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  1. (pharmacology) a shortened allomorph of the monoclonal antibody affix -lim-, used before the affixes -xi- and -zu- for ease of pronunciation

Derived terms[edit]



Etymology 1[edit]

From -li, a stem of -wa (to be).[1]



  1. positive past tense marker
    Antonym: -ku-
    walikulathey ate
    aliyelalathe person who was asleep
    • 1973, Mohammed S. Abdulla, Dunianu kuna watu, page 3:
      Ilikuwa kiasi cha saa moja-unusu ya usiku Kasim alipopanda ngazi pana zilizotandikwa zulia au blanketi nene, zilizoongoza kufikia ghorofa akaayo baba yake, Bw. Hakimu Marjani.
      It was about half past seven in the night when Kasim went up the wide stairs covered with carpets or thick blankets, which led to the floor where resided his father, Mr Hakimu Marjani.
Usage notes[edit]

This marker can be used in both nonrelative and relative verbs.

See also[edit]
Swahili TAM markers
Positive infinitive ku-/kw-1
Negative infinitive kuto-
Habitual hu-1
Telegrammic ka-1
General (positive indicative) -a
Positive subjunctive -e
Negative present -i
Second person plural -ni
Infix position
positive subject concord
Positive past -li-
Positive present -na-
Positive future -ta-
Negative subjunctive -si-1
Positive present conditional -nge-
Negative present conditional -singe-
Positive past conditional -ngali-
Negative past conditional -singali-
Gnomic -a-1
Perfect -me-
"Already" past -lisha-
"Already" present -mesha-/-sha-
"If/When" -ki-1
"If not" -sipo-
Consecutive -ka-1
Infix position
negative subject concord
Negative past -ku-1
Negative future -ta-
"Not yet" -ja-1
Negative present conditional -nge-
Negative past conditional -ngali-
Past -li-
Present -na-
Future -taka-
Negative -si-
1 Can take stress and therefore does not require -ku-/-kw- in monosyllabic verbs.

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Bantu *dɪ́-.



  1. it, ji class(V) object concord
See also[edit]


  1. ^ John H. McWhorter (1992), “NI and the Copula System in Swahili: A Diachronic Approach”, in Diachronica, volume 9, issue 1, →DOI, pages 15–46