-je

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Dutch[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (file)

Suffix[edit]

-je n (plural -jes)

  1. Alternative form of -tje.

Hungarian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-je

  1. Possessive (and genitive) suffix: [from 1055]
    1. (with no possessor or with the 3rd-person pronoun as possessor, usually preceded by a definite article) his, her, its ……
      ház (ház)(a) háza, az ő háza (his/her/its house)
      élet (life)(az) élete, az ő élete (his/her/its life)
      barát (friend)(a) barátja (his/her/its friend)
      kapu (gate)(a) kapuja (his/her/its gate)
      palota (palace)(a) palotája (his/her/its palace)
      kert (garden)(a) kertje (his/her/its garden)
      betű (letter)(a) betűje (his/her/its letter)
      vese (kidney)(a) veséje (his/her/its kidney)
    2. (with a singular possessor) ……-'s, of …… (third-person singular, single possession)
      ház (house)Anna háza (Anna’s house)
      ház (house)a felkelő nap háza (the house of the rising sun)
      élet (life)Anna élete (Anna’s life)
      élet (life)a város élete (the life of the city)
      palota (palace)a király palotája (the king’s palace)
      kapu (gate)a ház kapuja (the gate of the house)
      kert (garden)Anna kertje (Anna’s garden)
      kert (garden)a tulipánok kertje (the garden of [the] tulips)
    3. (with a plural possessor) ……-s’, of ……-s (third-person plural, single possession)
      ház (house)a szüleim háza (my parents’ house)
      ház (house)a trópusi növények háza ([the] house of [the] tropical plants, literally the tropical plants’ house)
      élet (life)a szüleim élete (my parents’ lives, literally my parents’ life)
      élet (life)a könyvek élete ([the] lives of [the] books, literally the books’ life)
      palota (palace)az uralkodók palotája (the rulers’ palace)
      kert (garden)a szüleim kertje (my parents’ garden)
      kert (garden)Az elágazó ösvények kertje (The Garden of Forking Paths)
    4. (with time expressions, referring to a point in time) …… ago
      Egy évszázada ment el.S/he left one century ago.
      Két éve ment el.S/he left two years ago.
      Egy órája ment el.S/he left one hour ago.
      Sok/hosszú ideje ment el.S/he left a long time ago
      Synonym: -val/-vel ezelőtt (e.g. két évvel ezelőtt)
    5. (with time expressions, referring to a duration of time preceding the point of time in question) for ……
      Egy évszázada várunk rád.We have been waiting for you for a century.
      Két éve várunk rád.We have been waiting for you for two years.
      Egy órája várunk rád.We have been waiting for you for an hour.
      Sok/hosszú ideje várunk rád.We have been waiting for you for a long time.
    6. (mostly with quantities, often following -ik) of ……, out of …… (partitive sense)
      Synonym: (only with countable quantities) közül
      jó (jav-) (the greater/better part)a java még hátravan (the best/bulk is yet to come, literally its best/bulk is…)
      legnagyobbik (the biggest one)a bikák legnagyobbika (the biggest [one] of the bulls, synonymous with a legnagyobb bika)

Usage notes[edit]

  • (possessive suffix) Variants:
    -a is added to back-vowel words ending in a consonant
    -e is added to front-vowel words ending in a consonant
    -ja is added to back-vowel words ending in a consonant or a vowel. Final -a changes to -á-; final -o changes to -ó-.
    -je is added to front-vowel words ending in a consonant or a vowel. Final -e changes to -é-; final changes to -ő-.
    • This suffix (in all forms) is normally used for the third-person singular possessive (single possession) but, after an explicit plural possessor, it also expresses the third-person plural possessive (single possession), e.g. “the children's ball” (a gyerekek labdája). If the possessor is implicit (not named, only marked by a suffix), the plural possessive suffix must be used, e.g. “their ball” (a labdájuk, see -juk and its variants).

Declension[edit]

Inflection (stem in long/high vowel, front unrounded harmony)
singular plural
nominative -je
accusative -jét
dative -jének
instrumental -jével
causal-final -jéért
translative -jévé
terminative -jéig
essive-formal -jeként
essive-modal -jéül
inessive -jében
superessive -jén
adessive -jénél
illative -jébe
sublative -jére
allative -jéhez
elative -jéből
delative -jéről
ablative -jétől
non-attributive
possessive - singular
-jéé
non-attributive
possessive - plural
-jééi

Suffix[edit]

-je

  1. (personal suffix) Used to form the definite third-person singular present tense of front-vowel verbs (in subjunctive mood).

Usage notes[edit]

  • (personal suffix) See harmonic variants and the assimilation of j in the table below.

See also[edit]


Kayapó[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Northern Jê *de (ergative, stimulus).

Pronunciation[edit]

IPA(key): [-jɛ]

Suffix[edit]

-je

  1. out of (stimulus)

Derived terms[edit]


Lower Sorbian[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-je

  1. -ly (used to turn an adjective into an adverb of manner)

Usage notes[edit]

The j of this suffix merges with certain preceding consonants to create palatalized consonants not followed by j:

  • d + jź
  • zd + jzdź
  • g + jz
  • k + jc
  • ch + jš
  • ł + jl
  • t + jś
  • st + j

Synonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]


Maquiritari[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-je

  1. Serves as an attributivizer to allow verbs nominalized with -tojo to function as a predicate in a subordinate clause of purpose with the meaning ‘in order to X’, ‘for X-ing’.
    Synonym: -me
  2. Serves as an attributivizer to allow borrowed verbs to function as a predicate when subordinated to ö'dü (for intransitive use) or üdü (for transitive use).

Usage notes[edit]

Unlike -me, with which it is sometimes interchangeable, this suffix does not cause syllable reduction. Phonologically it is a clitic rather than a suffix.

References[edit]

  • Cáceres, Natalia (2011), “⸗je”, in Grammaire Fonctionnelle-Typologique du Ye’kwana, Lyon, page 145–146, 254–255

Saterland Frisian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Frisian -ia, from Proto-West Germanic *-ōn. Cognates include West Frisian -e and German -en.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-je (type 1 form -e)

  1. Used to form verbs from nouns and adjectives.

Conjugation[edit]

For verbs ending in -n, -l and -r:

For verbs ending in other consonants:

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  • Horst Haider Munske, editor (2001), “Das Saterfriesische”, in Handbuch des Friesischen [Handbook of Frisian studies], Tübingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag, →ISBN, page 414

Serbo-Croatian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *-ьje.

Suffix[edit]

-je (Cyrillic spelling -је)

  1. Suffix appended to words to create a neuter noun, usually denoting a young animal, plant, place name or is used as a collective noun.

See also[edit]


West Frisian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Frisian -ia, from Proto-Germanic *-ōną, from various Proto-Indo-European suffixes.

Suffix[edit]

-je

  1. Forms verbs from nouns and adjectives. The stem of the word itself does not change.

Inflection[edit]

Weak class 2
infinitive -je
3rd singular past -e
past participle -e
infinitive -je
long infinitive -jen
gerund -jen n
indicative present tense past tense
1st singular -je -e
2nd singular -est -est
3rd singular -et -e
plural -je -en
imperative -je
participles -jend -e

Derived terms[edit]