-ko

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Basque[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • -eko (after consonants)
  • -go (see usage notes)

Etymology[edit]

Unknown.[1]

Suffix[edit]

-ko

  1. Locative singular suffix.
    etxe (house) + ‎-ko → ‎etxeko (of the house, related to the house)
  2. Noun-forming suffix with various functions.
    1. related to, near
      gerri (waist) + ‎-ko → ‎gerriko (belt)
      belarri (ear) + ‎-ko → ‎belarritako (earring)
    2. Forms words expressing a hit or strike
  3. After -z (instrumental case marker): made of
    haritz (oak) + ‎-ko → ‎haritzezko (oaken)
  4. Forms the future tense.
    egin (to do) + ‎-ko → ‎egingo (will do)

Usage notes[edit]

  • The case formed by this suffix is also called "local genitive" or "locative genitive". It roughly corresponds to the usage of the prepositions of in English and de in Spanish. The genitive case (formed by the suffix -ren) also corresponds generally to these prepositions; but is mostly used to imply ownership, while the locative implies location or relatedness. However, there are exceptions to this general rule, see the usage examples below.
    Bizkaiko mendiakthe mountains of Biscay
    buruko minaheadache (literally, “pain of the head”)
    eskolako jaialdiaschool festival
    Picassoren margolan bata painting by Picasso
    Ilargiaren orbitathe orbit of the Moon
    mutilaren argazkiathe picture of (owned by) the boy; the picture of (showing) the boy
  • Common nouns ending in a consonant take the form -eko with an epenthetic vowel.
    hondartz (beach) + ‎-ko → ‎hondartzeko (of the beach).
  • Proper nouns and verbs ending /n/ or /l/ take the voiced form -go.
    Madril (Madrid) + ‎-ko → ‎Madrilgo (of Madrid).

Declension[edit]

Basque inflectional suffixes
indefinite singular plural proximal plural
absolutive -∅ -a -ak -ok
ergative -k, -ek -ak -ek
dative -ri, -i -ari -ei -oi
genitive -ren, -en -aren -en -on
comitative -rekin, -ekin -arekin -ekin -okin
causative -rengatik, -engatik -arengatik -engatik -ongatik
benefactive -rentzat, -entzat -arentzat -entzat -ontzat
instrumental -z, -ez -az -ez -oz
inessive anim. -rengan, -engan -arengan -engan -oengan
inanim. -tan, -etan -an -etan -otan
locative anim.
inanim. -tako, -etako -ko, -eko -etako -otako
allative anim. -rengana, -engana -arengana -engana -ongana
inanim. -tara, -etara -ra, -era -etara -otara
terminative anim. -renganaino, -enganaino -arenganaino -enganaino -onganaino
inanim. -taraino, -etaraino -raino, -eraino -etaraino -otaraino
directive anim. -renganantz, -enganantz -arenganantz -enganantz -onganantz
inanim. -tarantz, -etarantz -rantz, -erantz -etarantz -otarantz
destinative anim. -renganako, -enganako -arenganako -enganako -onganako
inanim. -tarako, -etarako -rako, -erako -etarako -otarako
ablative anim. -rengandik, -engandik -arengandik -engandik -ongandik
inanim. -tatik, -etatik -tik, -etik -etik -otik
partitive -rik, -ik
prolative -tzat
The forms shown first are used when the ending is a vowel, the ones after the comma when it is a consonant.

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ -ko” in Etymological Dictionary of Basque by R. L. Trask, sussex.ac.uk

Czech[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ko n

  1. Forms diminutive nouns.
    ef + ‎-ko → ‎efko
    oko + ‎-ko → ‎očko
    zrno + ‎-ko → ‎zrnko

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • -ko in Slovník afixů užívaných v češtině, 2017

Finnish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *-ko, probably ultimately from Proto-Uralic *ko-.

Clitic[edit]

-ko (front vowel harmony variant -kö)

  1. (enclitic) Turns a clause interrogative. It is appended to the element of the clause that is questioned most. English equivalents include the normal ways of forming an interrogative statement without using an interrogative pronoun, such as the verb "do", inversion of the word order and intonation.
    Onko hän täällä? (on > + -ko)
    Is s/he here?
    Täällä hän on? (täällä + -kö)
    Is s/he here?
    Tuleeko hän laivalla? (tulee > + -ko)
    Is she coming by the ship?
    Millä sitten - veneellä? (veneellä + -kö)
    By what, then - on the boat?
    Näkee hän? (näkee > + -kö)
    Does s/he see?
    Pitäisi hänen tulla tänne? (pitäisi > + -kö)
    Should s/he come here?
  2. (enclitic) In indirect questions, -ko/-kö appended to the verb corresponds to the conjunctions if and whether in English.
    En tiedä, tuleeko hän.
    I don't know if she comes.
    En tiedä, näkee hän.
    I don't know if she sees.
  3. (enclitic) With the particle -han/-hän attached to the topic of discussion, it expresses "I wonder if".
    Pukeutuikohan hän tarpeeksi lämpimästi tänä aamuna?
    I wonder if he put enough clothes on this morning.
    Menihän hän kouluun tänä aamuna?
    I wonder if he went to school this morning.
  4. (enclitic) With the negative verb (en, et, ei, emme, ette, eivät) and the particle -han/-hän, expresses "I suppose".
    Emmehän me jotenkuten tule toimeen.
    I suppose we'll get by somehow.
  5. (enclitic, colloquial) In a question with an interrogative word.
    Olikko millon tulossa käymään?
    When are you coming by here?

Usage notes[edit]

  • (interrogative particle): The particle -ko/-kö is used when there is no other interrogative word, in both direct and indirect questions. The answer is expected to be simply affirmative or negative.
  • (interrogative particle): The word with this particle will usually move to the beginning of the clause (see the usage examples).
  • (I wonder if): Note that, unlike in English, the sentence meaning "I wonder if" is an interrogative sentence in Finnish, so it ends with a question mark.

Synonyms[edit]

  • -ks (colloquial)

See also[edit]


Garo[edit]

Etymology[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Suffix[edit]

-ko

  1. (inflectional suffix) forms the accusative case

See also[edit]

  • -ni (forms genitive)
  • -na (forms dative)
  • -chi (forms instrumental)
  • -no (forms locative)

Hadza[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ko

  1. a feminine singular suffix (often used with a collective sense)

Related terms[edit]


Lower Sorbian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *-ъko.

Suffix[edit]

-ko n

  1. added to neuter nouns to form a diminutive

Derived terms[edit]


Makasar[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *(i-)kahu, Proto-Austronesian *(i-)kaSu.

Pronoun[edit]

-ko (absolutive enclitic, Lontara spelling ᨀᨚ)

  1. you (familiar second person singualr and plural)

See also[edit]


Murui Huitoto[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Classifier[edit]

-ko

  1. Classifier for objects that give cover.
  2. Classifier for spherical containers.

References[edit]

  • Katarzyna Izabela Wojtylak (2017) A grammar of Murui (Bue): a Witotoan language of Northwest Amazonia.[1], Townsville: James Cook University press (PhD thesis), pages 195-196

Nupe[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-kó

  1. Used to form nouns meaning a larger form of something.
    èsá (stool) + ‎-ko → ‎èsákó (table)
    yàbà (banana) + ‎-ko → ‎yàbàkó (plantain)
    ǹdá (father) + ‎-ko → ‎ǹdákó (grandfather)
    bànban (river bank) + ‎-ko → ‎bànbankó (cliff)
    tákùn (rock) + ‎-ko → ‎tákùnkó (large rock)
  1. Used to form a nominalised and superlative form of verbs.
    wáncí (to be large) + ‎-ko → ‎wáncíkó (the largest)
    pàrà (to be wide) + ‎-ko → ‎pàràkó (the widest)

Further reading[edit]

  • Alhaji, Gabra Ibrahim A Morphological Analysis of Nouns and Adjectives In The Nupe Language, 2012

Polish[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /kɔ/
  • (file)
  • Rhymes:
  • Syllabification: ko

Suffix[edit]

-ko n

  1. Diminutive suffix for neuter nouns. May cause various vowel shifts
    słowo + ‎-ko → ‎słówko

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • -ko in Wielki słownik języka polskiego, Instytut Języka Polskiego PAN
  • -ko in Polish dictionaries at PWN

Serbo-Croatian[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ko (Cyrillic spelling -ко)

  1. Suffix appended to words to create a masculine noun, most likely to make diminutive. Usually used to make names, or nicknames denoting a negative feature.
    dar + ‎-ko → ‎Darko
    Jano + ‎-ko → ‎Janko
    debeo + ‎-ko → ‎debeljko (fatty (meant as an insult))

Slovak[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ko n

  1. Diminutive suffix for neuter nouns

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]