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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
個-order.gif

Etymology[edit]

Phono-semantic compound (形聲): semantic  + phonetic 

Han character[edit]

(radical 9 +8, 10 strokes, cangjie input 人田十口 (OWJR), four-corner 26200, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 107, character 17
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 758
  • Dae Jaweon: page 228, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 178, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+500B

Chinese[edit]

trad. /
simp.

Etymology[edit]

The semantics may have developed along the grammaticalisation process "bamboo stalk" () > "piece, item" > "classifier for every category of noun" > "possessive particle, generic particle". If so, it would then possibly be cognate with 竿 (gān, “bamboo, rod”). Compare Tibetan མཁར་བ ‎(mkhar ba), འཁར་བ ‎('khar ba, walking stick, staff) and Thai ก้าน ‎(gâan, stem, stalk).

Pronunciation[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: (28)
Final:
Division: I

Openness: Open
Tone: Departing (H)

Fanqie:
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/kɑH/ /kɑH/ /kɑH/ /kɑH/ /kaH/ /kɑH/ /kɑH/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
‹ kaH › /*kˤa[r]-s/ piece, item

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
4208 1 /*kaːls/ 見儀禮鄭注

Definitions[edit]

  1. piece, item; individual
    /   ―  rén  ―  an individual; personal
    /   ―    ―  individuality
  2. size, height
    /   ―    ―  height, stature
    /   ―  r  ―  size
  3. separate, respective; separately, individually
    /   ―  bié  ―  individual, separate; some, a couple of
  4. single, alone
  5. (dialectal) one
  6. The generic classifier. Used with nouns lacking specific classifiers.
    問題 / 问题  ―  Wǒ yǒu yī ge wèntí.  ―  I have a question.
  7. Alternative classifier, for nouns having specific classifiers. Often colloquial and regional. Usage varies greatly between different topolects.
    /   ―  ge rén  ―  one person; alone
    /   ―  měi ge rén  ―  every person, everyone
    / [Guangzhou Cantonese]  ―  jat1 go3 zeng2 [Jyutping]  ―  a well
    / [Guangzhou Cantonese]  ―  jat1 go3 fong4 [Jyutping]  ―  a room
    學校 / 学校  ―  ge xuéxiào  ―  one school
  8. (Mandarin, colloquial) Particle, placed between a verb and numbers, showing that the following numbers are approximate, not accurate.
  9. (Mandarin, colloquial) Particle, placed between a verb and its object or complement, adding a sense of ease, swiftness and one-offness to the action.
  10. (Mandarin, colloquial) Particle used after (xiē).
  11. (dialectal Mandarin) Particle used in some time-related words.
  12. (obsolete, Wu, Xiang, Gan, dialectal Cantonese, dialectal Min) (= ()) this; that
  13. (Cantonese, Wu) Word-initial particle, serving as the definite article.
  14. (Cantonese, Wu, Teochew) Possessive particle. Equivalent to Mandarin ().
    (ge3) (Cantonese), (kaq) (Wu)
  15. (dialectal) Sentence-final declarative, affirmative, or prohibitive particle. Equivalent to Mandarin (), (le).

Compounds[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic ():

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 5 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Counter[edit]

‎(hiragana , romaji -ko)

  1. item, article, thing
    あの (えだ) (さくら) ()十二 (じゅうに) ()だけあります。
    Ano eda ni sakuranbo ga jūni-ko dake arimasu.
    There are only twelve cherries on that branch.

Usage notes[edit]

This is the most generic counter in Japanese. It can be used to count just about anything.


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(gae) (hangeul , McCune-Reischauer kae)

  1. a piece
  2. a unit
  3. an item.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(, cái)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

References[edit]