-ni

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Central Nahuatl[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ni

  1. Marks a verb's habitual or customary present tense.

Classical Nahuatl[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ni

  1. Marks a verb's habitual or customary present tense.

Derived terms[edit]

Curripaco[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ni

  1. third person singular masculine patient marker

References[edit]

  • Swintha Danielsen, Tania Granadillo, Agreement in two Arawak languages, in The Typology of Semantic Alignment (edited by Mark Donohue, Søren Wichmann) (2008, →ISBN), page 398

Finnish[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *-ni, from Proto-Uralic *-ni. Originally the first-person possessive suffix for words in plural, with -mi used for singular words; the latter is now only found in dialects. Compare Erzya (-m).

Suffix[edit]

-ni

  1. (possessive) First-person singular possessive suffix used with or without minun (the genitive of the personal pronoun minä), corresponds to the English possessive pronoun my
    (minun) kirjanimy book
    (minun) valaanimy whale(s) (nominative singular/plural or genitive singular) / my oath (partitive or illative singular)
    1. (possessive) Appended to a genitive-requiring postposition that is after or without minun (the genitive of the personal pronoun minä), me
      (minun) edessäniin front of me
      (minun) takananibehind me
    2. (possessive) Used in a participle structure replacing an että clause, preceded by a verb expressing, e.g., telling, claiming, asserting, confirming, thinking, wish, desire, seeming, when the clauses have the same subject "I"; appended to the active present participle in genitive singular when the action is concurrent with the main clause
      Sanoin tekeväni läksyjäni. (similar to the Latin structure accusativus cum infinitivo, e.g. se dicit facere)
      I said that I was doing my homework.
    3. (possessive) Used in a participle structure replacing an että clause, preceded by a verb expressing, e.g., telling, claiming, asserting, confirming, thinking, wish, desire, seeming, when the clauses have the same subject "I"; appended to the active past participle in genitive singular when the said/alleged (etc.) action antedates the main clause.
      Väitin tehneeni läksyjäni.
      I claimed to have been doing my homework.
    4. (possessive) Used in a shortened sentence expressing concurrent actions when the clauses have the same subject "I", appended to the inessive of the active second infinitive.
      Tehdessäni läksyjäni (minä) kuulin laukauksen ulkoa.
      (While) doing my homework, I heard a shot from outside.
    5. (possessive) Used in a shortened sentence expressing subsequent actions when the clauses have the same subject "I", appended to the partitive of the passive past participle singular.
      Tehtyäni läksyni (minä) kuulin laukauksen ulkoa.
      (After) having done / After doing my homework, I heard a shot from outside.
    6. (possessive) Used in a final shortened sentence expressing "in order to do" when the clauses have the same subject "I", appended to the long first infinitive.
      Tehdäkseni läksyni hyvin (minä) menin hiljaiseen huoneeseen.
      (In order) to do my homework well, I went into a quiet room.
    7. (possessive) Used in some adverbs, when the clause has the subject "I"
      Olen hyvin pahoillani siitä.
      I am very sorry about it.
    8. (possessive) Always appended to a noun in the comitative case when the clause has the subject "I".
      Kävelin kirjoineni ovesta ulos.
      I walked with my books out the door.

Usage notes[edit]

  • The possessive suffix -ni is compulsory in standard Finnish. In standard Finnish, when expressing ownership or before a postposition, the genitive form of the corresponding personal pronoun minä before the main word can be omitted. In colloquial Finnish, the suffix -ni is very rare and only the genitive form minun (or its colloquial or dialectal variants) is used before the main word.
  • Appended to the (strong) vowel stem. The final -n of the genitive and illative singular and plural or the -t of the nominative plural are omitted, for example: talo (house) > taloon (into a/the house) > taloosi (into your house).
  • The shortened sentences — except for the participle structures — pertain mainly to formal/standard Finnish, not to informal/colloquial Finnish. It is also to be noticed that the shortened clauses are never separated from the main clauses with a comma.

See also[edit]

Anagrams[edit]

Garo[edit]

Etymology[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Suffix[edit]

-ni

  1. (inflectional suffix) forms the genitive case

See also[edit]

  • -na (forms dative)
  • -ko (forms accusative)
  • -chi (forms instrumental)
  • -no (forms locative)

Hungarian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ni

  1. (infinitive suffix) Forms the infinitive.
    ad (give) + ‎-ni → ‎adni (to give)
  2. Forms the concessive sense: used to devalue the predicate of the sentence when repeated and followed by a clause that contrasts with or contradicts it. See also -nak/-nek.
    Elindulni elindul, de rögtön le is áll.It does start, but it turns off right away.
  3. (somewhat dated or literary, with the omission of lehet) one can…, it is possible to…
    Innen már látni a falut.One can already see the village from here.

Usage notes[edit]

  • (infinitive suffix) Variants:
    -ni is added to most verbs
    ad (give) + ‎-ni → ‎adni (to give)
    -ani is added to back-vowel verbs ending in -ít or in two consonants
    tanít (teach) + ‎-ani → ‎tanítani (to teach)
    akaszt (hang) + ‎-ani → ‎akasztani (to hang)
    bont (demolish) + ‎-ani → ‎bontani (to demolish)
    -eni is added to front-vowel verbs ending in -ít or in two consonants
    veszít (lose) + ‎-eni → ‎veszíteni (to lose)
    ijeszt (frighten) + ‎-eni → ‎ijeszteni (to frighten)
    csökkent (reduce) + ‎-eni → ‎csökkenteni (to reduce)
    -nni is added to verbs with variant stems
    vesz (buy) + ‎-nni → ‎venni (to buy)
    eszik (eat) + ‎-nni → ‎enni (to eat)

See also[edit]

Icelandic[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ni f

  1. Nominalizes a verb or adjective.
    ákveða (to decide) + ‎-ni → ‎ákveðni (decisiveness)
    samkvæmur (consistent) + ‎-ni → ‎samkvæmni (consistency)

Derived terms[edit]

Karelian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *-ni, from Proto-Uralic *-ni. Cognates include Finnish -ni.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ni

  1. Used to mark the possession of the first person; my, our
    jalka (leg)jalkani (my leg, our legs)

Derived terms[edit]

Category Karelian terms suffixed with -ni not found

References[edit]

  • P. M. Zaykov (1999) Грамматика Карельского языка (фонетика и морфология) [Grammar of the Karelian language (phonetics and morphology)], →ISBN, page 47

Maltese[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Arabicـنِي(-nī).

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ni m or f

  1. 1st-person singular pronominal suffix, attached to verbs: me
    Synonyms: -i, (only in possessive use) tiegħi
    jinsa (he forgets) + ‎-ni → ‎jinsieni (he forgets me)

Related terms[edit]

Mecayapan Nahuatl[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Cognate with Classical Nahuatl -ni.

Verb[edit]

-ni

  1. Forms agent nouns from verbs.

Derived terms[edit]

Old Irish[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Celtic *snīs (we) (compare Welsh ni).

Suffix[edit]

-ni

  1. 1st person plural emphatic suffix

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]

Old Norse[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ni

  1. positive degree weak masculine nominative singular of -inn (adjective suffix)
  2. weak masculine nominative singular of -inn (participle suffix)
  3. third-person singular/plural present subjunctive of -na (inchoative verb suffix)

Old Polish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *-nь.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ni

  1. forms adjectives

Derived terms[edit]

Polish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Inherited from Old Polish -ni.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ɲi/
  • Rhymes: -i
  • Syllabification: ni

Suffix[edit]

-ni

  1. forms adjectives
    żyto + ‎-ni → ‎żytni
  2. forms masculine adjectives relating to place
    wschód + ‎-ni → ‎wschodni

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Quechua[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ni

  1. First-person singular subject.
    rimay (to speak)ñuqa rimani (I speak)
  2. Epenthetic suffix inserted between consonant clusters.
    yachachiq (teacher) +‎ -y (my) → *yachachiqyyachachiqniy (my teacher)

See also[edit]

Romani[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Inherited from Sanskrit -इनी (-inī). Cognate with Hindi -नी (-nī).

Suffix[edit]

-ni f

  1. A suffix used to make a female form, similar to -ette or -ess in English
    grast (horse) + ‎-ni → ‎grasni (mare)
    thagar (king) + ‎-ni → ‎thagarni (queen)

Suffix[edit]

-ni f

  1. female equivalent of -no
    siklǒvel (study) + ‎-ni → ‎siklǒvni (female student)

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  • Yūsuke Sumi (2018), “-ni”, in ニューエクスプレス ロマ(ジプシー)語 [New Express Romani (Gypsy)] (in Japanese), Tokyo: Hakusuisha, →ISBN, page 130

Sicilian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ni

  1. added to words that are stressed on the final syllable to move stress to the penultimate syllable
    accussìaccussini (in this way)
    accuḍḍìaccuḍḍini (in that other way)
    appassìappassini (in the meanwhile)
    tutuni (you)
    ccaccani (here)
    ḍḍàḍḍàni (over there)
    èèni (it is)
    ḍḍàḍḍàni (over there)
    pirchìpirchini (why/because)

Swahili[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ni

  1. Second person plural:
    you, (archaic) ye
  2. With nouns, indicates location: in/inside, at, on
    nyumbaniat home, in the house
    mezanion the table

Usage notes[edit]

  • (second-person plural) Used in conjunction with the direct imperative to form the plural. With native (Bantu)/nativized verbs in -a, vowel changes to -e:
    Kisomeni (Read it!) (from soma)
    Jibuni (Answer!) (from jibu)
  • (second-person plural) Used in conjunction with the class 1 (personal) object affix -wa- to disambiguate the second-person plural from the third person plural; verbs in -a change this to -e before the affix:
    Niliwasomeeni (I read to you) vs. Niliwasomea (I read to them)

Warlpiri[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ni

  1. non-past marker, applied to verbs of class 5 to indicate non-past tense

Welsh[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Cognate with Cornish -ni.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ni m

  1. forming abstract nouns, -ness, -ment
    glas (blue, green) + ‎-ni → ‎glesni (blueness, chlorosis)
    llwyd (grey) + ‎-ni → ‎llwydni (greyness, mould)
    moel (bald) + ‎-ni → ‎moelni (baldness)
    rhwd (rust) + ‎-ni → ‎rhydni (rustiness, rubigo)

Usage notes[edit]

-ni causes i-affection of internal vowels.

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  • R. J. Thomas, G. A. Bevan, P. J. Donovan, A. Hawke et al., editors (1950–present), “-ni”, in Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru Online (in Welsh), University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh & Celtic Studies

Zaghawa[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ni

  1. family (used in compounds)

References[edit]

Zulu[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

-ni

  1. what
    Udlani?What are you eating?
    Yini lokhu?What is this?
Usage notes[edit]

Unlike other pronouns, -ni always appears attached to another word. However, it does have a copulative form yini.

Etymology 2[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-ni

  1. Forms the plural of the imperative of verbs.

References[edit]