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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
去-order.gif

Etymology[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script
去-oracle.svg 去-bronze.svg 去-bigseal.svg 去-seal.svg

Ideogrammic compound (會意):  ‎(man) +  ‎(mouth, object). Top figure simplified to , unrelated to ‎(scholar, gentleman), while bottom simplified to . There are various interpretations of the combination of "man" and "mouth, object". One is that the ideograph represented a man with a hole marked in his crotch, and the inventors of writing had perhaps "anus" (i.e. getting rid of) in mind.[1] Another is that it represented a man departing from a cave or city.

Alternatively, it may be the original character of ‎(to open one's mouth), the meaning given by the combination of ("big") and ("mouth"). The meaning "to depart" would be an extension of the meaning "to open one's mouth", as the lips depart from each other when one's mouth is open.

Shuowen Jiezi interprets the character as a Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *kʰaʔ, *kʰas): semantic  ‎(man) + phonetic 𠙴.

In addition, is also the original character of ‎(to cover). The is a cover on top of an object .

Han character[edit]

(radical 28 +3, 5 strokes, cangjie input 土戈 (GI), four-corner 40731, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Axel Schuessler, ABC Etymological Dictionary of Old Chinese

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

There were two pronunciations in Middle Chinese. The rising tone pronunciation originally meant "to put away, to eliminate" (causative of "to go away"), and the falling tone "to go away, to leave, to depart" (anticausative). The merger of the two pronunciations already happened in Old Chinese and most extant dialects do not observe this distinction now.

This word is of Sino-Tibetan origin with the basic meaning of "to get rid of". Compare Tibetan སྐྱག་པ ‎(skyag pa, to spend, to lay out; dung, excrement), རྐྱག ‎(rkyag, dirt, excrement), Burmese ကျ ‎(kya., to fall, to become low), ချ ‎(hkya., to put down, to bring down, to lower).

Pronunciation[edit]


Dialectal pronunciations ()
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /t͡ɕʰy⁵¹/
Harbin /t͡ɕʰy⁵³/
Tianjin /t͡ɕʰy⁵³/
Jinan /t͡ɕʰy²¹/
/t͡ɕʰi²¹/ 過~
Qingdao /t͡ɕʰy⁴²/
Zhengzhou /t͡ɕʰy³¹²/
Xi'an /t͡ɕʰy⁴⁴/
Xining /t͡ɕʰy²¹³/
Yinchuan /kʰɯ¹³/
/t͡ɕʰy¹³/
Lanzhou /t͡ɕʰy¹³/
/t͡ɕʰi¹³/
Ürümqi /t͡ɕʰy²¹³/
Wuhan /t͡ɕʰy³⁵/
/kʰɯ³⁵/
Chengdu /t͡ɕʰy¹³/
/t͡ɕʰie¹³/
Guiyang /t͡ɕʰi²¹³/
Kunming /t͡ɕʰi²¹²/ ~年
/kʰə²¹²/ ~大理
Nanjing /kʰi⁴⁴/
/t͡ɕʰy⁴⁴/
Hefei /t͡sʰz̩ʷ⁵³/
Jin Taiyuan /t͡ɕʰy⁴⁵/ ~哪
/kəʔ²/ 上~
Pingyao /t͡ɕʰy³⁵/
Hohhot /t͡ɕʰy⁵⁵/ 來~
/kəʔ⁴³/ 吃~
Wu Shanghai /t͡ɕʰi³⁵/
/t͡ɕʰy³⁵/
Suzhou /t͡ɕʰy⁵¹³/
Hangzhou /t͡sʰz̩ʷ⁴⁴⁵/
/t͡ɕʰi⁴⁴⁵/
Wenzhou /t͡ɕʰy⁴²/
/kʰei⁴²/
Hui Shexian /t͡ɕʰy³²⁴/
/t͡ɕʰi³²⁴/
Tunxi /kʰə⁴²/
Xiang Changsha /t͡ɕʰy⁵⁵/
/kʰə⁵⁵/
Xiangtan /t͡ɕʰie⁵⁵/
Gan Nanchang /t͡ɕʰie²¹³/
Hakka Meixian /hi⁵³/
Taoyuan /kʰi⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /høy³³/
Nanning /hy³³/
Hong Kong /høy³³/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /kʰu²¹/
/kʰi²¹/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /kʰɔ²¹²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /kʰɔ³³/
Shantou (Min Nan) /kʰɯ²¹³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /hu³⁵/
/xu³⁵/
Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/2

Initial: (29)
Final: (22)
Tone: Rising (X)

Openness: Open
Division: III
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: qǔ
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/kʰɨʌX/ /kʰiɔX/ /kʰiɔX/ /kʰɨə̆X/ /kʰiɔX/ /kʰĭoX/ /kʰi̯woX/
Character (), Pronunciation 2/2

Initial: (29)
Final: (22)
Tone: Departing (H)

Openness: Open
Division: III
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: qù
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/kʰɨʌH/ /kʰiɔH/ /kʰiɔH/ /kʰɨə̆H/ /kʰiɔH/ /kʰĭoH/ /kʰi̯woH/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
‹ khjoX › /*[kʰ](r)aʔ/ get rid of
‹ khjoH › /*[k]ʰ(r)ap-s/ depart

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
10684 0 /*kʰaʔ/
10687 0 /*kʰas/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to go to, to go away, to leave, to depart
    哪兒 / 哪儿  ―  nǎr?  ―  Where are you going?
  2. (before or after a verb) to go in order to do something
  3. to remove; to get rid of
    •   ―  diào  ―  to remove
    •   ―  tuō  ―  to throw off
    •   ―  chāi  ―  to remove, to take off
  4. (between two verbs) to; in order to
  5. (used after a verb of motion to indicates movement away from the speaker)
    •   ―  xià  ―  to go down ( compare 下來下来 (xiàlái, “to come down”) )
    •   ―  sòng   ―  to send away
  6. to send
  7. to play (a part, a character); to act
  8. last; past
    •   ―  nián  ―  last year

Antonyms[edit]

  • (lái, “to come, next”)

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. to leave, to go away

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

See also[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(geo) (hangeul , revised geo, McCune-Reischauer kŏ)

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Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(khứ, khử)

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