list

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See also: List, līst, лист, and ліст

Contents

English[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

A list (sense 3) of the Roman Catholic popes buried in St. Peter’s Basilica on a plaque at the entrance to the Sacristy

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle English lī̆st, lī̆ste (band, stripe; hem, selvage; border, edge, rim; list, specification; barriers enclosing area for jousting, etc.), from Old English līste (hem, edge, strip), or Old French liste, listre (border; band; strip of paper; list), or Medieval Latin lista,[1] all from Proto-Germanic *līstǭ (band, strip; hem, selvage; border, edge), possibly from Proto-Indo-European *leys- (to trace, track). The word is cognate with Dutch lijst (list), Finnish lista ((informal) list; batten), Galician lista (band, strip; list), German Leiste (ledge; (heraldry) bar), Icelandic lista, listi, Italian lista (list; strip), Portuguese lista (list), Spanish lista (list, roll; stripe), Swedish lista (list).

Noun[edit]

list (plural lists)

  1. A strip of fabric, especially from the edge of a piece of cloth.
    • c. 1603–1604, William Shakespeare, “Measvre for Measure”, in Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies: Published According to the True Originall Copies (First Folio), London: Printed by Isaac Iaggard, and Ed[ward] Blount, published 1623, OCLC 606515358, [Act I, scene ii], lines 27–34, page 62, column 1:
      1. Gent[leman]. Well: there went but a paire of ſheeres betweene vs. / Luc[io]. I grant: as there may betweene the Liſts, and the Veluet. Thou art the Liſt. / 1. Gent. And thou the Veluet. Thou art good Veluet; thou'rt a three pild-piece I warrant thee: I had as liefe be a Lyſt of an Engliſh Kerſey, as be pil'd, as thou art pil'd, for a French Veluet. Do I ſpeake feelingly now?
      1st Gentleman. Well, you and I are cut from the same cloth. / Lucio. I agree: just as the lists [scraps from the edge of the cloth] and the velvet are from the same cloth. You are the list. / 1st Gentleman. And you are the velvet. You are good velvet; you are a three-piled piece, I'll bet. I would willingly be a list of an English kersey, than be full of piles [haemorrhoids], as you are piled, like a French velvet. Do I speak feelingly now?
  2. Material used for cloth selvage.
    • 1871 September 18, “The Jewish New Year”, in The Jewish Herald: A Record of Christian Effort for the Salvation of Israel, London: John Snow & Co., []; and the British Society [for the Propagation of the Gospel Among the Jews], [], published 1 November 1871, OCLC 749304689, page 174:
      Previous to the offering up of prayer, however, the persons chosen for this office [of praying for the people] had divested themselves of their boots and put on list slippers, their hands being washed by "the descendants of Levi" at a basin near the Holy of Holies.
    • 1893, A[rthur] Conan Doyle, “The Naval Treaty”, in The Memoirs of Sherlock Holmes, New York, N.Y.: A. L. Burt, OCLC 691143; republished London: John Murray, [], January 1950, OCLC 632221174, page 255:
      "How is it, then, that the woman who came into the room about nine left to traces with her muddy boots?" / "I am glad you raise the point. It occurred to me at the time. The charwomen are in the habit of taking off their boots at the commissionaire's office, and putting on list slippers."
  3. A register or roll of paper consisting of a compilation or enumeration of a set of possible items; the compilation or enumeration itself. [from 1600]
    • 1625, Francis Bacon, “Of Youth and Age. XLII.”, in The Essayes or Covncils, Civill and Moral, [] Newly Written, London: Printed by Iohn Haviland for Hanna Barret, OCLC 863521290; newly enlarged edition, London: Printed by Iohn Haviland, [], 1632, OCLC 863527675, pages 247–248:
      Natures that haue much Heat, and great and violent deſires and Perturbations, are not ripe for Action, till they haue paſſed the Meridian of their yeares: As it was with Iulius Cæſar, and Septimius Seuerus. [] And yet he [Septimus Severus] was the Ableſt Emperour, almoſt, of all the Liſt.
    • 2013 June 29, “A punch in the gut: How microbes promote liver cancer in the overweight”, in The Economist[1], volume 407, number 8842, pages 72–73:
      Mostly, the microbiome is beneficial. [] Research over the past few years, however, has implicated it in diseases from atherosclerosis to asthma to autism. Dr Yoshimoto and his colleagues would like to add liver cancer to that list.
  4. (in the plural, historical) The barriers or palisades used to fence off a space for jousting or tilting tournaments.
  5. (computing, programming) A codified representation of a list used to store data or in processing; especially, in the LISP programming language, a data structure consisting of a sequence of zero or more items.
  6. (architecture) A little square moulding; a fillet or listel.
  7. (carpentry) A narrow strip of wood, especially sapwood, cut from the edge of a board or plank.
  8. (ropemaking) A piece of woollen cloth with which the yarns are grasped by a worker.
  9. (tin-plate manufacture) The first thin coating of tin; a wire-like rim of tin left on an edge of the plate after it is coated.
  10. (obsolete) A stripe.
    (Can we find and add a quotation of Sir Thomas Browne to this entry?)
  11. (obsolete) A boundary or limit; a border.
    • c. 1597, [William Shakespeare], The History of Henrie the Fovrth; [], quarto edition, London: Printed by P[eter] S[hort] for Andrew Wise, [], published 1598, OCLC 932916628, [Act IV, scene i]:
      [W]ere it good / [] to ſet ſo rich a maine / On the nice hazard of one doubtfull houre? / It were not good for therein ſhould we read / The very bottome and the ſoule of hope, / The very liſt, the very vtmost bound / Of all our fortunes.
      Is it good / [] to place so high a stake / On the risky hazard of one doubtful hour? / No, it would be no good for we would read into it that we had reached / The end of our hope, / The very limit, the very utmost boundary / Of all our luck.
Synonyms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]
Translations[edit]
The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout#Translations.

Verb[edit]

list (third-person singular simple present lists, present participle listing, simple past and past participle listed)

  1. (transitive) To create or recite a list.
  2. (transitive) To place in listings.
  3. (transitive) To sew together, as strips of cloth, so as to make a show of colours, or to form a border.
    (Can we find and add a quotation of Sir H. Wotton to this entry?)
  4. (transitive) To cover with list, or with strips of cloth; to put list on; to stripe as if with list.
    to list a door
    • Alfred Tennyson:
      The tree that stood white-listed through the gloom.
  5. (transitive, agriculture) To plough and plant with a lister.
  6. (transitive, agriculture, chiefly Southern US) To prepare (land) for a cotton crop by making alternating beds and alleys with a hoe.
  7. (transitive, carpentry) To cut away a narrow strip, as of sapwood, from the edge of.
    to list a board
  8. (transitive, military) To enclose (a field, etc.) for combat.
  9. (transitive, obsolete) To engage a soldier, etc.; to enlist.
  10. (intransitive, obsolete) To engage in public service by enrolling one's name; to enlist.
Derived terms[edit]
Translations[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Middle English liste, from Old English list (art, cleverness, cunning, experience, skill, craft), from Proto-Germanic *listiz (craft, art), from Proto-Indo-European *leys-, *leyǝs- (track, furrow, trace, trail). Cognate with Scots list (art, skill, craft, cunning), Saterland Frisian list (cunning, knowledge), Dutch list (ruse, strategem, guile, artifice, sleight), Low German list (wisdom, prudence, cunning, artifice), German List (cunning, ruse, trick, guile, ploy), Swedish list (cunning, art, trick, ruse, wile, guile, stealth), Icelandic list (art), and possibly Spanish listo (clever). Related to lore, lere, learn.

Noun[edit]

list (uncountable)

  1. (archaic) Art; craft; cunning; skill.
    • 1877, James Clarke & Co, The literary world:
      In discussing the Syllabus and the last dogma of 1870, so much must be allowed for Italian list and cunning, or a word-fence. An Englishman, with his matter-of-fact way of putting things, is no match for these gentry.
    • 1893, Solomon Caesar, Original notes on the Book of Proverbs:
      "[...] The foxes had heard that the fowls were sick, and went to see them decked in peacock's feathers; said of men who speak friendly, but only with list or cunning within."
    • 1897, Lilian Winser, Lays and legends of the Weald of Kent:
      For when the guileful monster smiled Snakes left their holes and hissed, — And stroking soft his silken beard Raised creatures full of list.
    • 1991, Alexander L. Ringer, The Early romantic era:
      The general bass, in its fixed lines, is taken by surprise and overwhelmed by List ... (List = cunning); [...].
    • 1992, University of Reading. Graduate Centre for Medieval Studies, Reading medieval studies:
      The latter wins his fight not by list but through straightforward knightly prowess, [...]
    • 2000, Cordula Scholz, Georgios Makris, Peter Schreiner, Polypleuros nous:
      It is worth noting that, contrary to Alexios who according to his daughter did not scruple to use any tricks to achieve his goal, Manuel, as depicted by Kinnamos, preferred "to win by war rather than by list."
    • 2008, Jon B. Sherman, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, The magician in medieval German literature:
      One man can accomplish with list (magic), that which a thousand could not accomplish, regardless of how strong they were.
Synonyms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Clipping of list(en).

Verb[edit]

list (third-person singular simple present lists, present participle listing, simple past and past participle list)

  1. (intransitive, poetic) To listen.
    • c. 1606–1607, William Shakespeare, “The Tragedie of Anthonie and Cleopatra”, in Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies: Published According to the True Originall Copies (First Folio), London: Printed by Isaac Iaggard, and Ed[ward] Blount, published 1623, OCLC 606515358, [Act IV, scene iii], page 359, column 1:
      2 [Soldier] Peace, what noiſe? / 1 [Soldier] Liſt liſt. / 2 Hearke. / 1 Music i' th' Ayre.
    • 1878, Edward Hayes Plumptre (transl.), Philoctetes, line 1267.
      Neop. Be of good cheer, and list to what I speak.
    • 1889, Edmund Doidge Anderson Morshead (transl.), Agamemnon, page 66 in The House of Atreus, 2nd edition,
      Albeit ye know its message. Praise or blame,
      Even as ye list,—I reck not of your words.
    • Frank Moore
      We list to the trumpings that herald the storm,
      To the roll of the drum, and the order to form!
  2. (transitive, poetic) To listen to.
Translations[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

Possibly from tilting on lists in jousts,[2] or from the same root as the "desire" etymology.[3]

Noun[edit]

list (plural lists)

  1. (nautical) A tilting or careening to one side, usually not intentionally / not under a ship's own power.
  2. (architecture) A tilt to a building.
Translations[edit]

Verb[edit]

list (third-person singular simple present lists, present participle listing, simple past and past participle listed)

  1. (nautical) To tilt to one side.
    the ship listed to port
  2. (nautical) To cause (something) to tilt to one side.
    the steady wind listed the ship
Translations[edit]

Etymology 5[edit]

From Middle English listen, list, liste, leste, lesten (to choose, desire, wish (to do something)), from Old English lystan,[4] from Proto-Germanic *lustijaną, from Proto-Germanic *lustuz (pleasure). The word is cognate with Danish lyste (to desire, feel like, want), Dutch lusten (to appreciate, like; to lust), Faroese lysta (to desire), Old Norse lyste (to desire; to lust), Old High German lusten (modern German gelüsten and lüsten (obsolete)).

The noun sense is from the verb, or from Middle English list, liste, lest, leste (desire, wish; craving, longing; enjoyment, joy, pleasure), which is derived from Middle English listen, list (verb).[5]

Verb[edit]

list (third-person singular simple present lists, present participle listing, simple past and past participle listed)

  1. (transitive, archaic) To be pleasing to.
  2. (transitive, archaic) To desire, like, or wish (to do something).
    • 1536–42, Thomas Wyatt, "If in the world there be more woe" [modernized spelling]:
      Who list to live in quietness
      By me let him beware ...
    • 1610–1611, William Shakespeare, “The Tempest”, in Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies: Published According to the True Originall Copies (First Folio), London: Printed by Isaac Iaggard, and Ed[ward] Blount, published 1623, OCLC 606515358, [Act III, scene ii], page 12, column 2:
      If thou beeſt a man, ſhew thy ſelfe in thy likeneſs. If thou beeſt a diuell, take't as thou liſt.
    • 1611, King James Version, John 3:8:
      The wind bloweth where it listeth, and thou hearest the sound thereof, but canst not tell whence it cometh, and whither it goeth: so is every one that is born of the Spirit.
    • 1843, Thomas Carlyle, Past and Present, book 3, ch. VIII, Unworking Aristocracy
      Ye are as gods, that can create soil. Soil-creating gods there is no withstanding. They have the might to sell wheat at what price they list; and the right, to all lengths, and famine-lengths, — if they be pitiless infernal gods!
    • 1959, Leo Strauss, "What is Political Philosophy?", in What is Political Philosophy?, page 51:
      License consists in doing what one lists; liberty consists in doing in the right manner the good only;
    • 2007, John Burrow, A History of Histories, Penguin 2009, page 413:
      The spirit seemed to blow where it listed among a historically motley collection of Catholic theologians, Puritan zealots and American squires.
Derived terms[edit]
Translations[edit]

Noun[edit]

list

  1. (obsolete) Desire, inclination.

References[edit]

Further reading[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Czech[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *listъ (leaf).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

list m

  1. leaf (green and flat organ of vegetative plants)
  2. letter (written message)
  3. sheet (sheet of paper)
  4. newspaper
    Polský list Dziennik Gazeta Prawna nejdříve napsal, že polská hlava státu podepíše dokument ve středu. (iDNES)
  5. certificate (document containing a certified statement)
    rodný list -- birth certificate
    úmrtní list -- death certificate

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • list in Příruční slovník jazyka českého, 1935–1957
  • list in Slovník spisovného jazyka českého, 1960–1971, 1989

Danish[edit]

Noun[edit]

list c (singular definite listen, not used in plural form)

  1. cunning, trick

Verb[edit]

list

  1. imperative of liste

Dutch[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Dutch list, from Old Dutch list, from Proto-Germanic *listiz.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

list f (plural listen, diminutive listje n)

  1. a cunning plan

Anagrams[edit]


Faroese[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

list f (genitive singular listar, plural listir)

  1. art

Declension[edit]

Declension of list
f2 singular plural
indefinite definite indefinite definite
nominative list listin listir listirnar
accusative list listina listir listirnar
dative list listini listum listunum
genitive listar listarinnar lista listanna

Icelandic[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

list f (genitive singular listar, nominative plural listir)

  1. art

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Lower Sorbian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *listъ (leaf).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

list m (diminutive listk)

  1. leaf, foliage
  2. letter (a written message)

Declension[edit]


Norwegian Bokmål[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Norse list

Noun[edit]

list m, f (definite singular lista or listen)

  1. cunning, craftiness, slyness

Etymology 2[edit]

Verb[edit]

list

  1. imperative of liste

References[edit]


Norwegian Nynorsk[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse list

Noun[edit]

list f (definite singular lista)

  1. cunning, craftiness, slyness

References[edit]


Old English[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *listiz. Cognate with Old Saxon list, Dutch list, Old High German list (German List), Old Norse list (Swedish list).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

list f

  1. art; cunning, guile, craft

Declension[edit]

Descendants[edit]


Old Swedish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse list, from Proto-Germanic *listiz.

Pronunciation[edit]

Phonetik.svg This entry needs pronunciation information. If you are familiar with the IPA then please add some!

Noun[edit]

list f

  1. skill, proficiency
  2. art, craft
  3. cunning, slyness
  4. resort

Declension[edit]

Descendants[edit]


Polish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *listъ (leaf).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

list m inan (diminutive liścik)

  1. letter (a written message)

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • list in Polish dictionaries at PWN

Serbo-Croatian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *listъ (leaf).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

lȋst m (Cyrillic spelling ли̑ст)

  1. leaf
  2. (computing) leaf
  3. sheet (of paper or other material manufactured in thin sheets)
  4. newsletter, newspaper
  5. certificate (any official document attesting a fact)
  6. (obsolete) letter (written message)
  7. calf (leg part)
  8. sole, flatfish (fish species)

Declension[edit]

References[edit]

  • list” in Hrvatski jezični portal

Slovak[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *listъ (leaf).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

list m (genitive singular listu, lista, nominative plural listy, genitive plural listov, declension pattern of dub)

  1. letter; a written message
  2. leaf; a part of a tree
  3. sheet; a piece of paper

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • list in Slovak dictionaries at korpus.sk

Slovene[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *listъ (leaf).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

líst m inan (genitive lísta, nominative plural lísti)

  1. piece of paper
  2. leaf
  3. sole
  4. (anatomy) calf (leg part)

Declension[edit]

Related terms[edit]


Swedish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Swedish list, from Old Norse list, from Proto-Germanic *listiz, from Proto-Indo-European *leys-, *leyǝs-. Cognate with Icelandic list.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

list c

  1. smartness, trick, cunning
  2. a strip (of wood or metal, a thin and long board), a border, a beading
  3. (graphical user interface) a bar

Declension[edit]

Declension of list 
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative list listen lister listerna
Genitive lists listens listers listernas

Related terms[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]


Upper Sorbian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *listъ (leaf).

Noun[edit]

list m

  1. letter