plaque

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See also: Plaque and plaqué

English[edit]

Etymology[edit]

A plaque (sense 2) marking the house in Redondela, Galicia, Spain, where composer Reveriano Soutullo lived
A reddish plaque (sense 5) on the face caused by Bowen’s disease
An illustration of artery walls narrowed by plaques (sense 6.1)
A severe build-up of plaque (sense 6.2) on teeth

Borrowed from French plaque (plate, sheet (of metal); slab (of marble); bacteria on teeth), from French plaquer, Middle French plaquer (to plate),[1] from Middle Dutch placken (to patch, beat metal into a thin plate), from placke (disk, patch, stain), from Old Dutch *plagga (patch), from Proto-Germanic *plaggą (patch). The word is cognate with Middle Low German placke, plagge (small stain, scraps, rags, thin grass), German Placken (spot, patch), Saterland Frisian plak, plakke (a blow, slap), Swedish plagg (clothing, garment). Compare plack.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

plaque (countable and uncountable, plural plaques)

  1. (countable) Any flat, thin piece of clay, ivory, metal, etc., used for ornament, or for painting pictures upon, as a dish, plate, slab, etc., hung upon a wall; also, a smaller decoration worn by a person, such as a brooch.
  2. (countable) A piece of flat metal with writing on it, attached to a building, monument, or other structure to remind people of a person or an event.
  3. (countable, biology) A clearing in a bacterial lawn caused by a virus.
  4. (countable, music) In the Hornbostel–Sachs classification system: any flat, thin musical instrument.
    blown plaques  concussion plaques
  5. (countable, pathology) A broad patch of abnormal tissue distinguishable from surrounding tissue, especially a broad papule (inflamed, irritated patch) on the skin.
  6. (countable, uncountable, pathology) An abnormal accumulation of material in or on an organ of the body, often associated with disease.
    amyloid plaque  pleural plaque  senile plaque
    1. (countable, uncountable, pathology) An accumulation in artery walls made up of macrophage cells and debris containing lipids, (cholesterol and fatty acids), calcium, and connective tissue; an atheroma.
      • 2013 July–August, Stephen P. Lownie; David M. Pelz, “Stents to Prevent Stroke: These Devices can Spring into Shape Automatically to Open Arteries Blocked with Plaque”, in American Scientist[1], New Haven, Conn.: Sigma Xi, the Scientific Research Society, ISSN 0003-0996, OCLC 891112584, archived from the original on 29 May 2017:
        As we age, the major arteries of our bodies frequently become thickened with plaque, a fatty material with an oatmeal-like consistency that builds up along the inner lining of blood vessels. The reason plaque forms isn't entirely known, but it seems to be related to high levels of cholesterol inducing an inflammatory response, which can also attract and trap more cellular debris over time.
    2. (uncountable, dentistry) An accumulation of biofilm, or bacteria, on teeth.

Alternative forms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Translations[edit]

The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout#Translations.

References[edit]

  1. ^ plaque, n.”, in OED Online Paid subscription required, Oxford: Oxford University Press, June 2006.

Further reading[edit]


French[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Dutch placken (to patch, beat metal into a thin plate), from placke (disk, patch, stain), from *Old Dutch plagga (patch), from Proto-Germanic *plaggą (patch).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

plaque f (plural plaques)

  1. sheet, plate (of metal)
  2. slab (of marble)
  3. plaque (bacteria on teeth)
  4. plaque, slab (ornamental)
  5. (casino) chip
  6. (electrics, photography) plate
  7. (geology) plate (especially a tectonic plate)
  8. slab, bar (of e.g. chocolate)
  9. (slang) 10,000 francs
  10. (Cooking; gas, electric) burner (US), ring (Britain)

Derived terms[edit]

Verb[edit]

plaque

  1. first-person singular present indicative of plaquer
  2. third-person singular present indicative of plaquer
  3. first-person singular present subjunctive of plaquer
  4. third-person singular present subjunctive of plaquer
  5. second-person singular imperative of plaquer

Further reading[edit]


Spanish[edit]

Verb[edit]

plaque

  1. First-person singular (yo) present subjunctive form of placar.
  2. Formal second-person singular (usted) present subjunctive form of placar.
  3. Third-person singular (él, ella, also used with usted?) present subjunctive form of placar.
  4. Formal second-person singular (usted) imperative form of placar.