-ник

From Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to navigation Jump to search
See also: ник

Bulgarian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *-ьnikъ.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ник (-nikm

  1. From base concept nouns, forms agent nouns who execute, embark on or embody the referred concept
    път (pǎt, road) + ‎-ник (-nik) → ‎пъ́тник (pǎ́tnik, traveler)
    мете́ж (metéž, riot) + ‎-ник (-nik) → ‎мете́жник (metéžnik, rioter)
    ра́бота (rábota, work) + ‎-ник (-nik) → ‎рабо́тник (rabótnik, worker)
    смях (smjah, laughter) + ‎-ник (-nik) → ‎смешни́к (smešník, funnyman, clown)
    ум (um, mind, reason) + ‎-ник (-nik) → ‎умни́к (umník, smart person, know-it-all)
    затво́р (zatvór, jail) + ‎-ник (-nik) → ‎затво́рник (zatvórnik, inmate)
    па́кост (pákost, mischief) + ‎-ник (-nik) → ‎па́костник (pákostnik, mischievous boy)
  2. From base object nouns, forms derivative object nouns
    свещ (svešt, candle) + ‎-ник (-nik) → ‎све́щник (svéštnik, candelabrum)
    вест (vest, a piece of news) + ‎-ник (-nik) → ‎ве́стник (véstnik, newspaper)
    пот (pot, sweat) + ‎-ник (-nik) → ‎по́тник (pótnik, tank top)
    сбор (sbor, sum, aggregate) + ‎-ник (-nik) → ‎сбо́рник (sbórnik, collection, anthology)
  3. From prepositions, forms subject nouns exhibiting the specified proposition
    проти́в (protív, against) + ‎-ник (-nik) → ‎проти́вник (protívnik, opponent)
    над (nad, over, above) + ‎-ник (-nik) → ‎на́дник (nádnik, daily wage) (dialectal, meaning shifted from "bonus")
    зад (zad, behind) + ‎-ник (-nik) → ‎за́дник (zádnik, ass, butt)

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Macedonian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *-ьnikъ.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ник (-nik)

  1. Suffix appended to nominal stems to create a masculine noun, usually denoting a profession, performer, place, object, tool or a feature.

Derived terms[edit]

Russian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *-ьnikъ, itself originally by nominalization of adjectives in *-ьnъ with the suffix *-ikъ (whence -ик (-ik)). The suffix originates from the Proto-Balto-Slavic period; compare dialectal Lithuanian lauk-inykas (peasant, farmer) (from laũkas (field)) and Old Prussian lauk-inikis (vassal).

Suffix[edit]

-ник or -ни́к (-nik or -ník)

  1. Suffix appended to nominal stems to create a masculine noun, usually denoting a professional, performer, adherent, place, object, tool or a feature.
    лы́жа (lýža, ski) + ‎-ник (-nik) → ‎лы́жник (lýžnik, skier)
    путь (putʹ, way, path, road) + ‎-ник (-nik) → ‎пу́тник (pútnik, traveler)
    бюдже́т (bjudžét, budget) + ‎-ник (-nik) → ‎бюдже́тник (bjudžétnik, government employee) (colloquial)
    кни́га (kníga, book) + ‎-ник (-nik) → ‎кни́жник (knížnik, bookseller; book lover; scribe) (colloquial)
    двор (dvor, yard, courtyard) + ‎-ник (-nik) → ‎дво́рник (dvórnik, janitor; street cleaner)
    бума́га (bumága, paper, document) + ‎-ник (-nik) → ‎бума́жник (bumážnik, wallet; papermaker)
    пар (par, vapor) + ‎-ник (-nik) → ‎парни́к (parník, greenhouse)
    учёба (učóba, studies, learning) + ‎-ник (-nik) → ‎уче́бник (učébnik, textbook; manual)

Usage notes[edit]

The suffix has the same properties as -ный (-nyj):

Additional properties:

Note in particular that nouns in -ка (-ka), -ко (-ko) have corresponding derived nouns in unstressed -очник or -ечник.

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • English: -nik
  • Ingrian: -nikka

Serbo-Croatian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *-(ь)nikъ, itself originally by nominalization of adjectives in *-ьnъ with the suffix *-ikъ (whence -ик). The suffix originates from the Proto-Balto-Slavic period; compare with dialectal Lithuanian lauk-inykas (peasant, farmer) (from laũkas (field)) and Old Prussian lauk-inikis (vassal).

Suffix[edit]

-ник (Latin spelling -nik)

  1. Suffix appended to nominal stems to create a masculine noun, usually denoting a profession, performer, place, object, tool or a feature.

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Ukrainian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *-ьnikъ, itself originally by nominalization of adjectives in *-ьnъ with the suffix *-ikъ (whence -ик (-yk)). The suffix originates from the Proto-Balto-Slavic period; compare dialectal Lithuanian lauk-inykas (peasant, farmer) (from laũkas (field)) and Old Prussian lauk-inikis (vassal).

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ник (-nykm (feminine -ниця)

  1. forms masculine agent nouns, denoting profession, occupation or relation;
    видава́ти (vydaváty, to publish, to issue) + ‎-ник (-nyk) → ‎видавни́к (vydavnýk, publisher, issuer)
    ви́робити (výrobyty, to produce, to manufacture) + ‎-ник (-nyk) → ‎виробни́к (vyrobnýk, producer, manufacturer)
    предста́вити (predstávyty, to represent) + ‎-ник (-nyk) → ‎представни́к (predstavnýk, representative)
    рятува́ти (rjatuváty, to save, to rescue) + ‎-ник (-nyk) → ‎рятівни́к (rjativnýk, rescuer, savior)
    дві́йка (dvíjka, two) + ‎-ник (-nyk) → ‎дві́єчник (dvíječnyk, pupil who performs poorly in school ("two" was the lowest grade in the Soviet five-point grading system))
    ли́жа (lýža, ski) + ‎-ник (-nyk) → ‎ли́жник (lýžnyk, skier)
    ліс (lis, forest, woods) + ‎-ник (-nyk) → ‎лісни́к (lisnýk, ranger, forest ranger)
    та́нець (tánecʹ, dance) + ‎-ов (-ov) + ‎-ник (-nyk) → ‎танцівни́к (tancivnýk, dancer)
  2. forms abstract masculine agent nouns;
    діли́ти (dilýty, to divide) + ‎-ник (-nyk) → ‎дільни́к (dilʹnýk, divisor)
    мно́жити (mnóžyty, to multiply) + ‎-ник (-nyk) → ‎мно́жник (mnóžnyk, multiplier)
    розчини́ти (rozčynýty, to dilute, to dissolve) + ‎-ник (-nyk) → ‎розчи́нник (rozčýnnyk, dissolvent, solvent, thinner, diluent)
    загусти́ти (zahustýty, to thicken) + ‎-ник (-nyk) → ‎загу́сник (zahúsnyk, thickener)
  3. forms masculine nouns, denoting tools, equipment, mechanisms;
    рука́ (ruká, hand) + ‎-ник (-nyk) → ‎ручни́к (ručnýk, hand brake, stickshift)
    ви́міряти (výmirjaty, to measure) + ‎-ник (-nyk) → ‎вимі́рник (vymírnyk, meter)
    вого́нь (vohónʹ, fire) + ‎гаси́ти (hasýty, to extinguish) + ‎-ник (-nyk) → ‎вогнега́сник (vohnehásnyk, fire extinguisher)
    пла́вати (plávaty, to swim) + ‎-ник (-nyk) → ‎плавни́к (plavnýk, fin)
  4. forms masculine nouns, denoting place;
    квіт (kvit, flower) + ‎-ник (-nyk) → ‎квітни́к (kvitnýk, flower-garden, parterre)
    журавли́на (žuravlýna, cranberry) + ‎-ник (-nyk) → ‎журавли́нник (žuravlýnnyk, cranberry field)
    ку́ри (kúry, chickens) + ‎-ник (-nyk) → ‎ку́рник (kúrnyk, chicken coop)
    мура́ха (muráxa, ant) + ‎-ник (-nyk) → ‎мура́шник (murášnyk, anthill, ant nest)
    яйце́ (jajcé, ovum, egg) + ‎-ник (-nyk) → ‎яє́чник (jajéčnyk, ovary, ovarium)
    сі́м'я (símʺja, seed, sperm) + ‎-ник (-nyk) → ‎сім'яни́к (simʺjanýk, testicle)
  5. forms masculine nouns, denoting plants;
    борщ (boršč, borscht, hogweed) + ‎-ов (-ov) + ‎-ник (-nyk) → ‎борщівни́к (borščivnýk, hogweed)
    жа́ба (žába, frog) + ‎-ник (-nyk) → ‎жабни́к (žabnýk, cudweed, cottonrose)
    по (po, by) + ‎доро́га (doróha, road, way) + ‎-ник (-nyk) → ‎подоро́жник (podoróžnyk, plantain)

Usage notes[edit]

Derived terms[edit]