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U+529B, 力
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-529B

[U+529A]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+529C]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
力-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 19, +0, 2 strokes, cangjie input 大尸 (KS), four-corner 40027)

  1. Kangxi radical #19, .

Derived characters[edit]

Descendants[edit]

See also[edit]

  • (Japanese katakana)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 146, character 5
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 2288
  • Dae Jaweon: page 327, character 31
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 364, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+529B

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alt. forms 𠠲
⿻力丶

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
力-oracle.svg 力-bronze.svg 力-bronze-spring.svg 力-bronze-warring.svg 力-silk.svg 力-slip.svg 力-seal.svg 力-bigseal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*rɯːɡ
*rɯːɡ
*rɯːɡ
*rɯːɡ, *rɯɡ
*rɯːɡ
*rɯːɡ, *rɯɡ
*rɯːɡ
*rɯːɡ, *rɯɡ
*rɯːɡ
*rɯːɡ
*rɯɡ
*rɯɡ
*rɯɡ

Pictogram (象形) – alternative interpretation, either an arm bending out from the side of the body, or a plough.

Wikipedia has an article on:

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • la̍t - vernacular;
  • le̍k/lia̍k - literary.
  • Wu

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /li⁵¹/
    Harbin /li⁵³/
    Tianjin /li⁵³/
    Jinan /li²¹/
    Qingdao /li⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /li²⁴/
    Xi'an /li²¹/
    Xining /l̩⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /li¹³/
    Lanzhou /li¹³/
    Ürümqi /li²¹³/
    Wuhan /ni²¹³/
    Chengdu /ni³¹/
    Guiyang /ni²¹/
    Kunming /li³¹/
    Nanjing /liʔ⁵/
    Hefei /liəʔ⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /liəʔ²/
    Pingyao /liʌʔ⁵³/
    Hohhot /liəʔ⁴³/
    Wu Shanghai /liɪʔ¹/
    Suzhou /liəʔ³/
    Hangzhou /liəʔ²/
    Wenzhou /lei²¹³/
    Hui Shexian /li²²/
    Tunxi /li¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /li²⁴/
    Xiangtan /ni²⁴/
    Gan Nanchang /liʔ⁵/
    Hakka Meixian /lit̚⁵/
    Taoyuan /lit̚⁵⁵/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /lek̚²/
    Nanning /lek̚²²/
    Hong Kong /lik̚²/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /lik̚⁵/
    /lat̚⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /liʔ⁵/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /li⁴²/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /lak̚⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /lek̚⁵/
    /lak̚³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (37)
    Final () (134)
    Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /lɨk̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /lɨk̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /liek̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /lik̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /liək̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /lĭək̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /li̯ək̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ lik ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*k.rək/
    English strength

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 7854
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*rɯɡ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. force; strength; power
        ―  liàng  ―  power
      攻擊 / 攻击  ―  gōngjī  ―  firepower
    2. power; energy
        ―    ―  steam power
    3. ability; capability
        ―  néng  ―  ability
    4. (physics) force

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. power, force, strength

    Readings[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    ちから
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese. Compound of Old Japanese elements (chi, power, life force, essence) +‎ から (kara, from).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana ちから, rōmaji chikara)

    1. strength; power; force
    2. (physics) force
    3. ability; capacity
    4. effort
    5. (tarot): Strength
    Derived terms[edit]

    Proper noun[edit]

    (hiragana ちから, rōmaji Chikara)

    1. A male given name

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    りき
    Grade: 1
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (lik). The goon reading, so likely the initial borrowing. Compare modern Cantonese reading lik6.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Affix[edit]

    (hiragana りき, rōmaji riki)

    1. power, strength
       (りき) (がく) (りき) () () () (りき)
      rikigaku, rikishi, nibariki
      power studies” (dynamics), “strength person” (sumo wrestler), two horsepower

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana りき, rōmaji riki)

    1. physical strength
    2. (Buddhism) capability, especially mystical power
    3. (Buddhism) the suchness of ability, one of the Ten Suchnesses in Mahayana Buddhism
    4. short for 力者 (rikisha): a strong person
    5. (archaic) short for 車力 (shariki), 力車 (rikisha): a rickshaw
    6. (archaic) a rickshaw operator's wages
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    りょく
    Grade: 1
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese , but apparently from a different source dialect or at a different time than (lik). The kan'on reading, so likely a later borrowing. Compare reconstructed Middle Chinese reading /li̯ək/ or Korean reading ryeok.

    Only found in compounds and idioms in modern Japanese.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Affix[edit]

    (hiragana りょく, rōmaji ryoku)

    1. strength, power
       (りょく) (そう) (けん) (りょく)
      ryokusō, kenryoku
      “strength struggle” (a hard fight), “right power” (authority)
    Derived terms[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (ryeok) (hangeul )

    1. strength, power

    Hanja[edit]

    (ryeok) (hangeul , McCune–Reischauer ryŏk)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Compounds[edit]


    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (lực, sức, sực, sựt)

    1. Hán tự form of lực, “physical force