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U+529B, 力
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-529B

[U+529A]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+529C]
See also: , , and

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
力-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 19 +0, 2 strokes, cangjie input 大尸 (KS), four-corner 40027)

  1. Kangxi radical #19, (power).

Derived characters[edit]

Descendants[edit]

See also[edit]

  • (Japanese katakana)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 146, character 5
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 2288
  • Dae Jaweon: page 327, character 31
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 364, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+529B

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alt. forms 𠠲
⿻力丶
Wikipedia has an article on:

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bamboo and silk script Large seal script Small seal script
力-oracle.svg 力-bronze.svg 力-silk.svg 力-bigseal.svg 力-seal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*rɯːɡ
*rɯːɡ
*rɯːɡ
*rɯːɡ, *rɯɡ
*rɯːɡ
*rɯːɡ, *rɯɡ
*rɯːɡ
*rɯːɡ, *rɯɡ
*rɯːɡ
*rɯːɡ
*rɯɡ
*rɯɡ
*rɯɡ

Pictogram (象形) – alternative interpretation, either an arm bending out from the side of the body, or a plough.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • la̍t - vernacular;
  • le̍k/lia̍k - literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /li⁵¹/
Harbin /li⁵³/
Tianjin /li⁵³/
Jinan /li²¹/
Qingdao /li⁴²/
Zhengzhou /li²⁴/
Xi'an /li²¹/
Xining /l̩⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /li¹³/
Lanzhou /li¹³/
Ürümqi /li²¹³/
Wuhan /ni²¹³/
Chengdu /ni³¹/
Guiyang /ni²¹/
Kunming /li³¹/
Nanjing /liʔ⁵/
Hefei /liəʔ⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /liəʔ²/
Pingyao /liʌʔ⁵³/
Hohhot /liəʔ⁴³/
Wu Shanghai /liɪʔ¹/
Suzhou /liəʔ³/
Hangzhou /liəʔ²/
Wenzhou /lei²¹³/
Hui Shexian /li²²/
Tunxi /li¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /li²⁴/
Xiangtan /ni²⁴/
Gan Nanchang /liʔ⁵/
Hakka Meixian /lit̚⁵/
Taoyuan /lit̚⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /lek̚²/
Nanning /lek̚²²/
Hong Kong /lik̚²/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /lik̚⁵/
/lat̚⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /liʔ⁵/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /li⁴²/
Shantou (Min Nan) /lak̚⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /lek̚⁵/
/lak̚³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (37)
Final () (134)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/lɨk̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/lɨk̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/liek̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/lik̚/
Li
Rong
/liək̚/
Wang
Li
/lĭək̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/li̯ək̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ lik ›
Old
Chinese
/*k.rək/
English strength

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 7854
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*rɯɡ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. force; strength; power
      ―  liàng  ―  power
    攻擊 / 攻击  ―  gōngjī  ―  firepower
  2. strong; strenuous
      ―    ―  hard-working
  3. power; energy
      ―    ―  steam power
  4. ability; capability
      ―  néng  ―  ability
  5. (physics) force

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja

Kanji[edit]

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. power, force, strength

Readings[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
ちから
Grade: 1
kun'yomi

From Old Japanese. Compound of Old Japanese elements (chi, power, life force, essence) +‎ から (kara, from).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana ちから, rōmaji chikara)

  1. strength; power; force
  2. (physics) force
  3. ability; capacity
  4. effort
  5. (tarot): Strength
Derived terms[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

(hiragana ちから, rōmaji Chikara)

  1. A male given name

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
りき
Grade: 1
on'yomi

From Middle Chinese (lik). The goon reading, so likely the initial borrowing. Compare modern Cantonese reading lik6.

Pronunciation[edit]

Affix[edit]

(hiragana りき, rōmaji riki)

  1. power, strength
     (りき) (がく) (りき) ()二馬 (にば) (りき)
    rikigaku, rikishi, nibariki
    power studies” (dynamics), “strength person” (sumo wrestler), two horsepower

Noun[edit]

(hiragana りき, rōmaji riki)

  1. physical strength
  2. (Buddhism) capability, especially mystical power
  3. (Buddhism) the suchness of ability, one of the Ten Suchnesses in Mahayana Buddhism
  4. short for 力者 (rikisha): a strong person
  5. (archaic) short for 車力 (shariki), 力車 (rikisha): a rickshaw
  6. (archaic) a rickshaw operator's wages
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
りょく
Grade: 1
on'yomi

From Middle Chinese , but apparently from a different source dialect or at a different time than (lik). The kan'on reading, so likely a later borrowing. Compare reconstructed Middle Chinese reading /li̯ək/ or Korean reading ryeok.

Only found in compounds and idioms in modern Japanese.

Pronunciation[edit]

Affix[edit]

(hiragana りょく, rōmaji ryoku)

  1. strength, power
     (りょく) (そう) (けん) (りょく)
    ryokusō, kenryoku
    “strength struggle” (a hard fight), “right power” (authority)
Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

Korean[edit]

Noun[edit]

(ryeok) (hangeul )

  1. strength, power

Hanja[edit]

(ryeok) (hangeul , McCune-Reischauer ryŏk)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Compounds[edit]


Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(lực, sức, sực, sựt)

  1. Hán tự form of lực, “physical force