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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
力-bw.png
Stroke order
力-order.gif

Etymology[edit]

力 力 力 力
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script

Pictogram (象形) – alternative interpretation, either an arm bending out from the side of the body, or a plough.

Han character[edit]

(radical 19 +0, 2 strokes, cangjie input 大尸 (KS), four-corner 40027, composition𠃌丿)

Derived characters[edit]

Descendants[edit]

See also[edit]

  • (Japanese katakana)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 146, character 5
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 2288
  • Dae Jaweon: page 327, character 31
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 364, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+529B

Chinese[edit]

-
simp. and trad.
Chinese Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia zh

Pronunciation[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (力), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: 來 (37)
Final: 職
Division: III

Openness: Open
Tone: Checked (Ø)

Fanqie: 林直切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/lɨk̚/ /li̯ək̚/ /liək̚/ /lɨk̚/ /lik̚/ /lĭək̚/ /liek̚/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
‹ lik › /*k.rək/ strength

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
7854 0 /*rɯɡ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. force, strength, power
      ―  liàng  ―  power
    攻擊 / 攻击  ―  gōngjī  ―  firepower
    個子驚人 [MSC, trad.]
    个子惊人 [MSC, simp.]
    Tā gèzǐ suī xiǎo dàn dà jīngrén. [Pinyin]
    For a small woman she has surprising strength.
  2. strong, strenuous
      ―    ―  hard-working
  3. power, energy
      ―    ―  steam power
  4. ability
      ―  néng  ―  ability
    古董鑑賞 [MSC, trad.]
    古董鉴赏 [MSC, simp.]
    Tā duì gǔdǒng hěn yǒu jiànshǎng . [Pinyin]
    He has an eye for antiques.
  5. (physics) force
    方向位移相同 [MSC, trad.]
    方向位移相同 [MSC, simp.]
    Zhè ge de fāngxiàng yǔ wèiyí xiāngtóng. [Pinyin]
    This force is the same direction as the displacement.
  6. Kangxi radical 19 (power)
Compounds[edit]

Japanese[edit]

Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia ja

Kanji[edit]

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. power, force, strength

Readings[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Japanese. Compound of Old Japanese elements (chi, power, life force, essence) +‎ から (kara, from).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana ちから, romaji chikara)

  1. strength, power, force
  2. (physics) force
  3. ability, capacity
  4. effort
  5. (tarot): strength: the eleventh trump or major arcana card in most traditional Tarot decks
Derived terms[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

(hiragana ちから, romaji Chikara)

  1. A male given name

Etymology 2[edit]

From Middle Chinese (lik). The goon reading, so likely the initial borrowing. Compare modern Cantonese reading lik6.

Pronunciation[edit]

Affix[edit]

(hiragana りき, romaji riki)

  1. power, strength
     (りき) (がく) (りき) ()二馬 (にば) (りき)
    rikigaku, rikishi, nibariki
    power studies” (dynamics), “strength person” (sumo wrestler), two horsepower

Noun[edit]

(hiragana りき, romaji riki)

  1. physical strength
  2. (Buddhism) capability, especially mystical power
  3. (Buddhism) the suchness of ability, one of the Ten Suchnesses in Mahayana Buddhism
  4. short for 力者 (rikisha): a strong person
  5. (archaic) short for 車力 (shariki), 力車 (rikisha): a rickshaw
  6. (archaic) a rickshaw operator's wages
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

From Middle Chinese , but apparently from a different source dialect or at a different time than (lik). The kan'on reading, so likely a later borrowing. Compare reconstructed Middle Chinese reading /li̯ək/ or Korean reading ryeok.

Only found in compounds and idioms in modern Japanese.

Pronunciation[edit]

Affix[edit]

(hiragana りょく, romaji ryoku)

  1. strength, power
     (りょく) (そう) (けん) (りょく)
    ryokusō, kenryoku
    “strength struggle” (a hard fight), “right power” (authority)
Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

Korean[edit]

Noun[edit]

(yeog, ryeog) (hangeul )

  1. strength, power

Hanja[edit]

(ryeok) (hangeul , McCune-Reischauer ryŏk)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Compounds[edit]


Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(lực, sức, sực, sựt)

  1. Hán tự form of lực, "physical force"