hard

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See also: Hard, härd, and hård

English[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle English hard, from Old English heard, from Proto-Germanic *harduz, from Proto-Indo-European *kort-ús, from *kret- (strong, powerful). Cognate with German hart, Swedish hård, Ancient Greek κρατύς (kratús), Sanskrit क्रतु (krátu), Avestan 𐬑𐬭𐬀𐬙𐬎‎(xratu‎).

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

hard (comparative harder, superlative hardest)

  1. (of material or fluid) Having a severe property; presenting difficulty.
    1. Resistant to pressure.
      This bread is so stale and hard, I can barely cut it.
    2. (of drink or drugs) Strong.
    3. (of water) High in dissolved chemical salts, especially those of calcium.
    4. (physics, of a ferromagnetic material) Having the capability of being a permanent magnet by being a material with high magnetic coercivity (compare soft).
    5. (photography, of light) Made up of parallel rays, producing clearly defined shadows.
  2. (personal or social) Having a severe property; presenting difficulty.
    1. Difficult or requiring a lot of effort to do, understand, experience, or deal with.
      a hard problem;  a hard question;  a hard topic
      • 1988, An Oracle, Edmund White
        Ray found it hard to imagine having accumulated so many mannerisms before the dawn of sex, of the sexual need to please, of the staginess sex encourages or the tightly capped wells of poisoned sexual desire the disappointed must stand guard over.
      • 2013 July 26, Nick Miroff, “Mexico gets a taste for eating insects …”, in The Guardian Weekly, volume 189, number 7, page 32:
        The San Juan market is Mexico City's most famous deli of exotic meats, where an adventurous shopper can hunt down hard-to-find critters such as ostrich, wild boar and crocodile.
    2. Demanding a lot of effort to endure.
      a hard life
    3. Severe, harsh, unfriendly, brutal.
      a hard master;  a hard heart;  hard words;  a hard character
      don't be so hard on yourself
    4. (dated) Difficult to resist or control; powerful.
      • (Can we date this quote by Roger L'Estrange and provide title, author's full name, and other details?)
        The stag was too hard for the horse.
      • 12 March, 1716, Joseph Addison, The Freeloader No. 24
        a power which will be always too hard for them
  3. Unquestionable.
    hard evidence;  a hard requirement
    • 2011 December 19, Kerry Brown, “Kim Jong-il obituary”, in The Guardian:
      Unsurprisingly for a man who went into mourning for three years after the death in 1994 of his own father, the legendary leader Kim Il-sung, and who in the first 30 years of his political career made no public statements, even to his own people, Kim's career is riddled with claims, counter claims, speculation, and contradiction. There are few hard facts about his birth and early years.
  4. (of a road intersection) Having a comparatively larger or a ninety-degree angle.
    At the intersection, there are two roads going to the left. Take the hard left.
  5. (slang, vulgar, of a male) Sexually aroused.
    I got so hard watching two hot guys wrestle each other on the beach.
  6. (bodybuilding) Having muscles that are tightened as a result of intense, regular exercise.
  7. (phonetics, not comparable)
    1. Plosive.
      There is a hard c in "clock" and a soft c in "centre".
    2. Unvoiced
      Hard k, t, s, ch, as distinguished from soft, g, d, z, j.
    3. Velarized or plain, rather than palatalized
      The letter ж (ž) in Russian is always hard.
  8. (art) Having a severe property; presenting a barrier to enjoyment.
    1. Rigid in the drawing or distribution of the figures; formal; lacking grace of composition.
    2. Having disagreeable and abrupt contrasts in colour or shading.
  9. (not comparable)
    1. In a physical form, not digital.
      a soft or hard copy ; a digital or hard archive
    2. Using a manual or physical process, not by means of a software command.
      a hard reboot or reset
  10. (politics) Far, extreme.
    hard right, hard left
  11. Of silk: not having had the natural gum boiled off.

Synonyms[edit]

Antonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

  • Pages starting with "hard".
  • Related terms[edit]

    Translations[edit]

    The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout#Translations.

    Adverb[edit]

    hard (comparative harder, superlative hardest)

    1. (manner) With much force or effort.
      He hit the puck hard up the ice.
      They worked hard all week.
      At the intersection, bear hard left.
      The recession hit them especially hard.
      Think hard about your choices.
      • (Can we date this quote by Dryden and provide title, author's full name, and other details?)
        prayed so hard for mercy from the prince
      • c. 1610-11, William Shakespeare, The Tempest, Act III, Scene i[1]:
        [] My father / Is hard at study. Pray now, rest yourself;
      • 1985, Michael A. Arbib, In search of the person: philosophical explorations in cognitive science, page 119:
        What, then, of the voluntarist's sense that one often has to think long and hard before making agonizing choices?
    2. (manner) With difficulty.
      His degree was hard earned.
      The vehicle moves hard.
    3. (obsolete) So as to raise difficulties.
      • (Can we date this quote by Sir Thomas Browne and provide title, author's full name, and other details?)
        The question is hard set.
    4. (manner) Compactly.
      The lake had finally frozen hard.
    5. (now archaic) Near, close.
      • Bible, Acts xviii. 7
        [] whose house joined hard to the synagogue.
      • 1999, George RR Martin, A Clash of Kings, Bantam 2011, page 418:
        It was another long day's march before they glimpsed the towers of Harrenhal in the distance, hard beside the blue waters of the lake.

    Derived terms[edit]

    Translations[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    hard (countable and uncountable, plural hards)

    1. (countable, nautical) A firm or paved beach or slope convenient for hauling vessels out of the water.
      • 1952, Edward John Barrington Douglas-Scott-Montagu Baron Montagu, ‎Beaulieu, the Abbey, Palace House, and Buckler's Hard (page 36)
        The Monastery's ironworks at Sowley were renowned for centuries but declined with the passing of the 'wooden walls' at Buckler's Hard — a great number of these ships having been built with timber from the Beaulieu Woods []
    2. (countable, motorsports) A tyre whose compound is softer than superhards, and harder than mediums.
    3. (uncountable, drugs, slang) Crack cocaine.
    4. (uncountable, slang) Hard labor.
      The prisoners were sentenced to three years' hard.

    Anagrams[edit]


    Dutch[edit]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    From Middle Dutch hart, from Old Dutch hart, from Proto-Germanic *harduz.

    Adjective[edit]

    hard (comparative harder, superlative hardst)

    1. hard, strong
      Antonym: zacht
    2. (economics, of a currency) strong, not easily devalued
    3. unquestionable, uncontestable
      harde feiten
      hard facts
    4. heartless, unsympathetic (of a person)
      Antonym: zacht
    5. hard, difficult
      een harde strijd
      a difficult fight
    6. harsh, heavy
      harde straffen
      harsh punishments
      een harde regen
      heavy rain
    7. hard, rich in calcium (of water)
      Antonym: zacht
    8. loud (of sound)
      Synonym: luid
      Antonym: zacht
    Inflection[edit]
    Inflection of hard
    uninflected hard
    inflected harde
    comparative harder
    positive comparative superlative
    predicative/adverbial hard harder het hardst
    het hardste
    indefinite m./f. sing. harde hardere hardste
    n. sing. hard harder hardste
    plural harde hardere hardste
    definite harde hardere hardste
    partitive hards harders
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    (This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

    Adverb[edit]

    hard

    1. (speed) fast, swiftly
      Ik heb een bekeuring gekregen omdat ik te hard heb gereden.
      I got a ticket because I drove too fast.
    2. very
    3. loudly

    Etymology 3[edit]

    See the etymology of the main entry.

    Verb[edit]

    hard

    1. first-person singular present indicative of harden
    2. imperative of harden

    French[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    Borrowed from English hard.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Adjective[edit]

    hard (plural hards)

    1. (of pornography) hardcore
      Des photos hards.
      Hardcore pictures.

    Noun[edit]

    hard m (plural hards)

    1. hardcore pornography
      Le Journal du hard est une émission de Canal + dédiée au cinéma pornographique.
      Le Journal du hard ("Hard Porn News") is a broadcast by Canal+ dedicated to pornographic films.
    2. hard rock
      Elle adore le hard et le headbang.
      She just loves hard rock and headbanging.
      • 2004, Thomas Mansier, Identité du rock et presse spécialisée. Évolution d'une culture et de son discours critique dans les magazines français des années 90, page 98.
        Le hard semble ainsi capable de remplir le contrat originel du rock.
        As such, hard rock seems capable of fulfilling the original purpose of rock.
      • 2014, Christian Eudeline, "Uriah Heep. Look At Yourself", in Du hard rock au métal. Les 100 albums cultes, Gründ (publ.).
        Au croisement du hard et du prog, Uriah Heep [] enregistre là son meilleur disque, pourtant, leurs paroles pseudo-lyriques et leurs envolées déplaisaient.
        At the crossroads of hard rock and prog rock, Uriah Heep [] records its best disc there; however, their pseudo-lyrical texts and their take-offs were disliked.

    Irish[edit]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Adjective[edit]

    hard

    1. h-prothesized form of ard

    Norwegian Bokmål[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From Old Norse harðr, from Proto-Germanic *harduz.

    Adjective[edit]

    hard (neuter singular hardt, definite singular and plural harde, comparative hardere, indefinite superlative hardest, definite superlative hardeste)

    1. hard (not soft)
    2. hard, stern, severe
    3. hardy

    Derived terms[edit]

    Related terms[edit]

    References[edit]


    Norwegian Nynorsk[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From Old Norse harðr, from Proto-Germanic *harduz.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Adjective[edit]

    hard (masculine and feminine hard, neuter hardt, definite singular and plural harde, comparative hardare, indefinite superlative hardast, definite superlative hardaste)

    1. hard
    2. hard, stern, severe
    3. hardy

    Derived terms[edit]

    References[edit]


    Old Saxon[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From Proto-Germanic *harduz.

    Adjective[edit]

    hard (comparative hardiro, superlative hardist)

    1. hard

    Declension[edit]




    Derived terms[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    • Low German: hard, hart (inflected hart-)

    Spanish[edit]

    Adjective[edit]

    hard (invariable)

    1. hard, heavy, hardcore