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U+52AB, 劫
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-52AB

[U+52AA]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+52AC]
See also:

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 19 +5, 7 strokes, cangjie input 土戈大尸 (GIKS) or X土戈大尸 (XGIKS), four-corner 47720, composition)

  1. take by force, coerce
  2. disaster

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 146, character 30
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 2316
  • Dae Jaweon: page 331, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 367, character 12
  • Unihan data for U+52AB

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Large seal script Small seal script
劫-bigseal.svg 劫-seal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*kʰal
*kʰal, *kʰas, *kʰab
*kʰɯ, *kʰɯ, *kʰab
*kaʔ, *kʰaʔ
*kʰa
*kʰa
*kʰa
*kʰa, *kʰas, *kʰab
*kʰa, *kʰl'aːb
*kʰaʔ, *kʰas
*kʰaʔ, *kʰas
*kʰas
*kaːb, *kab
*kab, *kab
*kab
*kab, *kab
*kʰab

Etymology[edit]

“(Buddhism) disaster”
Short for 劫波, from Sanskrit कल्प (kalpa).

Pronunciation[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /t͡ɕiɛ³⁵/
Harbin /t͡ɕiɛ²⁴/
Tianjin /t͡ɕie⁴⁵/
Jinan /t͡ɕiə⁴²/
Qingdao /t͡ɕiə⁴²/
Zhengzhou /t͡ɕiɛ²⁴/
Xi'an /t͡ɕiɛ²¹/
Xining /t͡ɕi²⁴/
Yinchuan /t͡ɕie¹³/
Lanzhou /t͡ɕiə¹³/
Ürümqi /t͡ɕiɤ⁵¹/
Wuhan /t͡ɕie²¹³/
Chengdu /t͡ɕʰie³¹/
/t͡ɕie³¹/
Guiyang /t͡ɕʰie²¹/
Kunming /t͡ɕiɛ³¹/
Nanjing /t͡ɕieʔ⁵/
Hefei /t͡ɕiɐʔ⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /t͡ɕʰiəʔ²/
Pingyao /t͡ɕʰiʌʔ¹³/
Hohhot /t͡ɕʰiaʔ⁴³/
Wu Shanghai /t͡ɕiɪʔ⁵/
Suzhou /t͡ɕiəʔ⁵/
Hangzhou /t͡ɕiəʔ⁵/
Wenzhou /t͡ɕi²¹³/
Hui Shexian /t͡ɕieʔ²¹/
Tunxi /t͡ɕia⁵/
Xiang Changsha /t͡ɕie²⁴/
Xiangtan /t͡ɕie²⁴/
Gan Nanchang /t͡ɕiɛʔ⁵/
Hakka Meixian /kiap̚¹/
Taoyuan /kiɑp̚²²/
Cantonese Guangzhou /kip̚³/
Nanning /kip̚³³/
Hong Kong /kip̚³/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /kiap̚³²/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /kiɛʔ²³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /kiɛ²⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /kiap̚²/
Haikou (Min Nan) /kiap̚⁵/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (28)
Final () (147)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kɨɐp̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/kiɐp̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/kiɐp̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kɨap̚/
Li
Rong
/kiap̚/
Wang
Li
/kĭɐp̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ki̯ɐp̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
jie
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
jié
Middle
Chinese
‹ kjæp ›
Old
Chinese
/*k(r)ap/
English rob

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
No. 6438 10694
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1 1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kab/ /*kab/
Notes kalpa kalpa

Definitions[edit]

  1. to coerce
  2. to rob
  3. (Buddhism) disaster

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for names)

Readings[edit]

Kanji in this term
こう
Jinmeiyō
on'yomi

Noun[edit]

(hiragana こう, rōmaji , historical hiragana こふ)

  1. (Buddhism) kalpa

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(geop) (hangeul , revised geop, McCune-Reischauer kŏp)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.