-inn

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Icelandic[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From hinn (the).

Suffix[edit]

-inn m (feminine -in, neuter -ið)

  1. marks definiteness of a noun; the
    Maðurinn er hávaxinn.The man is tall.
    Ég elska barn mitt.I love my child.
    Hvar er hesturinn minn?Where is my horse?

Old Norse[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Norse *-īna-, from Proto-Germanic *-īnaz, from Proto-Indo-European *-iHnos. Originally, this suffix was used to create adjectives that refer to materials, such as Old Norse eikinn (oaken), from eik (oak) and gullinn (golden), from gull (gold). Later, use of this suffix was extended to create adjectives from verbs, such as Old Norse lyginn (prone to lying), from ljúga (to lie).[1]

Suffix[edit]

-inn m (feminine -in, neuter -it)

  1. Used to create adjectives from nouns, meaning "made from"
  2. Used to create adjectives from verbs, meaning "prone to"
Declension[edit]

Note that the positive degree strong masculine accusative singular is -inn, and not the would-be expected form *-nan.

Derived terms[edit]

When used, it often causes i-umlaut.

Descendants[edit]
  • Icelandic: -inn
  • Faroese: -in
  • Norwegian Nynorsk: -en
  • Norwegian Bokmål: -en
  • Swedish: -en
  • Danish: -en

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Norse -ᛁᚾᚨᛉ (-inaz) (cf. ᚺᚨᛁᛏᛁᚾᚨᛉ (haitinaz) and ᛊᛚᚨᚷᛁᚾᚨᛉ (slaginaz), ancestors of heitinn and sleginn), from *-anaz, the ending of all past participles of strong verbs. The ending also results in a-mutation, except before a nasal consonant. It itself came form Proto-Indo-European *-nós

Suffix[edit]

-inn m (feminine -in, neuter -it)

  1. Denotes the past participle form of a strong verb
Declension[edit]

Note that the masculine accusative singular is -inn, and not the would-be expected form *-nan.

Derived terms[edit]
past participle
Descendants[edit]
  • Middle English: -n, -en
  • Icelandic: -inn
  • Faroese: -in
  • Norwegian Nynorsk: -en
  • Norwegian Bokmål: -en
  • Swedish: -en
  • Danish: -en

Etymology 3[edit]

Suffixed form of inn (definite article), from Proto-Germanic *jainaz.

Alternative forms[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-inn m (feminine -in, neuter -it)

  1. the (definite article)
Declension[edit]
Usage notes[edit]

The definite suffix is added to a noun to make it definite. There are four rules for how to apply the definite suffix to a given noun.

  1. There must be agreement between the suffix and the noun, in gender, case and number.
  2. The suffixed article will lose its -i- after the short closing vowels -a, -i, and -u. Note that, usually, contraction will happens also after a long closing vowel, but not if it leaves the word monosyllabic.
    arma + ‎-inna → ‎armanna, from armr m (arm)
    á + ‎-ina → ‎ána, from á f (river)
    hesti + ‎-inum → ‎hestinum, from hestr m (horse)
    sǫgu + ‎-innar → ‎sǫgunnar, from saga f (tale)
    tré + ‎-inu → ‎trénu, from tré n (tree)
  3. In the plural, the suffixed article will lose its -i- after -r.
    ormar + ‎-inir → ‎ormarnir, from ormr m (serpent)
    bœnir + ‎-inar → ‎bœnirnar, from bœn f (request, prayer)
    hendr + ‎-inar → ‎hendrnar, from hǫnd f (hand)
  4. In the dative plural, the suffixed article will lose its -i-, and the noun will lose its final -m.
    lǫndum + ‎-inum → ‎lǫndunum, from land n (land)
    mýrum + ‎-inum → ‎mýrunum, from mýrr f (mire)
Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ragnvald Iversen, Norrøn grammatikk, sjette rev. utg. 1961; p. 208