-ni

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Classical Nahuatl[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ni

  1. Marks a verb's habitual or customary present tense.

Curripaco[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ni

  1. third person singular masculine patient marker

Reference[edit]

  • Swintha Danielsen, Tania Granadillo, Agreement in two Arawak languages, in The Typology of Semantic Alignment (edited by Mark Donohue, Søren Wichmann) (2008, ISBN 0199238383), page 398

Finnish[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ni (appended to the (strong) vowel stem; the final -n of the genitive and illative singular and plural or the -t of the nominative plural is omitted)

  1. (possessive) suffix used with or without minun (the genitive of the personal pronoun minä), corresponds to the English possessive pronoun my:
    (minun) kirjani = my book/books
    (minun) valaani = my oath/of my oath (partitive of vala) or my whale/whales (valas)
  2. (possessive) appended to a genitive-requiring postposition that is after or without minun (the genitive of the personal pronoun minä), me:
    (minun) edessäni = in front of me
    (minun) takanani = behind me
  3. (possessive) used in a participle structure replacing an "että" clause, preceded by a verb expressing, e.g., telling, claiming, asserting, confirming, thinking, wish, desire, seeming, when the clauses have the same subject "I"; appended to the active present participle in genitive singular when the action is concurrent with the main clause:
    Sanoin tekeväni läksyjäni.
    I said that I was doing my homework. (similar to the Latin structure accusativus cum infinitivo, e.g., "se dicit facere")
  4. (possessive) used in a participle structure replacing an "että" clause, preceded by a verb expressing, e.g., telling, claiming, asserting, confirming, thinking, wish, desire, seeming, when the clauses have the same subject "I"; appended to the active past participle in genitive singular when the said/alleged (etc.) action antedates the main clause:
    Väitin tehneeni läksyjäni.
    I claimed to have been doing my homework.
  5. (possessive) used in a shortened sentence expressing concurrent actions when the clauses have the same subject "I", appended to the inessive of the active second infinitive:
    Tehdessäni läksyjäni (minä) kuulin laukauksen ulkoa.
    (While) doing my homework, I heard a shot from outside.
  6. (possessive) used in a shortened sentence expressing subsequent actions when the clauses have the same subject "I", appended to the partitive of the passive past participle singular:
    Tehtyäni läksyni (minä) kuulin laukauksen ulkoa.
    (After) having done / After doing my homework, I heard a shot from outside.
  7. (possessive) used in a final shortened sentence expressing "in order to do" when the clauses have the same subject "I", appended to the long first infinitive:
    Tehdäkseni läksyni hyvin (minä) menin hiljaiseen huoneeseen.
    (In order) to do my homework well, I went into a quiet room.
  8. (possessive) Used in some adverbs, when the clause has the subject "I".
    Olen hyvin pahoillani siitä.
    I'am very sorry about it.
  9. (possessive) Always appended to a noun in the comitative case when the clause has the subject "I".
    Kävelin kirjoineni ovesta ulos.
    I walked with my books out the door.

Usage notes[edit]

  • The possessive suffix -ni is compulsory in standard Finnish. In standard Finnish, when expressing ownership or before a postposition, the genitive form of the corresponding personal pronoun "minä" before the main word can be omitted. In colloquial Finnish, the suffix -ni is very rare and only the genitive form "minun" (or its colloquial or dialectal variants) is used before the main word.
  • The shortened sentences — except for the participle structures — pertain mainly to standard Finnish, not to spoken Finnish. It is also to be noticed that the shortened clauses are never separated from the main clauses with a comma.

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]


Hungarian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ni

  1. (infinitive suffix) Used to form the infinitive.
    ad (give)adni (to give)

Usage notes[edit]

  • (infinitive suffix) Variants:
    -ni is added to most verbs
    ad (give)adni (to give)
    -ani is added to back vowel verbs ending in -ít or in two consonants
    tanít (teach)tanítani (to teach)
    akaszt (hang)akasztani (to hang)
    bont (demolish)bontani (to demolish)
    -eni is added to front vowel verbs ending in -ít or in two consonants
    veszít (lose)veszíteni (to lose)
    ijeszt (frighten)ijeszteni (to frighten)
    csökkent (reduce)csökkenteni (to reduce)
    -nni is added to verbs with variant stems
    vesz (buy)venni (to buy)
    eszik (eat)enni (to eat)

See also[edit]


Maltese[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Arabic ـنِي (-nī).

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

-ni

  1. me (enclitic object pronoun)

Related terms[edit]


Old Irish[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Celtic *snīs (we) (compare Welsh ni).

Suffix[edit]

-ni

  1. 1st person plural emphatic suffix

Derived terms[edit]



Quechua[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ni

  1. First-person singular subject.
    rimay (to speak)ñuqa rimani (I speak)
  2. Epenthetic suffix inserted between consonant clusters.
    yachachiq (teacher) +‎ -y (my) → *yachachiqyyachachiqniy (my teacher)

See also[edit]


Sicilian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ni

  1. added to words that are stressed on the final syllable to move stress to the penultimate syllable
    tutuni (you)
    ccàccani (here)

Swahili[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ni

  1. Second person plural:
    you, (archaic) ye
  2. With nouns, indicates location: in/inside, at, on
    nyumbani (at home, in the house)
    mezani (on the table)

Usage notes[edit]

  • (second-person plural) Used in conjunction with the direct imperative to form the plural. With native (Bantu)/nativized verbs in -a, vowel changes to -e:
    Kisomeni (Read it!) (from soma)
    Jibuni (Answer!) (from jibu)
  • (second-person plural) Used in conjunction with the class 1 (personal) object affix -wa- to disambiguate the second-person plural from the third person plural; verbs in -a change this to -e before the affix:
    Niliwasomeeni (I read to you) vs. Niliwasomea (I read to them)

Zulu[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions. You can also discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

-ni

  1. what
    Udlani?
    What are you eating?
    Yini lokhu?
    What is this?
Usage notes[edit]

Unlike other pronouns, -ni always appears attached to another word. However, it does have a copulative form yini.

Etymology 2[edit]

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions. You can also discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ni

  1. Forms the plural of the imperative of verbs.

References[edit]