-e

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Czech[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-e

  1. Used to form adverbs from adjectives.
    jednoduchý (simple) + ‎-e → ‎jednoduše (simply)

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *-ę.

Suffix[edit]

-e n

  1. (rare) Used to form nouns, usually terms for young animals.

Etymology 3[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-e

  1. desinence used to form dative singular and locative singular of some feminine nouns
    sestra (sister) + ‎-e → ‎sestře
  2. desinence used to form genitive singular, nominative plural, accusative plural and vocative plural of some feminine nouns
    kostrč (tailbone) + ‎-e → ‎kostrče
  3. desinence used to form vocative singular of some masculine animate nouns
    pan (Mr, Sir) + ‎-e → ‎pane
  4. desinence used to form genitive singular, accusative singular and accusative plural of some masculine animate nouns
    muž (man) + ‎-e → ‎muže
  5. desinence used to form vocative singular and locative singular of some masculine inanimate nouns
    les (forest) + ‎-e → ‎lese
  6. desinence used to form genitive singular, nominative plural, accusative plural and vocative plural of some masculine inanimate nouns
    stroj (machine) + ‎-e → ‎stroje

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]


Danish[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-e

  1. Marks the infinitive of many or most verbs, and is usually appended to borrowed verbs.
  2. Marks the singular/definite of adjectives.
  3. Marks the plural of some nouns.

Dutch[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-e

  1. suffix indicating the female form of occupations or inhabitants of countries
Derived terms[edit]


Etymology 2[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /də/, /stə/ (like the ordinal written in full)

Suffix[edit]

-e

  1. Placed after a number written in digits, to form its corresponding ordinal number.
    2e = tweede
    8e = achtste
    Synonyms: -de, -ste
Usage notes[edit]

The e is sometimes written in superscript, like in French (2e, 8e), but this is discouraged by the Dutch Language Union.[1]

Etymology 3[edit]

From various suffixes of the Middle Dutch [Term?] adjective inflection.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-e

  1. Used to create the inflected form of an adjective, which is used after a definite determiner, or before masculine and feminine nouns in general.

Etymology 4[edit]

From Middle Dutch -e, from Old Dutch -i, from Proto-Germanic *-į̄.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-e f

  1. (archaic, rare) Used to form abstract nouns from adjectives; the nouns express the quality of the adjective.
    koud (cold) + ‎-e → ‎koude (the cold)
    Synonyms: -te, -heid

Etymology 5[edit]

From Middle Dutch -e, the ending of the first and third person singular subjunctive.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-e

  1. (archaic) Used to form the singular subjunctive of a verb.

References[edit]


Esperanto[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From the Latin and Italian adverbial suffix -e (as in bene "well"), perhaps reinforced by the Russian adverbial -e found after a palatalized consonant.

Suffix[edit]

-e

  1. -ly; used to form adverbs
    bona (good) + ‎-e → ‎bone (well)
    unu (one) + ‎-e → ‎unue (firstly)
  2. the ending for correlatives of place

Derived terms[edit]

correlatives
  • ĉie (everywhere)
  • ie (somewhere)
  • kie (where)
  • nenie (nowhere)
  • tie (there)

Estonian[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *-ek and Proto-Finnic *-eh. Cognate to Finnish -e.

Suffix[edit]

-e (genitive -e, partitive -et)

  1. Derives nouns from verbs.
    katma (to cover) + ‎-e → ‎kate (cover)
    astuma (to step) + ‎-e → ‎aste (a step)
    võtma (to take) + ‎-e → ‎võte (trick, mode, way)
    mõtlema (to think) + ‎-e → ‎mõte (thought)

Etymology 2[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Suffix[edit]

-e (genitive -me, partitive -et)

  1. Derives nouns from verbs.
    liikuma (to move) + ‎-e → ‎liige (member)
    astuma (to step) + ‎-e → ‎aste (step, grade)
    kastma (to dip) + ‎-e → ‎kaste (sauce)

Etymology 3[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Suffix[edit]

-e (genitive -eda, partitive -edat)

  1. Derives adjectives.
    lamama (to lay down) + ‎-e → ‎lame (flat)
    krõbisema (to crunch) + ‎-e → ‎krõbe (crunchy)
    tobu (fool) + ‎-e → ‎tobe (silly, dumb)
Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]



Finnish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

A conflation of two suffixes:

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-e

  1. Used for forming nouns from verbs or adjectives.
    ottaa (to take (hold of)) + ‎-e → ‎ote (grip)
    paha (bad, evil) + ‎-e → ‎pahe (vice)
    ääntää (to pronounce, enunciate) + ‎-e → ‎äänne (sound (in phonetics))

Declension[edit]

Inflection of -e (Kotus type 48/hame, no gradation)
nominative -e -eet
genitive -een -eiden
-eitten
partitive -etta -eita
illative -eeseen -eisiin
-eihin
singular plural
nominative -e -eet
accusative nom. -e -eet
gen. -een
genitive -een -eiden
-eitten
partitive -etta -eita
inessive -eessa -eissa
elative -eesta -eista
illative -eeseen -eisiin
-eihin
adessive -eella -eilla
ablative -eelta -eilta
allative -eelle -eille
essive -eena -eina
translative -eeksi -eiksi
instructive -ein
abessive -eetta -eitta
comitative -eineen
Possessive forms of -e (type hame)
possessor singular plural
1st person -eeni -eemme
2nd person -eesi -eenne
3rd person -eensa
Inflection of -e (Kotus type 48/hame, no gradation)
nominative -e -eet
genitive -een -eiden
-eitten
partitive -että -eitä
illative -eeseen -eisiin
-eihin
singular plural
nominative -e -eet
accusative nom. -e -eet
gen. -een
genitive -een -eiden
-eitten
partitive -että -eitä
inessive -eessä -eissä
elative -eestä -eistä
illative -eeseen -eisiin
-eihin
adessive -eellä -eillä
ablative -eeltä -eiltä
allative -eelle -eille
essive -eenä -einä
translative -eeksi -eiksi
instructive -ein
abessive -eettä -eittä
comitative -eineen
Possessive forms of -e (type hame)
possessor singular plural
1st person -eeni -eemme
2nd person -eesi -eenne
3rd person -eensä

Derived terms[edit]


See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hakulinen, Lauri. 1941–2000. Suomen kielen rakenne ja kehitys ('The Structure and Development of the Finnish Language'). Helsinki: Otava/Helsingin yliopisto.

French[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • Silent; causes previous silent consonant to become pronounced

Suffix[edit]

-e f

  1. Used to form the feminine of adjectives.
    fort + ‎-e → ‎forte

Etymology 2[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-e

  1. Abbreviation of -ième when an ordinal number is written with Arabic numerals.
    deuxième2e

German[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle High German -e, from Old High German , from Proto-Germanic *-į̄.

Suffix[edit]

-e

  1. (now chiefly unproductive) used to form nouns from adjectives, sometimes with umlaut of the root vowel; the nouns express the quality of the adjective
    stark (strong) + ‎-e → ‎Stärke (strength)

Etymology 2[edit]

From Middle High German -e, a merger of various Old High German vocalic endings.

Suffix[edit]

-e

  1. used to form the plural of some nouns; in masculines and feminines, but not in neuters, usually triggering umlaut of the root vowel
    Baum (tree) + ‎-e → ‎Bäume (trees)
    Nacht (night) + ‎-e → ‎Nächte (nights)
    Wort (word) + ‎-e → ‎Worte (words)
  2. (chiefly dated) used to form the dative of strong masculine and neuter nouns ending in a stressed syllable
    das Haus (house)dem Hause (usually: dem Haus)
  3. used to form various declined adjective forms, notably the nominative/accusative feminine singular
    schöndie schöne Frau
  4. used to form the 1st person singular present indicative (and subjunctive) of a verb
    gehen (geh- + -en) → ich gehe (colloquial or poetic: ich geh)
  5. used to form the 3rd person singular present subjunctive of a verb
    gehener gehe
  6. used to form the 1st and 3rd person singular past subjunctive of a verb
    gingich ginge, er ginge

Etymology 3[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-e

  1. (colloquial) contraction of du after 2nd person singular forms of a verb
    hast duhaste

Hungarian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): [ɛ]
  • (file)

Etymology 1[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-e

  1. (possessive suffix) his, her, its, -'s, of (third-person singular, single possession)
    élet (life)az élete (his/her/its life)
    élet (“life”) → Anna élete (“Anna’s life”)
    élet (“life”) → a város élete (“the life of the city”)
  2. (possessive suffix, after a plural possessor) -s', of-s (third-person plural, single possession)
    élet (“life”) → a szüleim élete (“my parents’ lives” [literally, “my parents’ life”, as each is assumed to have one life])
    élet (“life”) → a könyvek élete (“[the] lives of [the] books” [literally, “the books’ life”, as each is assumed to have one life])
  3. (with time expressions, referring to a point in time) ago
    Két éve ment el.S/he left two years ago.
    Synonym: -val/-vel ezelőtt (e.g. két évvel ezelőtt)
  4. (with time expressions, referring to a duration of time preceding the point of time in question) for
    Két éve várunk rád.We have been waiting for you for two years.
Usage notes[edit]
  • (possessive suffix) Variants:
    -a is added to back vowel words ending in a consonant
    -e is added to front vowel words ending in a consonant
    -ja is added to back vowel words ending in a consonant or a vowel. Final -a changes to -á-; final -o changes to -ó-.
    -je is added to front vowel words ending in a consonant or a vowel. Final -e changes to -é-; final changes to -ő-.
    • This suffix (in all forms) is normally used for the third-person singular possessive (single possession) but, after an explicit plural possessor, it also expresses the third-person plural possessive (single possession), e.g. “the children's ball” (a gyerekek labdája). If the possessor is implicit (not named, only marked by a suffix), the plural possessive suffix must be used, e.g. “their ball” (a labdájuk, see -juk and its variants).
Declension[edit]
Inflection (stem in long/high vowel, front unrounded harmony)
singular plural
nominative -e
accusative -ét
dative -ének
instrumental -ével
causal-final -éért
translative -évé
terminative -éig
essive-formal -eként
essive-modal -éül
inessive -ében
superessive -én
adessive -énél
illative -ébe
sublative -ére
allative -éhez
elative -éből
delative -éről
ablative -étől
non-attributive
possessive - singular
-éé
non-attributive
possessive - plural
-ééi

See also[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • (rare, mostly dialectal)

Suffix[edit]

-e

  1. whether, if
    Nem tudom, hogy voltál-e már Budapesten.I don't know if you've ever been in Budapest.
  2. Suffix for tag (yes/no) questions.
    1857, János Arany, A walesi bárdok (The Bards of Wales)
    Van-e ott folyó és földje jó?Is there a river and is its land good?
    Legelőin fű kövérAre the grasses rich on its meadows?
    Használt-e a megöntözés:Was the watering useful (i.e. to the meadows):
    A pártos honfivér?The rebel's blood?
Usage notes[edit]

Always written with a hyphen. Used in tag (yes/no) questions, but not all such questions use -e: in most cases a question is indicated only by emphasis and question mark. Always attached to the main word (usually the verb) of the predicate of the phrase.

Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-e

  1. (personal suffix, archaic) Used to form an archaic past tense, in third-person singular, indefinite conjugation, for front-vowel verbs. The back vowel version is -a. The suffix currently used in this place is -t, -tt, -ett or -ött. For the full paradigm, see the usage template.

Ido[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from Esperanto -e, from Latin .

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-e

  1. -ly; used to form adverbs

Usage notes[edit]

Any adjective can be converted into an adverb by swapping the -a suffix by -e.


Irish[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-e

  1. Alternative form of -ne (used after -nn in pronouns)

Suffix[edit]

-e f

  1. Used to form nouns from adjectives

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]


Suffix[edit]

-e

  1. Used to form the genitive singular of second-declension nouns
  2. Used to form the plural of certain nouns

Italian[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-e

  1. Used with a stem to form the third-person present of regular -ere verbs and those -ire verbs that don't take "isco"

Japanese[edit]

Romanization[edit]

-e

  1. Rōmaji transcription of

Latin[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

(comparative -ius, superlative -issimē)

  1. -ly; used to form adverbs from adjectives.
    Synonyms: -iter, , -ter
Usage notes[edit]

The suffix is usually added to a first/second-declension adjective stem to form an adverb of manner.

Examples:
clārus (famous, clear) + ‎ (famously, clearly) → ‎clārē
pulcher (beautiful) + ‎ (beautifully) → ‎pulchrē

Etymology 2[edit]

A regularly declined form of -us.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-e

  1. vocative masculine singular of -us

See also[edit]



Latvian[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-e

  1. Used to derive feminine nouns from masculine nouns (like English -ess).
  2. Used to form (feminine) nouns from verb stems.
    iestādīt + ‎-e → ‎iestāde
    skatīt + ‎-e → ‎skate)

Synonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]


Related terms[edit]

Feminine suffixes that include -e

Maquiritari[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-e

  1. Adverbalizing suffix for verbs which results in a participle form; it is always accompanied by the prefix t- and an indicator referring to one of the arguments of the verb (w-, n-, or ∅-)
  2. Marker of circumstantial subordination of movement which indicates the reason for the movement described by the main verb

References[edit]

  • Cáceres, Natalia. Grammaire Fonctionelle-Typologique du Ye'kwana.

Middle Dutch[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Dutch -i, from Proto-Germanic *-į̄.

Suffix[edit]

-e f

  1. Used to form abstract nouns from adjectives, mostly those expressing physical properties.
    Synonyms: -ede, -heit

Usage notes[edit]

This suffix originally triggered umlaut of the root vowel. This is seen in some words (kelde, from cout), but not in others (coude).

Derived terms[edit]


Descendants[edit]

  • Dutch: -e

Middle English[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-e

  1. Alternative form of -y.
References[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-e

  1. Alternative form of -yf
References[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-e

  1. Alternative form of -ie
References[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

From Old English -a.

Suffix[edit]

-e

  1. (no longer productive) Forms agent nouns from verbal or nominal stems.
References[edit]

Old English[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From West Germanic *, from Proto-Germanic *-ê, which survives otherwise only in Gothic (and possibly Old Norse).

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-e

  1. forming adverbs from adjectives; -ly

Derived terms[edit]



Old French[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Latin -a.

Suffix[edit]

-e

  1. used to form feminine forms of nouns and adjectives

Descendants[edit]

  • Middle French: -e
    • French: -e

Old Irish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Suffix[edit]

-e f

  1. Forms concrete or abstract nouns from adjectives.
    cathach (bellicose) + ‎-e → ‎cathaige (warlike spirit)
    sáer (free) + ‎-e → ‎saíre (freedom, liberty)

Usage notes[edit]

This suffix palatalises the preceding consonant.

Inflection[edit]

Feminine iā-stem
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative -eL -iL -i
Vocative -eL -iL -i
Accusative -iN -iL -i
Genitive -e -eL -eN
Dative -iL -ib -ib
Initial mutations of a following adjective:
  • H = triggers aspiration
  • L = triggers lenition
  • N = triggers nasalization

Derived terms[edit]



Romanian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Latin -ae (first-declension ending)

Suffix[edit]

-e

  1. (plural) -s (feminine/neuter)
Usage notes[edit]
  • This form of the plural is indefinite, and used for feminine nouns in the nominative/accusative and genitive/dative cases which end in , and some neuter nouns (with may or may not take plural -uri):
  • mame, from mamă, fem.
  • vise (also visuri), from vis, neut.
Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Latin -e (second-declension vocative ending)

Suffix[edit]

-e

  1. Vocative singular (masculine/neuter)
Oh!
Usage notes[edit]
  • This suffixed used with masculine and neuter definite nouns in -l and -ul:
bărbatul (masc.) + ‎-e → ‎bărbatule!
tatăl (masc.) + ‎-e → ‎tatăle!
visul (neut.) + ‎-e → ‎visule!
  • This suffix is absorbed in masculine and neuter definite nouns in -le:
fratele (masc.) + ‎-e → ‎fratele!
numele (neut.) + ‎-e → ‎numele!
Related terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

From Latin -ere, the ending of the present active infinitive form of third conjugation verbs. Cognate with Spanish -er, Italian -ere, etc.

Suffix[edit]

-e

  1. A suffix forming infinitives of many verbs.
Related terms[edit]

See also[edit]


Serbo-Croatian[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *-ę.

Suffix[edit]

-e (Cyrillic spelling )

  1. Suffix appended to words to create a neuter noun, usually denoting a young animal, plant, place name or is used as a collective noun.
Declension[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-e (Cyrillic spelling )

  1. Suffix appended to the truncated stem (up to the second syllable) of a proper name to create a masculine or feminine hypocoristic.
    Katarína + ‎-e → ‎Káte
    Màrija + ‎-e → ‎Máre
    Jȕrāj + ‎-e → ‎Júre
    Màtija + ‎-e → ‎Máte

Etymology 3[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *-e, from Proto-Indo-European *-e, not a desinence per se but a thematic vowel in e-grade.

Suffix[edit]

-e (Cyrillic spelling )

  1. Suffix appended to the nominal stem to create vocative singular. Used for masculine and neuter a-stems.
    vȗk + ‎-e → ‎vȗče (vocative singular)

See also[edit]


Spanish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Latin -et, the third-person singular present active indicative ending of second conjugation verbs, and Latin -it, the third-person singular present active indicative ending of third and fourth conjugation verbs.

Suffix[edit]

-e

  1. suffix indicating the third-person singular (also used with usted) present indicative of -er and -ir verbs

Etymology 2[edit]

From Latin -em, the first-person singular present active subjunctive ending of first conjugation verbs, and Latin -et, the third-person singular present active subjunctive ending of first conjugation verbs.

Suffix[edit]

-e

  1. suffix indicating the first- and third-person singular present subjunctive of -ar verbs

Etymology 3[edit]

From Latin , Latin -e, and Latin , the second-person singular present active imperative endings of second, third, and fourth conjugation verbs, respectively.

Suffix[edit]

-e

  1. suffix indicating the second-person singular imperative form of -er and -ir verbs

Etymology 4[edit]

Neologistic suffix between -a and -o.

Suffix[edit]

-e

  1. (neologism) suffix used to form gender-neutral singular nouns
    hermano (brother), hermana (sister) + -ehermane (sibling)
    niño (boy), niña (girl) + -eniñe (child)
    amigo (male friend), amiga (female friend) + -eamigue (friend)
    abogado (male lawyer), abogada (female lawyer) + -eabogade (lawyer)

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]


Swedish[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-e

  1. Conjugates verbs into the subjunctive mood (archaic except for the past subjunctive of vara: vore)
  2. Marker of definiteness on past participles ending in -ad
  3. Marker of plural on past participles ending in -ad
  4. Marker of definiteness on superlatives ending in -ast
  5. Marker of definiteness on adjectives describing nouns with masculine semantic gender (sex)
  6. Creates diminutives of given names and certain nouns, -ie, -y
    frukost (breakfast) + ‎-e → ‎frugge (brekkie)
    fisk (fish) + ‎-e → ‎firre (fishie)
    Jonatan (Jonathan) + ‎-e → ‎Jonte (nickname of Jonatan)
    Synonyms: -is, -a, -an

Turkish[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-e

  1. to (puts the word into the dative case)

Tzotzil[edit]

Clitic[edit]

-e

  1. Phrase-final clitic used when an article precedes at least one word.
    ti vinikethe man

References[edit]