 2nd Masculine Hard телёнок, внучо́нок
ёночек, оночек, еночек ёночекъ, оночекъ, еночекъ ёночек/о́ночек я́тки/а́тки я́ток/а́ток 2nd Masculine Hard цыплёночек, мышо́ночек
ь-m ь и ей 2nd Masculine Soft до́ждь, ру́бль, ка́мень
ь-я ь я ей 2nd Masculine Soft кре́ндель/кренделя́
й й и ёв/ов 2nd Masculine Palatal ча́й, геро́й, ге́ний includes -ий nouns (old-style -ій)
й-я й я ёв/ов 2nd Masculine Palatal кра́й includes -ий nouns (old-style -ій)
а а ы/и none, [шщчж]е́й 1st Feminine Hard соба́ка, голова́ gen pl -е́й after sibilants (stressed only)
я я и ь/й, е́й 1st Feminine Soft земля́, револю́ция stressed gen pl -е́й except with vowel stems, otherwise -ь/-й; includes -ия nouns (old-style -ія) but not -ья nouns
ья ья ьи ий, е́й 1st Feminine Soft судья́ stressed gen pl -е́й (also patterns d and d'), unstressed -ий
о о а none, е́й 2nd Neuter Hard стекло́, со́лнце includes unstressed -е nouns after цшщчж; gen pl -е́й after sibilants (stressed only)
о-и, о-ы о ы/и none 2nd Neuter Hard я́блоко/я́блоки, у́хо/у́ши same as previous
о-ья о ья ьёв/ьев 2nd Neuter Hard перо́/пе́рья, ши́ло/ши́лья, дно́/до́нья
е, ё е/ё я/а ь/й, е́й 2nd Neuter Soft мо́ре, уче́ние stressed gen pl -е́й except with vowel stems, otherwise -ь/-й; includes -ие/-иё nouns (old-style -іе/-іё) but not -ье/-ьё nouns
е́ е́ я/а ей, [и]й 2nd Neuter Soft бытие́, муде́ nouns with stressed -е́ instead of -ё; includes nouns in -ие́ (old-style -іе́), which have gen pl in -ий
ье, ьё ье/ьё ья ий, е́й 2nd Neuter Soft у́стье, копьё stressed gen pl -е́й, unstressed -ий
ь-f ь и ей 3rd Feminine Soft две́рь, гла́сность
мя мя мена мён 3rd Neuter ? и́мя, пле́мя
$ none none none Indeclinable полпути́

Auto-accenting and required accents

Multisyllabic words in arguments (lemma, plural stem, overrides) normally need a stress mark in them (as in а́, ы́, ё or ѣ̈) to indicate the position of the stress; an error will occur otherwise. In multiword overrides, each multisyllabic word needs an accent. Accents are not required on monosyllabic words, which will automatically be stressed on their only vowel. You can override both accent errors and auto-accenting by prefixing the lemma with *. (Don't use this prefix on other arguments. If present on the lemma, it applies to all arguments.) This is useful when a word has no stress (e.g. unstressed suffixes) or when the stress is unknown.

As an exception, accents are not required when the accent pattern calls for ending stress (patterns b, d, f and variants in the singular, and patterns b, c and variants in the plural).

Multisyllabic stems automatically receive stress in certain circumstances:

  1. Patterns d and f and variants have ending stress in the singular (and thus normally in the lemma), but call for stem stress in the plural. Unless the lemma specifically includes a stress on the stem, it is placed according to rule: stem-final stress in pattern d and variants, stem-initial stress in pattern f and variants. Hence, сапожо́к (sapožók, boot) (pattern d) gets plural сапо́жки, while голова́ (golová, head) (pattern f) gets plural го́ловы.
  2. If the accent pattern calls for ending stress in the genitive plural but the genitive plural has a null or non-syllabic ending, the last syllable of the stem is stressed -- regardless of the stem stress in other forms. Hence голова́ (golová, head) (pattern f) has nominative plural го́ловы but genitive plural голо́в. To override this, use an explicit |gen_pl= (or |4=) parameter, e.g. in кирка́ (kirká, pickaxe) (pattern b) with genitive plural ки́рок or де́ньги (dénʹgi, money) (pattern e) with genitive plural де́нег.

Manual transliteration

All parameters that accept Russian text can be followed by // and a manual transliteration. Transformations of the Russian text (e.g. reducing, dereducing, moving the stress) will appropriately be applied to the manual transliteration as well. Certain rules need to be respected concerning the manual transliteration, and will trigger errors if not. For example, the manual transliteration needs to have the same number of syllables as the Russian, and the manual transliteration of the lemma needs to have the same declensional ending (e.g. -а, -я, -о, -е, -ь), or rather its transliteration.

Multiple sets of arguments, multiple words

Multiple sets of arguments can be specified by separating them with an argument consisting solely of the word or. See the examples below.

You can also specify the declension of multi-word expressions such as мя́гкий зна́к (mjáxkij znák, soft sign), ба́бье ле́то (bábʹje léto, Indian summer), пау́к-во́лк (paúk-vólk, wolf spider), Сент-Ви́нсент и Гренади́ны (Sɛnt-Vínsɛnt i Grenadíny, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines), etc.

Multi-word nouns are specified by putting an underscore (_) between words separated by spaces, or a hyphen (-) between words separated by hyphens, or a joiner expression (join:TEXT) between words separated by arbitrary text.

The individual words appearing as lemma arguments can have links placed in them. This causes those individual words to link to the corresponding Wiktionary lemma page when appearing in the declension title (but not elsewhere in the declension table), and in the headword when used in conjunction with {{ru-noun+}}. This is recommended especially for {{ru-noun+}} and probably for {{ru-noun-table}} too. The links can be simple links, even in the presence of accents. For example, you can write {{ru-noun-table|b|[[пау́к]]|-|e|[[во́лк]]|a=an}} to generate the declension of пау́к-во́лк (paúk-vólk, wolf spider), and e.g. the link [[пау́к]] will automatically be converted to a link that displays пау́к but links to the page named паук (with the accent removed); it is as if you wrote [[паук#Russian|пау́к]]. See the examples for more information.

The named parameters above generally have per-word equivalents that let you control the value for individual words independently of the others. They are named the same as the overall parameters but have a number suffixed to them: 1 for the first word, 2 for the second word, etc.

|a1=, |a2=, etc.
Specify the animacy of an individual word. Default value for each word is the overall animacy specified by |a=. Primarily useful in case of expressions that mix animate and inanimate words.
|n1=, |n2=, etc.
Specify the number of an individual word. Default value for each word is the overall number specified by |n=. Primarily useful in case of expressions that mix singular and plural words, such as Сент-Ви́нсент и Гренади́ны (Sɛnt-Vínsɛnt i Grenadíny, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines). Note that if any word is specified using a plural lemma, the overall number defaults to plural.
|nom_sg1=, |nom_sg2=, ...; |gen_sg1=, |gen_sg2=, ...; etc.
Specify an override for a particular word rather than for the entire expression.
|pltail1=, |pltail2=, ...; |pltailall1=, |pltailall2=, ...; etc.
Specify a footnote symbol to attach to the end of a particular word rather than the entire expression. Generally this is not a good idea, and these parameters may be removed in the future.
|suffix1=, |suffix2=, etc.
Specify a suffix such as ся to attach to the end of all forms of a particular word.
|prefix1=, |prefix2=, etc.
Specify a prefix to attach to the beginning of all forms of a particular word. Present for completeness, but not especially useful; see discussion under |prefix= above.

Basic examples

Example 1: A basic noun

The noun орео́л (oreól, halo) belongs to accent pattern a (stem-stressed), which is the default, and hence does not need to be specified.



Example 2: An ending-stressed noun

The noun житие́ (žitijé, life) belongs to accent pattern b (ending-stressed). This is automatically recognized because of the ending stress in the lemma. The accent shift onto the stem in the genitive plural жити́й is automatically handled.



Example 3: A noun with complex accent shifts

The noun голова́ (golová, head) belongs to accent pattern f and has a complex pattern of accent shifts, with stress on the ending in singular голова́, on the first stem syllable in nominative plural го́ловы and on the second stem syllable in genitive plural голо́в. The accent pattern needs to be given explicitly but the accent shifts are automatically handled. In general the code is quite good about knowing how to automatically handle such cases.



Example 4: An animate noun needing a declensional variant

The noun боя́рин (bojárin, boyar) belongs to the declension class ин, with a singular suffix -ин that is missing in the plural and with nominative plural -е. These nouns are only autodetected if they end in -анин or -янин and are animate, to avoid many false positives. Other -ин nouns that follow this declension need an explicit declensional variant -ин. The noun is also animate, which needs to be noted.



Example 5: A noun needing a gender hint

Nouns in -ь, e.g. пло́щадь (plóščadʹ, square (open area in a city)), need a gender hint m or f, because the two genders correspond to different declensions and this can't be autodetected.



Example 6: A form needing an auto-accent override

Unstressed suffixes need to be prefixed with * to indicate that they are unstressed; otherwise multisyllabic unstressed suffixes will trigger an error and monosyllabic unstressed suffixes will be auto-accented.



Example 7: A noun needing manual translit



Examples with extra case forms

Example 1: An animate noun with a vocative case form

The noun де́ва (déva, maiden) has a special vocative де́во. This requires a case override; ~ can be used to stand for the stem де́в.



Example 2: A singular-only noun with a locative case

The noun пу́х (púx, down (feathers)) has a locative form пуху́. You can use the notation + to stand for the locative in the case override. Prepositions can optionally be supplied to indicate which prepositions can be used with the locative. The nouns is singular-only, which is indicated with |n=sg. Because the noun is monosyllabic, an accent isn't needed and will automatically be supplied.

{{ru-noun-table|пух|loc=в +,на +|n=sg}}


Reducible nouns, plural-only nouns, adjectival nouns

Example 1: A reducible noun

The noun па́лец (pálec, finger) has the stem па́льц- in case forms other than the nominative singular. Such a noun is termed reducible. This is specified using the * code.



Example 2: A reducible, plural-only (plurale tantum) noun

The noun воро́тца (vorótca, wicket) is not feminine but neuter, and occurs only in the plural. With a plural-only noun like this, the gender needs to be specified; the fact that the lemma is plural will then be recognized and the noun made plural-only. This noun is also reducible but in the other direction from па́лец: an extra vowel appears in the genitive plural (we term this dereducible). This is again indicated with the * code.



Example 3: An adjectival noun

The noun уча́щийся (učáščijsja, student) is an adjectival noun, i.e. a noun declined like an adjective, indicated with the code + (it is based on the present active participle of the verb учи́ть (učítʹ, to learn, to teach)). It has a reflexive suffix -ся added onto all forms, which is indicated with |suffix=ся.



Nouns with е/ё alternation

Example 1

озерцо́ (ozercó, lake) is accent pattern d and has unpredictable ё in the plural stem озёрц- (dereducible genitive plural озёрец). One way to indicate that is to use the code , which indicates that the last -e- changes to -ё- when stressed.



Another way is to distort the lemma by including the stressed form of the stem:




The module will automatically generate nominative singular озерцо́ from the stem озёрц-; it knows that accent pattern d calls for ending stress in the nominative singular and that the unstressed equivalent of озёрц- is озерц-. Note also that the alternation between unstressed -це and stressed -цо́ is normal in Russian; the module will accept forms both ways, and convert to the о declension internally.

Example 2

железа́ (železá, gland) has complex stress alternation, as with голова́ (golová, head) above, but with the additional complication that ё appears in the genitive plural: nom sg железа́, nom pl же́лезы, gen pl желёз. The code will take care of this.



In this case, distorting the stem won't work; using же́леза results in incorrect gen pl желе́з, and using желёза results in incorrect nom pl желёзы.

Nouns with irregular forms

Example 1: A noun with plural in irregular -а and partitive and locative case forms

снег (sneg, snow):



Example 2: A noun with irregularly stressed alternative nominative and genitive singular

The noun и́скра (ískra, spark) has irregularly stressed forms in technical usage. Includes a usage note to this effect.

{{ru-noun-table|и́скра|nom_sg=и́скра,искра́*|gen_sg=и́скры,искры́*|notes=* Asterisk marks technical usage.}}


Example 3: A defective noun with a missing genitive plural

A defective noun хвала́ (xvalá, praise) with a missing genitive plural.



Example 4: A noun with irregular plural stem and declensional variant -ья

A noun по́вод (póvod, rein) with irregularly-stressed plural stem пово́д-, irregular plural ending in -ья, and a locative case form.



Example 5: An animate noun needing declensional variant -ище

The noun волчи́ще (volčíšče, large or mature wolf) (an augmentative) needs the declensional variant -ище due to its declension, which includes alternative colloquial singular case forms with feminine endings. Nouns in this class are masculine, animate and special case (1) (i.e. they have the nominative plural in -и instead of -а), and at least the latter two properties must also be specified or an error occurs.



Nouns with multiple and/or mixed declensions

Example 1: Multiple stress patterns

The noun мост (most, bridge) has multiple stress patterns in the singular, except for the prepositional singular (as well as a locative case form). Implemented by placing it in two stress classes and overriding the prepositional singular. Note that when two forms from different stress patterns coincide, only one form is shown. The word is monosyllabic and doesn't need an accent mark, which will automatically be placed (but it wouldn't cause problems if the accent were added).



Example 2: Multiple stems

фено́мен (fenómen, phenomenon), also stressed as феноме́н (fenomén):



Example 3: Multiple plurals

лоску́т (loskút, rag, scrap) has two plurals from different declension classes and different stress patterns: лоску́ты and лоскутья́.



Example 4: Multiple plurals

мальчо́нок (malʹčónok, little boy) also has two plurals: мальчо́нки (hard-consonant declension) and мальча́та (ёнок declension).



Note the use of # to explicitly indicate the hard-consonant declension; without this, the lemma would be autodetected as belonging to the ёнок declension. Note also that in the second argument set, all arguments have been defaulted, with the lemma defaulting to the same as in the first argument set.

Example 5: Multiple plurals

сапожо́к (sapožók, boot) has two plurals: сапо́жки (pattern d) and сапожки́ (pattern b). They cannot be combined into a stress pattern d,b because the former also has irregular endingless genitive plural сапо́жек, indicated by code (2).



Example 6: Mixed declensions

коле́но (koléno) has three possible plurals depending on its meaning: a normal one in -а in the meaning "bend, generation, tribe"; an unusual one in -и (looking like the plural of masculine ь-m class) in the meaning "knee"; and one in -ья in the meaning "joint". These unusual plural can be expressed as a mixed declension:

  • {{ru-noun-table|коле́н|о/ь-m}} (knee)
  • {{ru-noun-table|коле́но}} (bend, generation, tribe)
  • {{ru-noun-table|коле́но|-ья}} (joint)


Example 7: Multiple stems and mixed declensions

ка́мень (kámenʹ, stone):

{{ru-noun-table|ка́мень|*m|or||*m-ья|каме́н|pltail=*|notes=* ''The plurals marked with an asterisk are antiquated forms.''}}


Note the use of a plural stem in the second set of plural forms, the use of the masculine-gender hint, the plural variant -ья for these forms, and the use of |pltail= to add an asterisk to these forms, with a note indicating that they are antiquated.

Example 8: Multiple stems and mixed declensions, with plural suppletion

ребёнок (rebjónok, child) is a particularly complex case. It follows the ёнок declension (singular -ёнок, -ёнка; plural -я́та, -я́т), with two plurals, an expected secondary one ребя́та and an unexpected primary one де́ти with a completely different stem and declension. This form де́ти looks somewhat like the plural of an accent-class e or f noun of the ь-m declension (masculine soft-stem), but with further irregularities. The secondary plural tends to have a different meaning. To indicate all this, we use a mixed declension with a special plural stem to handle the primary plural, overrides to handle the irregularities, and |pltail= with |notes= to indicate the different meaning of the secondary plural. We choose accent class f in the primary plural so that the singular ending -ёнок gets the stress.

{{ru-noun-table|f|реб|ёнок/ь-m|дет|or|ребёнок|dat_pl=де́тям,ребя́там*|ins_pl=детьми́,ребя́тами*|pre_pl=де́тях,ребя́тах*|a=an|pltail=*|notes=* Use the second plural with the meaning "boys!", "fellows!", "guys!", "comrades!".}}


Multi-word nouns

Example 1: An adjective-noun combination

For the noun мя́гкий зна́к (mjáxkij znák, soft sign):



Note how both parts are declined appropriately.

Links can be placed around the individual words, and the words will appear linked in the declension table title. This is especially useful in {{ru-noun+}}, where the links will appear in the headword. For example, the above could be written as follows:


which produces

Note that the accent marks in the links will appear in the anchor text of the link but will be correctly stripped in the page linked to (since Wiktionary Russian-language page names don't have acute accents in them). Note also that знак as an argument by itself (not surrounded by a link) will be auto-accented since it's monosyllabic and not preceded by a * (which suppresses auto-accenting), but this doesn't (currently) happen with links; hence we've added the accent ourselves.

Example 2: A noun-noun combination separated by a hyphen

For the noun пау́к-во́лк (paúk-vólk, wolf spider):



Note that the animacy applies to the entire expression.

The linked version would be


which produces

Example 3: A noun with a genitive modifier

For the noun ору́жие ма́ссового уничтоже́ния (orúžije mássovovo uničtožénija, weapon of mass destruction):



Note the use of $ to indicate indeclinable words. Formerly, +$ was necessary to indicate adjectival indeclinable words (i.e. words where final -го should be transliterated -vo), but this is now handled automatically.

The version with links would appear as follows:


which produces

Example 4: A noun with a prepositional phrase modifier

For the noun кре́м для ру́к (krém dlja rúk, hand cream):



Note the use of * at the beginning of для to suppress the stress mark that otherwise would automatically be added.

The linked version would be


which produces

Note that the * that suppresses auto-adding of the stress mark is technically not required since auto-adding stress doesn't currently happen inside links, but it's a good idea anyway because auto-stressing in links may be implemented in the future.

Example 5: A noun that combines singular and plural components (and requires manual translit)

For the noun Сент-Ви́нсент и Гренади́ны (Sɛnt-Vínsɛnt i Grenadíny, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines):



The whole expression is plural, as is the word Гренади́ны, but Сент-Ви́нсент is declined in the singular. This is specified using the per-word parameter |n1=s, specifying that the first word should be declined as singular. As in the previous example, * is prepended to и to suppress the automatic addition of a stress mark. Гренади́ны is masculine but uses the alternative no-ending genitive plural; hence the use of special case (2).

Example 6: A particularly long noun

For the noun носово́й радиопрозра́чный обтека́тель анте́нны радиолокацио́нной ста́нции (nosovój radioprozráčnyj obtekátelʹ antɛ́nny radiolokaciónnoj stáncii, dielectric plastic nose cap):



Note that there is no limit to the number of components in a noun.