-ко

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Russian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *-ьko.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ко or -ко́ (-ko or -kó)

  1. Creates diminutives of normally neuter nouns and adverbs, normally having a colloquial register.
    я́блоко (jábloko, apple) + ‎-ко (-ko) → ‎я́блочко (jábločko, small apple)
    пи́во (pívo, beer) + ‎-ко́ (-kó) → ‎пивко́ (pivkó, beer)
    се́рдце (sérdce, heart) + ‎-ко (-ko) → ‎серде́чко (serdéčko, small heart; heart symbol)
    ведро́ (vedró, bucket) + ‎-ко (-ko) → ‎ведёрко (vedjórko, small bucket, small pail)
    тихо́нько (tixónʹko, quiet) + ‎-ко (-ko) → ‎тихо́нечко (tixónečko, very quiet)
    солове́й (solovéj, nightingale) + ‎-ко (-ko) → ‎солове́йко (solovéjko, nightingale)

Declension[edit]

Usage notes[edit]

  • The suffix is added to the stem of the word (i.e. minus its final vowel, if any). An epenthetic vowel often breaks up stem-final consonant clusters, and velars become palatals according to the Slavic first palatalization (both effects are due to the yer that occurred at the Proto-Slavic level). These effects can be seen in серде́чко (serdéčko, small heart), derived from се́рдце (sérdce, heart), and тихо́нечко (tixónečko, very quiet), derived from тихо́нько (tixónʹko, quiet), itself containing the same diminutive ending. (Specifically, starting from the stem *тихо́ньк-, a vowel is epenthesized, producing тихо́нек-, and the final velar is palatalized, producing тихо́неч-.) In general, the combination -ко + -ко produces -ечко (-ečko) or -очко (-očko).
Derived terms[edit]



Serbo-Croatian[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ко (Latin spelling -ko)

  1. Suffix appended to words to create a masculine noun, usually denoting a negative feature.