-a

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Translingual[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin -a.

Suffix[edit]

-a

  1. Used to create genus names from proper nouns
  2. Used to take the form of certain plural Latin-derived taxonomic names

Derived terms[edit]


English[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From the homographic case endings of the nominative, accusative, and vocative forms of numerous Latin neuter second declension nouns.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-a

  1. plural of -um
  2. plural of -on
Usage notes[edit]
  • Whereas the regular pluralization in English involves adding -s or -es, English words derived from a Latin/Greek etymon where the Latin/Greek would pluralize from -on (Greek) or -um (Latin) to -a do not always do so. Usage of -a instead of -s differs between words: sometimes the two are interchangeable (e.g. memorandums/memoranda, polyhedrons/polyhedra), sometimes one is far more common than the other (e.g. neurons over neura, automata over automatons), and sometimes one is completely absent from usage (e.g. bacteria over bacteriums, dendrons over dendra)
  • The word data is etymologically the plural of datum but is commonly regarded as an uncountable noun.
Derived terms[edit]
From -um
From -on
Translations[edit]
See also[edit]
associated suffixes

Etymology 2[edit]

Representing the nominative singular case ending of Latin first-declension feminine nouns.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-a (plural -ae or )

  1. Marks singular nouns, with a foundation in Greek or Latin, often implying femininity, especially when contrasted with words terminating in -us.
Synonyms[edit]
Antonyms[edit]
  • (feminine suffix): he-
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

From Latin -a.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-a

  1. Changes an element or substance into an oxide.
    magnesium + ‎-a → ‎magnesia

Etymology 4[edit]

Shortened version of verb have.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-a

  1. (slang) Alternative form of 've

Etymology 5[edit]

Equivalent to Etymology 2, representing Italian, Portuguese, and Spanish feminine nouns.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-a

  1. Marks nouns, with a foundation in Italian, Spanish, or Portuguese, implying femininity.
Synonyms[edit]
Antonyms[edit]
  • (female suffix): he-

Etymology 6[edit]

Added especially for metrical reasons, or as an empty filler syllable. Also used to imitate an Italian accent.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-a

  1. Added for metrical reasons to songs, poetry and verse, or as an empty filler syllable to other speech.
Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology 7[edit]

Shortened version of preposition of.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-a

  1. (slang) clitic form of o' (contraction of of)

Etymology 8[edit]

Shortened version of verb to.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-a

  1. (informal) to (infinitive marker)

See also[edit]

  • -er (which, in various non-rhotic dialects, reduces to -a, e.g. fatha, burna), compare -z

References[edit]


Albanian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Related to Albanian e (of, the, to) and -e.

Pronunciation[edit]

Article[edit]

-a f

  1. feminine singular nominative suffixed definite article: the
    ditë (day) + ‎-a → ‎dita (the day)
    natë (night) + ‎-a → ‎nata (the night)

Related terms[edit]

suffixed article, suffix
article, preposition

Basque[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-a

  1. Absolutive singular suffix.
    Liburua ekarri al duzu?Did you bring the book?
Usage notes[edit]
  • The suffix -a is usually described as an article. However, its usage is not equivalent to that of English the or a. In Basque, every nominal phrase must carry a determiner, which usually takes the final position in the phrase. Although many others exist, -a is the default determiner which introduces no additional meaning. Compare the following sentences. In the first two, the determiners (-a and hau (this)) apply to the noun phrase etxe handi (big house); while in the last two they apply separately to etxe (house) and handi (big):
    Etxe handia da.It is a big house.
    Etxe handi hau da.It is this big house.
    Etxea handia da.The house is big.
    Etxe hau handia da.This house is big.
  • In Standard Basque, nouns ending in -a in their indefinite form (known in Basque as a itsatsia (literally attached a)) don't change when the article is added:
    neska + ‎-a → ‎neska
Declension[edit]
Basque inflectional suffixes
indefinite singular plural proximal plural
absolutive -∅ -a -ak -ok
ergative -k, -ek -ak -ek
dative -ri, -i -ari -ei -oi
genitive -ren, -en -aren -en -on
comitative -rekin, -ekin -arekin -ekin -okin
causative -rengatik, -engatik -arengatik -engatik -ongatik
benefactive -rentzat, -entzat -arentzat -entzat -ontzat
instrumental -z, -ez -az -ez -oz
inessive anim. -rengan, -engan -arengan -engan -oengan
inanim. -tan, -etan -an -etan -otan
locative anim.
inanim. -tako, -etako -ko, -eko -etako -otako
allative anim. -rengana, -engana -arengana -engana -ongana
inanim. -tara, -etara -ra, -era -etara -otara
terminative anim. -renganaino, -enganaino -arenganaino -enganaino -onganaino
inanim. -taraino, -etaraino -raino, -eraino -etaraino -otaraino
directive anim. -renganantz, -enganantz -arenganantz -enganantz -onganantz
inanim. -tarantz, -etarantz -rantz, -erantz -etarantz -otarantz
destinative anim. -renganako, -enganako -arenganako -enganako -onganako
inanim. -tarako, -etarako -rako, -erako -etarako -otarako
ablative anim. -rengandik, -engandik -arengandik -engandik -ongandik
inanim. -tatik, -etatik -tik, -etik -etik -otik
partitive -rik, -ik
prolative -tzat
The forms shown first are used when the ending is a vowel, the ones after the comma when it is a consonant.

Further reading[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Particle[edit]

-a

  1. (Navarro-Lapurdian) Used to form yes/no questions.
    Liburua ekarri duzuia?Did you bring the book?
Usage notes[edit]
  • It takes different forms depending on the ending of the verb:
    -a + ‎-a → ‎-ea
    -e + ‎-a → ‎-ea
    -o + ‎-a → ‎-oa, -oia
    -u + ‎-a → ‎-uia, -ia
  • Other dialects use the unrelated particle al.

Further reading[edit]


Czech[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-a

  1. Forms agent nouns.
    radit + ‎-a → ‎rada
  2. Forms nouns referring to results of processes.
    naladit + ‎-a → ‎nálada

Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • -a in Slovník afixů užívaných v češtině, 2017

Dutch[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (file)

Suffix[edit]

-a

  1. Plural form of -um
    Synonym: -ums
  2. feminine of -us

Esperanto[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From feminine singular adjectives (and nouns) of the Romance languages, such as French ma, Italian mia, Spanish mía, fría.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-a

  1. Related to, in the manner of, of. Ending for all adjectives in Esperanto.
    belo (beauty) + ‎-a → ‎bela (beautiful)
    dekstro (the right direction) (as opposed to left) + ‎-a → ‎dekstra (to the right)
    vero (truth) + ‎-a → ‎vera (true)
  2. Belonging to, of. Ending for all possessive pronouns in Esperanto.
    mi (I; me) + ‎-a → ‎mia (of me, my)
    vi (you) + ‎-a → ‎via (of you, your)
    ili (they; them) + ‎-a → ‎ilia (of them, their)
  3. Used to form the ordinal numeral.
    unu (one) + ‎-a → ‎unua (first)
    du (two) + ‎-a → ‎dua (second)
    dek tri (thirteen) + ‎-a → ‎dek-tria (thirteenth)
    cent (hundred) + ‎-a → ‎centa (hundredth)
  4. -kind of. Ending of all correlatives of kind in Esperanto.
    ki- + ‎-a → ‎kia (what kind of)
    ti- + ‎-a → ‎tia (that kind of)
    neni- + ‎-a → ‎nenia (no kind of)

Derived terms[edit]

Ending for all adjectives.
Ending for all possessive pronouns in Esperanto.
Ending of all ordinal numerals in Esperanto.
Ending of all correlatives of kind in Esperanto.

Finnish[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • (in words with front vowel harmony)

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *-da, from the Proto-Uralic ablative case *-ta. A variant form *-ta (whence Finnish -ta) was used after a syllable with secondary stress (suffixal gradation).

Suffix[edit]

-a (front vowel harmony variant )

  1. (case suffix) Forms the partitive case of nouns, adjectives, numbers and some pronouns.
Usage notes[edit]
  • This suffix is used after a short vowel or the plural marker -j-.

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *-dak. Historically, a form of a lative suffix.

Suffix[edit]

-a (front vowel harmony variant )

  1. (verbal suffix) Forms the short form of the first infinitive of verbs.
Usage notes[edit]
  • The first infinitive, short form, is the citation form of verbs.

See also[edit]


French[edit]

Etymology[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-a

  1. forms the third-person singular past historic of -er verbs

Garo[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-a

  1. neutral, unmarked tense-aspect marker

Usage notes[edit]

In addition to present time, it often shows habitual action, and can also past and future


Gothic[edit]

Romanization[edit]

-a

  1. Romanization of -𐌰

Hungarian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From the *sᴕ̈ third-person personal pronoun of the ancestor language after it was appended to the word of possession. According to some linguists this attachment happened in the Proto-Uralic era, while others think it happened much later when the Hungarian language became independent.[1]

Suffix[edit]

-a

  1. Possessive (and genitive) suffix: [from 1055]
    1. (with no possessor or with the 3rd-person pronoun as possessor, usually preceded by a definite article) his, her, its ……
      ház (ház)(a) háza, az ő háza (his/her/its house)
      élet (life)(az) élete, az ő élete (his/her/its life)
      barát (friend)(a) barátja (his/her/its friend)
      kapu (gate)(a) kapuja (his/her/its gate)
      palota (palace)(a) palotája (his/her/its palace)
      kert (garden)(a) kertje (his/her/its garden)
      betű (letter)(a) betűje (his/her/its letter)
      vese (kidney)(a) veséje (his/her/its kidney)
    2. (with a singular possessor) ……-'s, of …… (third-person singular, single possession)
      ház (house)Anna háza (Anna’s house)
      ház (house)a felkelő nap háza (the house of the rising sun)
      élet (life)Anna élete (Anna’s life)
      élet (life)a város élete (the life of the city)
      palota (palace)a király palotája (the king’s palace)
      kapu (gate)a ház kapuja (the gate of the house)
      kert (garden)Anna kertje (Anna’s garden)
      kert (garden)a tulipánok kertje (the garden of [the] tulips)
    3. (with a plural possessor) ……-s’, of ……-s (third-person plural, single possession)
      ház (house)a szüleim háza (my parents’ house)
      ház (house)a trópusi növények háza ([the] house of [the] tropical plants, literally the tropical plants’ house)
      élet (life)a szüleim élete (my parents’ lives, literally my parents’ life)
      élet (life)a könyvek élete ([the] lives of [the] books, literally the books’ life)
      palota (palace)az uralkodók palotája (the rulers’ palace)
      kert (garden)a szüleim kertje (my parents’ garden)
      kert (garden)Az elágazó ösvények kertje (The Garden of Forking Paths)
    4. (with time expressions, referring to a point in time) …… ago
      Egy évszázada ment el.S/he left one century ago.
      Két éve ment el.S/he left two years ago.
      Egy órája ment el.S/he left one hour ago.
      Sok/hosszú ideje ment el.S/he left a long time ago
      Synonym: -val/-vel ezelőtt (e.g. két évvel ezelőtt)
    5. (with time expressions, referring to a duration of time preceding the point of time in question) for ……
      Egy évszázada várunk rád.We have been waiting for you for a century.
      Két éve várunk rád.We have been waiting for you for two years.
      Egy órája várunk rád.We have been waiting for you for an hour.
      Sok/hosszú ideje várunk rád.We have been waiting for you for a long time.
    6. (mostly with quantities, often following -ik) of ……, out of …… (partitive sense)
      Synonym: (only with countable quantities) közül
      jó (jav-) (the greater/better part)a java még hátravan (the best/bulk is yet to come, literally its best/bulk is…)
      legnagyobbik (the biggest one)a bikák legnagyobbika (the biggest [one] of the bulls, synonymous with a legnagyobb bika)
  2. (personal suffix) [from the end of the 12th century]
    1. Third-person singular personal suffix in back-vowel verbs. Today it can be found in the third-person singular definite forms (indicative past and imperative conjugations) as part of the suffix -ja/-je, -ta/-te.
      tud (to know)tudta (he/she knew it)
      tudtudja (he/she knows it (indicative mood))
      tudtudja (he/she should know it (subjunctive mood))
      kér (to request, ask for sth)kérte (he/she requested it)
      kérkérje (he/she should request it (subjunctive mood))
    2. Third-person singular personal suffix in back-vowel conjugated infinitives and in the declined and postposition forms of the third-person personal pronoun ő (he/she/it).
      tanulni (to study)tanulnia kell (he/she must study, literally it is necessary for him/her to study)
      kérni (to request, ask for)kérnie kell (he/she must request [it], literally it is necessary for him/her to request)
      -ról (about)róla (about him/her/it)
      -től (from)tőle (from him/her/it)
      után (after)utána (after him/her/it)
      fölött (above)fölötte (above him/her/it)
Usage notes[edit]
  • (possessive suffix) Variants:
    -a is added to back-vowel words ending in a consonant
    -e is added to front-vowel words ending in a consonant
    -ja is added to back-vowel words ending in a consonant or a vowel. Final -a changes to -á-; final -o changes to -ó-.
    -je is added to front-vowel words ending in a consonant or a vowel. Final -e changes to -é-; final changes to -ő-.
    • This suffix (in all forms) is normally used for the third-person singular possessive (single possession) but, after an explicit plural possessor, it also expresses the third-person plural possessive (single possession), e.g. “the children's ball” (a gyerekek labdája). If the possessor is implicit (not named, only marked by a suffix), the plural possessive suffix must be used, e.g. “their ball” (a labdájuk, see -juk and its variants).
  • (personal suffix) Variants:
    -a is added to back-vowel words
    -e is added to front-vowel words
Note that the corresponding (third-person singular) indicative mood of front-vowel verbs is -i, e.g. kéri (s/he requests it).
Declension[edit]
Inflection (stem in long/high vowel, back harmony)
singular plural
nominative -a
accusative -át
dative -ának
instrumental -ával
causal-final -áért
translative -ává
terminative -áig
essive-formal -aként
essive-modal -ául
inessive -ában
superessive -án
adessive -ánál
illative -ába
sublative -ára
allative -ához
elative -ából
delative -áról
ablative -ától
non-attributive
possessive - singular
-áé
non-attributive
possessive - plural
-áéi

See also[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

[1055] It can be traced back to Proto-Uralic *-i̮ which with the word-final vowel created the diphthong -ai̮/-ei̮. This had simplified to -á/-é, finally in the Old Hungarian era it had shortened to -a/-e. It was a productive suffix at that time, the back-vowel variant was used even in front-vowel words such as the Old Hungarian female given names Fehéra and Szépa, derived from fehér (light in color) and szép (beautiful), respectively.[1]

Suffix[edit]

-a

  1. (diminutive suffix) The back-vowel variant of the -a/-e diminutive suffix pair. In the past it could be found in common nouns, as well, but today it is used mostly in given names.
    cic (the sound for calling a cat)cica (kitten)
    Zsigmond (Siegmund)Zsiga (Sig)

Etymology 3[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Suffix[edit]

-a

  1. (personal suffix, archaic) Used to form the third-person singular indicative past indefinite, for back-vowel verbs. The front-vowel version is -e. The suffix currently used in this place is -t, -tt, or -ott. For the full paradigm, see the usage template.

Etymology 4[edit]

Along with its front-vowel counterpart -e, from the diphthongs -ai̮/-ei̮, developing to -á/-é, then shortened to this form by the end of the early Old Hungarian period. After the participle suffix became fixed as /, the remaining words suffixed with -a/-e underwent conversion; some became adjectives, others, nouns.[1]

Suffix[edit]

-a

  1. (obsolete participle suffix) Synonym of (present-participle suffix) From a synchronic perspective, it can be viewed as a nominal-forming suffix, preserved in some adjectives and nouns (see below). No longer productive. Its front-vowel version is -e.
Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 -a in Zaicz, Gábor (ed.). Etimológiai szótár: Magyar szavak és toldalékok eredete (’Dictionary of Etymology: The origin of Hungarian words and affixes’). Budapest: Tinta Könyvkiadó, 2006, →ISBN.  (See also its 2nd edition.)

Icelandic[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-a

  1. Used to form verbs from nouns.
    spark (a kick) + ‎-a → ‎sparka (to kick)
    mjólk (milk) + ‎-a → ‎mjólka (to milk)
    von (hope) + ‎-a → ‎vona (to hope)
    ávarp (an address) + ‎-a → ‎ávarpa (to address)
    rit (a writ) + ‎-a → ‎rita (to write)
    rass (an ass) + ‎-a → ‎rassa (to spank (on the ass))
  2. Used to form adverbs from adjectives.
    illur (bad) + ‎-a → ‎illa (badly)

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]


Ido[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-a

  1. suffix denoting adjective.
    arjento (silver, noun) + ‎-a → ‎arjenta (silver, adjective)

Derived terms[edit]

Usage notes[edit]

One may elide the final a of the adjectives, but with the condition not to produce accumulation from the consonants. One advise to use the elision mainly with the derivatived adjectives and particularly when they finish with -al-(a).[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ “KGD”, in Kompleta gramatiko detaloza[1] (in Ido), accessed 2015-12-23, archived from the original on 27 January 2012

Irish[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-a

  1. plural ending of certain nouns
  2. plural ending of adjectives in the nominative, vocative, dative, and strong genitive cases
  3. genitive singular ending of third-declension nouns

Italian[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Latin -a, -am

Suffix[edit]

-a (pl. -e , masculine sg. -o, masculine pl. -i)

  1. Used with a stem to form a feminine singular noun

Etymology 2[edit]

From Latin -at.

Suffix[edit]

-a

  1. Used, with a stem, to form the third-person singular present tense of -are verbs.

Etymology 3[edit]

From Latin .

Suffix[edit]

-a

  1. Used, with a stem, to form the second-person singular imperative of -are verbs.

Etymology 4[edit]

From Latin -(e/i)am, -(e/i)ās, -(e/i)at.

Suffix[edit]

-a

  1. Used, with a stem, to form the first-person singular, second-person singular and third-person singular present subjunctive of -ere verbs, and of those -ire verbs that do not insert -isc-.

Etymology 4[edit]

From Latin -(e/i)at.

Suffix[edit]

-a

  1. Used, with a stem, to form the third-person singular imperative of -ere verbs, and of those -ire verbs that do not insert -isc-.

Latin[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Italic *-ā, from Proto-Indo-European *-éh₂ (feminine suffix) (also forming masculine agent nouns from verbs).

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-a f or m (genitive -ae); first declension

  1. suffixed to the root of masculine nouns, forms a feminine counterpart
    equus + ‎-a → ‎equa
    flāmen + ‎-a → ‎flāmina
    magister + ‎-a → ‎magistra
  2. suffixed to the roots of (usually compound) verbs, forms (usually masculine) agent nouns
    adveniō + ‎-a → ‎advena
    caedō + ‎-a → ‎-cīda
    colō + ‎-a → ‎-cola
    cōnferveō + ‎-a → ‎cōnferva f
    cōnsolidō + ‎-a → ‎cōnsolida f
    scrībō + ‎-a → ‎scrība
Declension[edit]

First-declension noun.

Case Singular Plural
Nominative -a -ae
Genitive -ae -ārum
Dative -ae -īs
Accusative -am -ās
Ablative -īs
Vocative -a -ae

1. Certain masculine nouns ending in -a, especially those ending in -cola and -gena, sometimes have a short genitive plural form ending in -um instead of -ārum.

2. Feminine nouns such as fīlia (daughter) that have a second-declension masculine counterpart that takes the ending -īs in the dative and ablative plural (fīlius (son), with the dative and ablative plural fīliīs) sometimes take the ending -ābus instead of -īs in the dative and ablative plural to avoid ambiguity. Forms in -ābus are attested earliest for the nouns fīlia and dea (goddess), and later on for others such as līberta (freedwoman), equa (mare) and anima.

Synonyms[edit]
  • (suffixed to the roots of verbs, forms masculine agent nouns): -ō¹
Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old Latin -ād, originally the ablative feminine singular form of first-declension adjectives (compare -us (suffix forming adjectives)).

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

(not comparable)

  1. suffixed chiefly to the stems of adjectives terminating in -ter, forms adverbs which are frequently also used as prepositions
    cis + citrā
    exter + extrā
    in- + -ter + intrā
    uls + ultrā
Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-a

  1. inflection of -us:
    1. nominative/vocative feminine singular
    2. nominative/accusative/vocative neuter plural

Suffix[edit]

  1. ablative feminine singular of -us

Etymology 4[edit]

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

  1. second-person singular present active imperative of (first conjugation)

Latvian[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-a

  1. Used to derive feminine nouns from masculine nouns (like English -ess).
    Synonym: -e

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Feminine suffixes that include -a

Lushootseed[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-a

  1. and (attached only to čəd, čəxʷ, čəɬ & čələp)

Derived terms[edit]


Makasar[edit]

Article[edit]

-a

  1. the (definite article for common nouns)
    Ba'dai uringa.[1]The saucepan is leaking.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Aburaerah Arief (1995) Kamus Makassar–Indonesia, Ujung Pandang: Yayaan Perguruan Islam Kapita, page 29.

Maltese[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • -ja (used after -i, -j; also another ending of different origin)
  • -wa (used after -u, -w)

Etymology[edit]

From Arabic ـَة(-a), reinforced by Sicilian and Italian -a, which are unrelated but used similarly.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /a/
  • Homophone: -ha (distinct after -h, -ħ, -għ; may also trigger different stem alternations)

Suffix[edit]

-a

  1. Used to form the feminine forms of most nouns and adjectives.
  2. Used to form the plurals of some nouns and adjectives.
  3. Used to form singulatives from collective nouns.

Maori[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-a

  1. passive ending (used mainly for verbs with one or two vowels)

Derived terms[edit]


Maquiritari[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-a

  1. Forms the nonpast tense.
  2. Marks imperfective aspect in both the recent and distant past tenses.

Usage notes[edit]

This suffix can cause syllable reduction. The suffix takes the form -ka when the preceding syllable is reducible and has an onset of k, -ya when the preceding syllable ends in i, and -a in other contexts.

When marking the past imperfective, this suffix never occurs alone but is always accompanied by other suffixes bearing tense/aspect or at least number information. Conversely, when marking the nonpast tense, it occurs alone without other tense/aspect markers, though it can form a plural -aato.

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  • Cáceres, Natalia (2011) Grammaire Fonctionnelle-Typologique du Ye’kwana[2], Lyon, page 213–224

Mbyá Guaraní[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Cognate with Guaraní -va.

Suffix[edit]

-a

  1. nominalizes the action of the verb
    pendeayvua
    that which you say
  2. indicates the place of the verb
    ooa
    where he is going
  3. indicates the time of the action of the verb
    nhama'etỹa ára
    the day in which we planted

Etymology 2[edit]

Cognate with Guaraní -ha.

Suffix[edit]

-a

  1. forms ordinal numbers
    mboapya
    third

Murui Huitoto[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-a

  1. Forms nouns denoting the action of the suffixed verb; -ing, -tion

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  • Katarzyna Izabela Wojtylak (2017) A grammar of Murui (Bue): a Witotoan language of Northwest Amazonia.[3], Townsville: James Cook University press (PhD thesis), page 81

Northern Sami[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Samic *-ëk. Cognate with Finnish -e.

Pronunciation[edit]

Phonetik.svg This entry needs pronunciation information. If you are familiar with the IPA then please add some!

Suffix[edit]

-a (with odd-syllable stems -at)

  1. Forms nouns from verbs, indicating something used for performing the verb.
    loavdit (to cover the tent) + ‎-a → ‎loavdda (tent cloth)
  2. Forms nouns from verbs, indicating something that results from having the verb's action performed.
    čállit (to write) + ‎-a → ‎čála (writing)

Usage notes[edit]

  • This suffix triggers the weak grade on a preceding stressed syllable in the nominative singular and essive, and the strong grade in the other forms.

Inflection[edit]

Odd, no gradation
Nominative -at
Genitive -aga
Singular Plural
Nominative -at -agat
Accusative -aga -agiid
Genitive -aga -agiid
Illative -agii -agiidda
Locative -agis -agiin
Comitative -agiin -agiiguin
Essive -agin
Possessive forms
Singular Dual Plural
1st person -agan -ageamẹ -ageamẹt
2nd person -agat -ageattẹ -ageattẹt
3rd person -agis -ageaskkạ -ageasẹt

Derived terms[edit]


Norwegian Nynorsk[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-a

  1. the, Definite marker used for
    Synonym: (only for strong nouns; nonstandard since 2012) -i
    1. the definite singular of (strong) feminine nouns.
    2. the definite plural of strong neuter nouns.
    3. (dialectal) the dative singular case of strong masculine nouns.
    4. (archaic, nonstandard) Used to form definite singular dative case of weak masculine and neuter nouns
  2. -ed, Used for:
    1. the past tense of a-verbs.
    2. the supines of a-verbs and some preterite-present verbs (e.g. har bada, kasta, kunna, skulla, vilja).
    3. the past participles of a-verbs.
    4. adjectives (e.g. grepa, heilhjarta).
  3. Used to form an infinitive form for most verbs. When using split infinitive, this only applies to a select group.
  4. Used to form singular indefinite feminine form of some pronouns and adjectives (e.g. inga, lita, noka etc.).
    Synonym: -i (non-standard since 2012)
  5. plural of -um
  6. plural of -on
  7. Used as an ending of weak nouns and adjectives. Used for:
    1. the singular of weak feminine nouns, indefinite (non-standard since 2012) and definite forms.
    2. the singular of weak neuter nouns, indefinite and definite forms (e.g. auga, hjarta, øyra).
    3. (dated or dialectal) adverbs ((pre-2012) alternative form of -e).
    4. (Landsmål, archaic or dialectal) the singular definite feminine and neuter forms of adjectives.
  8. (Landsmål, archaic, nonstandard) Used to form the feminine indefinite plural of adjectives.
  9. (Landsmål, archaic, nonstandard) Used to form the genitive plural of nouns.
    Synonyms: -a-, -e-

Anagrams[edit]


Old English[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *-ô. Cognate with Old High German -o.

Suffix[edit]

-a

  1. nominative masculine n-stem ending
    ācweornasquirrel
    folafoal
    dracadragon
    grīmamask
    heorradoor hinge
  2. used to form masculine agents, usually from verbs
    Synonyms: -end, -ere
    ġiefan (to give) + ‎-a → ‎ġiefa (giver)
    dēman (to judge) + ‎-a → ‎dēma (a judge)
    cuman (to come) + ‎-a → ‎cuma (guest)
Declension[edit]
Derived terms[edit]
Descendants[edit]
  • Middle English: -e

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-West Germanic *-ō, from Proto-Germanic *-ô.

Suffix[edit]

-a

  1. Ending forming adverbs
Usage notes[edit]
  • Though it was common in Proto-Germanic and Proto-West Germanic, in Old English this ending is restricted to only a few adverbs, among them sōna (immediately) and ġeāra (long ago). The competing suffix -e is much more common, along with -līċe.
Descendants[edit]
  • Middle English: -e (fossilised)

Old Irish[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

-a

  1. combines with prepositions to form a relative pronoun
    ar (for the sake of) + ‎-a → ‎ara (for the sake of whom/which)

Derived terms[edit]


Old Norse[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Alternative forms[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-a

  1. indicates negation; does not

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *-ōną.

Suffix[edit]

-a

  1. Creates denominative verbs from nouns
  2. Creates factitive verbs from adjectives
Conjugation[edit]
Derived terms[edit]
Descendants[edit]
  • Danish: -e
  • Icelandic: -a
  • Faroese: -a
  • Norwegian:
    Norwegian Nynorsk: -e, -a
  • Old Swedish: -a
    • Swedish: -a

Etymology 3[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *-ê and *-ô.

Suffix[edit]

-a

  1. Used to make adverbs from adjectives
    gjarn + ‎-a → ‎gjarna
Descendants[edit]
  • Icelandic: -a

Etymology 4[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *-ǭ or *-ô.

Suffix[edit]

-a f or n

  1. Occurs in the nominative singular of feminine on-stem nouns
  2. Occurs in the singular of neuter an-stem nouns
Declension[edit]

Etymology 5[edit]

Different noun forms.

Suffix[edit]

-a

  1. indefinite genitive plural (of nouns)
  2. inflection of -i (masculine an-stem nouns):
    1. indefinite oblique singular
    2. indefinite accusative plural
  3. indefinite accusative plural of -r (masculine a-stem nouns)

Old Swedish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse -a.

Suffix[edit]

-a

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
    sighia
    to say
    hælgha
    to celebrate

Descendants[edit]

  • Swedish: -a

Phalura[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-a

  1. Third person singular suffix
Alternative forms[edit]
  • -íi (With e-ending verb stems)
  • -óo (With a-ending verb stems)
  • -e (Biori)
  • -úu (With a-ending verb stems in Biori)

References[edit]

  • Liljegren, Henrik; Haider, Naseem (2011) Palula Vocabulary (FLI Language and Culture Series; 7)‎[4], Islamabad, Pakistan: Forum for Language Initiatives, →ISBN

Etymology 2[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-a

  1. Plural suffix (with a-declension nouns)
Alternative forms[edit]
  • (With accent-shifting nouns)
  • -ée (Alternation with ái-a for ai-ending nouns)

References[edit]

  • Liljegren, Henrik; Haider, Naseem (2011) Palula Vocabulary (FLI Language and Culture Series; 7)‎[5], Islamabad, Pakistan: Forum for Language Initiatives, →ISBN

Etymology 3[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-a

  1. Oblique case suffix (with a-declension nouns)
Alternative forms[edit]
  • (With accent shifting nouns)
  • -ée (Alternation with ái-a for ai-ending nouns)

References[edit]

  • Liljegren, Henrik; Haider, Naseem (2011) Palula Vocabulary (FLI Language and Culture Series; 7)‎[6], Islamabad, Pakistan: Forum for Language Initiatives, →ISBN

Etymology 4[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-a

  1. Masculine plural agreement suffix

References[edit]

  • Liljegren, Henrik; Haider, Naseem (2011) Palula Vocabulary (FLI Language and Culture Series; 7)‎[7], Islamabad, Pakistan: Forum for Language Initiatives, →ISBN

Etymology 5[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-a

  1. Masculine non-nominative and non-singular agreement suffix

References[edit]

  • Liljegren, Henrik; Haider, Naseem (2011) Palula Vocabulary (FLI Language and Culture Series; 7)‎[8], Islamabad, Pakistan: Forum for Language Initiatives, →ISBN

Polish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-a

  1. Forms nominative feminine nouns
  2. Forms feminine names from masculine names
    Zdzisław + ‎-a → ‎Zdzisława
  3. Forms feminine nominative and vocative forms of adjectives
    główny + ‎-a → ‎główna
  4. Used to create the masculine genitive singular, usually of animate nouns, but also of some inanimate nouns
    Zdzisław + ‎-a → ‎Zdzisława
    but + ‎-a → ‎buta
  5. Forms the nominative plural of neuter nouns
    zdanie + ‎-a → ‎zdania
  6. Forms genitive singular of neuter nouns
    zdanie + ‎-a → ‎zdania
  7. Used in some adverbial constructions
    od dawna
    zgoła

Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • -a in Wielki słownik języka polskiego, Instytut Języka Polskiego PAN
  • -a in Polish dictionaries at PWN

Portuguese[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Inherited from Old Portuguese -a, from Latin -am.

Suffix[edit]

-a f (plural -as)

  1. feminine singular of -o
    uruguaio (Uruguayan (masculine)) + ‎-a → ‎uruguaia (Uruguayan (feminine))

Suffix[edit]

-a f (noun-forming suffix, plural -as)

  1. forms feminine nouns from adjectives, indicating people having the quality of the source adjective
    Uruguai (Uruguay) + ‎-o → ‎uruguaio (Uruguayan) + ‎-a → ‎uruguaia (Uruguayan woman or girl)

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old Portuguese -a, from Latin -at.

Suffix[edit]

-a

  1. forms the third-person singular present indicative of verbs ending in -ar
    João fala português.John speaks Portuguese.

Etymology 3[edit]

From Old Portuguese -a, from Latin .

Suffix[edit]

-a

  1. forms the second-person singular affirmative imperative of verbs ending in -ar
    João, conta-nos o teu apelido.John, tell us your last name.

Etymology 4[edit]

From Old Portuguese -a, from Latin -am, -eam.

Suffix[edit]

-a

  1. forms the first-person singular present subjunctive of verbs ending in -er and -ir
    É importante que eu coma carne.It is important that I eat meat.

Etymology 5[edit]

From Old Portuguese -a, from Latin -at, -eat.

Suffix[edit]

-a

  1. forms the third-person singular present subjunctive of verbs ending in -er and -ir
    É importante que ele coma carne.It is important that he eat meat.
  2. forms the third-person singular affirmative imperative of verbs ending in -er and -ir
    Ei você aí, coma carne.Hey you there, eat meat.
  3. forms the third-person singular negative imperative of verbs ending in -er and -ir
    Ei você aí, não coma carne.Hey you there, don’t eat meat.
Usage notes[edit]
  • The third-person imperative is not used with third person pronouns but rather with você, which is a second-person pronoun but always takes third-person conjugation.

Etymology 6[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Suffix[edit]

-a m or f (noun-forming suffix, plural -as)

  1. (slang) used in the end of shortenings
    vestibular + ‎-a → ‎vestiba (university admittance test)
    vagabundo + ‎-a → ‎vagaba (loafer)

Romani[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-a

  1. Forms the nominative plural of consonantal oikoclitic nouns
    phral (brother) + ‎-a → ‎phrala (brothers)
    ćhaj (daughter) + ‎-a → ‎ćhaja (daughters)
  2. Forms the accusative singular of unjotated oikoclitic animate feminine nouns
    daj (mother) + ‎-a → ‎daja
  3. Forms the feminine singular oblique of consonantal oikoclitic nouns. Displaced by -e in most dialects
    phuro (old (animate)) + ‎-a → ‎phura

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  • Yaron Matras; Anton Tenser, editors (August 2020) The Palgrave Handbook of Romani Language and Linguistics, Palgrave Macmillan, →ISBN, page 30, 166

Romanian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Latin illa, nominative feminine singular of ille.

Alternative forms[edit]

  • -ua (used for feminine nouns ending in a stressed vowel or diphthong)

Suffix[edit]

-a f

  1. (definite article) the (feminine singular, nominative and accusative)
Usage notes[edit]

This form of the definite article is used for feminine nouns in the nominative and accusative cases which end in or in an unstressed vowel:

The suffix is also used with feminine adjectives in the nominative and accusative cases to make the articulated definite form, often for emphasis, and it is used before the noun it modifies:

Related terms[edit]
  • -ei (feminine singular genitive and dative)
  • -i (masculine/neuter plural nominative and accusative)
  • -le (feminine plural nominative and accusative)
  • -l (masculine/neuter singular nominative and accusative)
  • -lor (plural genitive and dative)
  • -lui (masculine/neuter singular genitive and dative)

Etymology 2[edit]

From Latin -āre, the ending of the present active infinitive form of first conjugation verbs. Cognate with Spanish -ar, French -er, Italian -are, etc.

Suffix[edit]

-a

  1. A suffix forming infinitives of many verbs.
Conjugation[edit]
Related terms[edit]

See also[edit]

Derived terms[edit]


Serbo-Croatian[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-a (Cyrillic spelling )

  1. Suffix appended to words (usually verbal stems) to create a feminine noun, usually denoting a relation or to form a proper noun.

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *-a, from Proto-Indo-European *-ōd, the thematic ablative ending.

Suffix[edit]

-a (Cyrillic spelling )

  1. Forms the genitive singular of masculine and neuter nouns and indefinite adjectives.

Slovak[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *-ę.

Suffix[edit]

-a n

  1. Forms nouns for young animals and other diminutives.

Declension[edit]

Usage notes[edit]

  • After labio-dental and bilabial consonants is used instead.

Spanish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Latin -a.

Suffix[edit]

-a f (plural -as)

  1. -ess used to form feminine singular nouns
    señor (gentleman) + ‎-a → ‎señora (lady)
    camarero (waiter) + ‎-a → ‎camarera (waitress)

Suffix[edit]

-a

  1. used to form feminine singular adjectives
    frío (cold) + ‎-a → ‎fría (cold)

Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Latin -at, the third-person singular present active indicative ending of first conjugation verbs.

Suffix[edit]

-a

  1. used to form the third-person singular (also used with usted) present indicative mood of regular -ar verbs
    hablar (to talk) + ‎-a → ‎habla (talks)

Etymology 3[edit]

From Latin -eam, Latin -am, and Latin -iam the first-person singular present active subjunctive endings of second, third, and fourth conjugation verbs, respectively; and from Latin -eat, Latin -at, and Latin -iat, the third-person singular present active subjunctive ending of second, third, and fourth conjugation verbs, respectively.

Suffix[edit]

-a

  1. used to form the first and third-person singular (also used with usted) singular present subjunctive mood of -er and -ir verbs, also used for the imperative mood of usted
    comer (to eat) + ‎-a → ‎aunque yo coma (even if I ate)
    salir (to leave) + ‎-a → ‎por favor, salga Ud. (please leave) (formal)

Etymology 4[edit]

From Latin (second-person singular present active imperative ending of first conjugation verbs).

Suffix[edit]

-a

  1. used to form the second-person singular imperative mood of -ar verbs
    hablar (to talk) + ‎-a → ‎¡Habla! (Talk!)
Derived terms[edit]

Swedish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Swedish -a, from Old Norse -a, from Proto-Germanic *-ōną.

Suffix[edit]

-a

  1. A verb-building suffix that can be added to noun or adjectives.
    disk (dishes) + ‎-a → ‎diska (do the dishes)
    mjölk (milk) + ‎-a → ‎mjölka (to milk)
    öl (beer) + ‎-a → ‎öla (to drink beer)
Usage notes[edit]
  • On adjectives: Traditionally, if the noun is in the definite singular form it should not refer to a male human if it uses the suffix -a. If it refers to such a person, the suffix should instead be -e, but one should note that this rule is not universally adhered to – in particular dialects of northern Sweden do not recognize the -e suffix at all, but use -a in all instances.
Conjugation[edit]
  • For weak verbs with a voiceless ending stem:
  • For weak verbs with a voiced ending stem:
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

The language noun sense originally comes from the definite adjective + tunga (tongue; language). Thus svenska (Swedish) was originally svenska tungan (the Swedish tongue)

Suffix[edit]

-a

  1. (on a positive adjective) Weak (definite) singular suffix, historically feminine
  2. Transform an adjective describing a people speaking a language into the noun for that language.
    engelsk (English) + ‎-a → ‎engelska (the English language)
  3. Marker of definiteness for noun plurals ending in -n (fourth declension).
    läten (sounds) + ‎-a → ‎lätena (the sounds)

Etymology 3[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-a

  1. Create a noun from a numeral.
    tre (three) + ‎-a → ‎trea (a bronze medalist; a three-room apartment, literally a three)

Tokelauan[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Polynesian *-a. Cognates include Tuvaluan -a and Samoan -a.

Suffix[edit]

-a

  1. Creates a verb denoting an abundancy of the suffixed noun; -ful
    aiha (ice)aihā (to be icy)
    manava (belly)manavā (to be big-bellied)
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-a

  1. Added to transitive verbs when preceded by the subject pronoun.

References[edit]

  • R. Simona, editor (1986) Tokelau Dictionary[9], Auckland: Office of Tokelau Affairs, page 1

Turkish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • -ya, -ye (after a vowel)
  • -na, -ne (after a possessive, dative only)
  • -e (in words with front vowel harmony)

Suffix[edit]

-a (in words with back vowel harmony)

  1. Used to form the dative case
    İstanbul + ‎-a → ‎İstanbul’a (to Istanbul)
    Ankara + ‎-a → ‎Ankara’ya (to Ankara)
    İzmir + ‎-a → ‎İzmir’e (to Izmir)
    babası + ‎-a → ‎babasına (to his father)
  2. Used to form gerunds
    yürü + ‎-a → ‎yürüye (by walking)

Volapük[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-a

  1. A morpheme used to mark the genitive singular of a word (such as a noun, adjective or pronoun). It is also the most common morpheme used in creating innumerable compound words, some of which can be very long
    pledadinaselidöptoy store, toy shop
    tanoganilamedinantibiotic
    taglumaladälamedinanti-depressant
    natrinakarbatazüd telikbicarbonate of soda
    Elaf Tyrannosaurus rex älifon in taledadil, kel nu binon dil Nolüda-Meropa.
    Tyrannosaurus rex lived in an area of the earth, which is now a part of North America.
    Buks binons stumem lärnazilana (/ lärnazilanastumem / stumem lärnazilanik).
    Books are a scholar's tools.

Walloon[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Inherited from Latin -āculum.

Suffix[edit]

-a

  1. Forming masculine nouns from verbs and nouns, having the sense of 'tool, object for a specific purpose'.

Derived terms[edit]


Welsh[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • -af (colloquial first-person singular future)

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-a

  1. (literary) verb suffix for the third-person singular present indicative/future
  2. (literary) verb suffix for the second-person singular present imperative
  3. (colloquial) verb suffix for the first-person singular future
  4. (colloquial) verb suffix for the second-person singular present imperative
  5. verbal suffix denoting action, and when used with gatherable nouns (fruit, plants, firewood etc) denotes the action of gathering that thing

Derived terms[edit]