-ko

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Finnish[edit]

Particle[edit]

-ko (front vowel harmony variant -kö)

  1. (enclitic) Turns a clause interrogative. It is appended to the element of the clause that is questioned most. English equivalents include the normal ways of forming an interrogative statement without using an interrogative pronoun, such as the verb "do", inversion of the word order and intonation.
    Onko hän täällä? (on > + -ko)
    Is s/he here?
    Täällä hän on? (täällä + -kö)
    Is s/he here?
    Tuleeko hän laivalla? (tulee > + -ko)
    Is she coming by the ship?
    Millä sitten - veneellä? (veneellä + -kö)
    By what, then - on the boat?
    Näkee hän? (näkee > + -kö)
    Does s/he see?
    Pitäisi hänen tulla tänne? (pitäisi > + -kö)
    Should s/he come here?
  2. (enclitic) In indirect questions, -ko/-kö appended to the verb corresponds to the conjunctions if and whether in English.
    En tiedä, tuleeko hän.
    I don't know if she comes.
    En tiedä, näkee hän.
    I don't know if she sees.
  3. (enclitic) With the particle -han/-hän, expresses "I wonder if".
    Pukeutuikohan hän tarpeeksi lämpimästi tänä aamuna?
    I wonder if he put enough clothes on this morning.
    Menihän hän kouluun tänä aamuna?
    I wonder if he went to school this morning.
  4. (enclitic) With the negative verb (en, et, ei, emme, ette, eivät) and the particle -han/-hän, expresses "I suppose".
    Emmehän me jotenkuten tule toimeen.
    I suppose we'll get by somehow.

Usage notes[edit]

  • (interrogative particle): The particle -ko/-kö is used when there is no other interrogative word, in both direct and indirect questions. The answer is expected to be simply affirmative or negative.
  • (I wonder if): Note that, unlike in English, the sentence meaning "I wonder if" is an interrogative sentence in Finnish, so it ends with a question mark.
  • In Colloquial Finnish, "-ks" is used in place of "-ko/-kö".

See also[edit]


Hadza[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ko

  1. a feminine suffix

Lower Sorbian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *-ъko.

Suffix[edit]

-ko

  1. added to neuter nouns to form a diminutive

Derived terms[edit]



Polish[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ko n

  1. Diminutive suffix for neuter nouns

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]


Serbo-Croatian[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ko (Cyrillic spelling -ко)

  1. Suffix appended to words to create a masculine noun, most likely to make diminutive. Usually used to make names, or nicknames denoting a negative feature.
    darDarko
    Ἰωάννης (Iōánnēs)Janko
    debeodebeljko (fatty (meant as an insult))

Slovak[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ko n

  1. Diminutive suffix for neuter nouns

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]