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U+500B, 個
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-500B

[U+500A]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+500C]
See also:

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
個-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 9 +8, 10 strokes, cangjie input 人田十口 (OWJR), four-corner 26200, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 107, character 17
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 758
  • Dae Jaweon: page 228, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 178, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+500B

Chinese[edit]

trad. /
simp.

Glyph origin[edit]

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*kaːls
*kaːls
*kɯ, *kas
*kaː, *kʰaː
*kaː
*kaː
*kaː
*kaː, *kaːs, *ɡaːʔ
*kaː
*kaː
*kaː, *kaːʔ, *kaːs
*kaː, *kaːʔ
*kaːʔ
*kaːʔ
*kaːʔ
*kaːʔ
*kaːʔ
*kaːʔ
*kaːs
*kaːs
*kaːɡs
*kaːɡs
*kaːɡs
*kaːɡs
*kaːɡs
*kaːɡs
*kʰaː
*kʰaː
*kʰaː
*kʰaː
*kʰaːʔ, *kʰaːs
*qʰaː, *ɡaː
*ɡaː
*ɡaː
*ɡaː
*ɡaː
*ɡaː
*ɡaː
*ɡaː
*ɡaː
*ɡaː
*ɡaː
*ɡaː
*ɡaːʔ
*ɡaːʔ
*ɡaːʔ
*ɡaːʔ, *ɡaːɡs
*ɡaːʔ
*ka
*ka
*ka
*ka, *kas, *kʰa
*ka
*ka
*ka
*ka
*ka, *ɡa
*kas
*kas
*kas
*ɡaːɡ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *kaːls): semantic  + phonetic (OC *kaːs).

Etymology[edit]

The semantics may have developed along the grammaticalisation process "bamboo stalk" () > "piece, item" > "classifier for every category of noun" > "possessive particle, generic particle". If so, it would then possibly be cognate with 竿 (OC *kaːn, “bamboo, rod”). Compare Tibetan མཁར་བ(mkhar ba), འཁར་བ('khar ba, walking stick, staff) and Thai ก้าน(gâan, stem, stalk).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • kò - literary;
  • ê - classifier, possessive particle.
Note:
  • go6 - literary;
  • gai5 - classifier;
  • gai7 - possessive particle.
Note:
  • As classifier or particle:
    • 5geq ~ 5hheq ~ 4eq;
    • literary:
    • 2ku.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (28)
Final () (94)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kɑH/
Pan
Wuyun
/kɑH/
Shao
Rongfen
/kɑH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kaH/
Li
Rong
/kɑH/
Wang
Li
/kɑH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/kɑH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ kaH ›
Old
Chinese
/*kˤa[r]-s/
English piece, item

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 4208
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kaːls/
Notes

Definitions[edit]

  1. piece; item; individual
    /   ―  rén  ―  an individual; personal
    /   ―    ―  individuality
  2. size; height
    /   ―  zi  ―  height; stature
    /   ―  r  ―  size
  3. separate; respective; separately; individually
    /   ―  bié  ―  individual; separate; some; a couple of
  4. single; alone
  5. (dialectal) one
  6. The generic classifier. Used with nouns lacking specific classifiers.
    問題 / 问题  ―  Wǒ yǒu yī ge wèntí.  ―  I have a question.
  7. Alternative classifier, for nouns having specific classifiers. Often colloquial and regional. Usage varies greatly between different topolects.
    /   ―  ge rén  ―  one person; alone
    /   ―  měi ge rén  ―  every person, everyone
    / [Guangzhou Cantonese]  ―  jat1 go3 zeng2 [Jyutping]  ―  a well
    / [Guangzhou Cantonese]  ―  jat1 go3 fong4-2 [Jyutping]  ―  a room
    學校 / 学校  ―  ge xuéxiào  ―  one school
  8. (Mandarin, colloquial) Particle, placed between a verb and numbers, showing that the following numbers are approximate, not accurate.
  9. (Mandarin, colloquial) Particle, placed between a verb and its object or complement, adding a sense of ease, swiftness and one-offness to the action.
  10. (Mandarin, colloquial) Particle used after (xiē).
  11. (dialectal Mandarin) Particle used in some time-related words.
  12. (obsolete, Wu, Xiang, Gan, dialectal Cantonese, dialectal Min) (= ) this; that
  13. (Cantonese, Wu) Word-initial particle, serving as the definite article.
  14. (Cantonese, Wu, Teochew) Possessive particle. Equivalent to Mandarin (de).
    (ge3) (Cantonese), (kaq) (Wu)
  15. (dialectal) Sentence-final declarative, affirmative, or prohibitive particle. Equivalent to Mandarin (de), (le).

Compounds[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic ():

Others:


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 5 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Counter[edit]

‎(hiragana , romaji -ko)

  1. item, article, thing
    あの (えだ) (さくら) ()十二 (じゅうに) ()だけあります。
    Ano eda ni sakuranbo ga jūni-ko dake arimasu.
    There are only twelve cherries on that branch.

Usage notes[edit]

This is the most generic counter in Japanese. It can be used to count just about anything.


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(gae) (hangeul , McCune-Reischauer kae)

  1. a piece
  2. a unit
  3. an item.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(, cái)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

References[edit]