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See also:
U+52AB, 劫
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-52AB

[U+52AA]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+52AC]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 19, +5, 7 strokes, cangjie input 土戈大尸 (GIKS) or X土戈大尸 (XGIKS), four-corner 47720, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 146, character 30
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 2316
  • Dae Jaweon: page 331, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 367, character 12
  • Unihan data for U+52AB

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
劫-seal.svg 劫-bigseal.svg

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *kab, *kab): phonetic (OC *kʰaʔ, *kʰas) + semantic (power, force)

Etymology[edit]

“(Buddhism) disaster”
Short for 劫波, from Sanskrit कल्प (kalpa).

Pronunciation[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /t͡ɕiɛ³⁵/
Harbin /t͡ɕiɛ²⁴/
Tianjin /t͡ɕie⁴⁵/
Jinan /t͡ɕiə⁴²/
Qingdao /t͡ɕiə⁴²/
Zhengzhou /t͡ɕiɛ²⁴/
Xi'an /t͡ɕiɛ²¹/
Xining /t͡ɕi²⁴/
Yinchuan /t͡ɕie¹³/
Lanzhou /t͡ɕiə¹³/
Ürümqi /t͡ɕiɤ⁵¹/
Wuhan /t͡ɕie²¹³/
Chengdu /t͡ɕʰie³¹/
/t͡ɕie³¹/
Guiyang /t͡ɕʰie²¹/
Kunming /t͡ɕiɛ³¹/
Nanjing /t͡ɕieʔ⁵/
Hefei /t͡ɕiɐʔ⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /t͡ɕʰiəʔ²/
Pingyao /t͡ɕʰiʌʔ¹³/
Hohhot /t͡ɕʰiaʔ⁴³/
Wu Shanghai /t͡ɕiɪʔ⁵/
Suzhou /t͡ɕiəʔ⁵/
Hangzhou /t͡ɕiəʔ⁵/
Wenzhou /t͡ɕi²¹³/
Hui Shexian /t͡ɕieʔ²¹/
Tunxi /t͡ɕia⁵/
Xiang Changsha /t͡ɕie²⁴/
Xiangtan /t͡ɕie²⁴/
Gan Nanchang /t͡ɕiɛʔ⁵/
Hakka Meixian /kiap̚¹/
Taoyuan /kiɑp̚²²/
Cantonese Guangzhou /kip̚³/
Nanning /kip̚³³/
Hong Kong /kip̚³/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /kiap̚³²/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /kiɛʔ²³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /kiɛ²⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /kiap̚²/
Haikou (Min Nan) /kiap̚⁵/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (28)
Final () (147)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kɨɐp̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/kiɐp̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/kiɐp̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kɨap̚/
Li
Rong
/kiap̚/
Wang
Li
/kĭɐp̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ki̯ɐp̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
jie
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
jié
Middle
Chinese
‹ kjæp ›
Old
Chinese
/*k(r)ap/
English rob

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
No. 6438 10694
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1 1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kab/ /*kab/
Notes kalpa kalpa

Definitions[edit]

  1. to coerce; to compel
  2. to rob
  3. (Buddhism) disaster; calamity; catastrophe

Synonyms[edit]

  • (to coerce):
edit
  • (to disaster):
edit

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for names)

  1. intimidate
  2. aeon, eon

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
Kanji in this term
こう
Jinmeiyō
on’yomi

/kopu//kofu/ → */kowu//koː/

From Middle Chinese (MC kɨɐp̚), short form of 劫波 (MC kɨɐp̚ puɑ), itself a transliteration of Sanskrit कल्प (kalpa, aeon).

Pronunciation 1[edit]

Noun[edit]

(こう) ( (historical kana こふ)

  1. (Buddhism) kalpa: a unit of time in Buddhist cosmology
Derived terms[edit]
Proverbs[edit]

Pronunciation 2[edit]

Noun[edit]

(こう) ( (historical kana こふ)

  1. (go) a position in which two alternating stones can be captured and recaptured indefinitely
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
ごう
Jinmeiyō
on’yomi

/ɡopu//ɡofu/ → */ɡowu//ɡoː/

Possibly a shift from above. (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(ごう) ( (historical kana ごふ)

  1. (Buddhism) kalpa: a unit of time in Buddhist cosmology
Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

Korean[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Chinese (MC kɨɐp̚). Recorded as Middle Korean /겁〮 (Yale: kep) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

Hanja[edit]

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 위협할 (wihyeophal geop))

  1. Hanja form? of (coerce; threaten).

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]