hard

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See also: Hard, härd, and hård

English[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle English hard, from Old English heard, from Proto-West Germanic *hard(ī), from Proto-Germanic *harduz, from Proto-Indo-European *kort-ús, from *kret- (strong, powerful). Cognate with German hart, Swedish hård, Ancient Greek κρατύς (kratús), Sanskrit क्रतु (krátu), Avestan𐬑𐬭𐬀𐬙𐬎(xratu).

Adjective[edit]

hard (comparative harder or more hard, superlative hardest or most hard)

  1. (of material or fluid) Solid and firm.
    1. Resistant to pressure; difficult to break, cut or penetrate.
      This bread is so stale and hard, I can barely cut it.
    2. (of drink or drugs) Strong.
    3. (of a normally nonalcoholic drink) Containing alcohol.
      hard cider, hard lemonade, hard seltzer, hard soda
      • 2023 March 1, Rachel Ellison, “Bad Dates Turn Out to Be Excellent on TikTok”, in The New York Times[1]:
        Stunned, she deleted his number and went home. Then she cracked a hard seltzer, opened her phone’s camera and filmed a TikTok video recounting the evening  [].
    4. (of water) High in dissolved chemical salts, especially those of calcium.
    5. (physics, of a ferromagnetic material) Having the capability of being a permanent magnet by being a material with high magnetic coercivity (compare soft).
    6. (physics, of electromagnetic radiation) Having a high energy (high frequency; short wavelength).
      hard X-rays
    7. (photography, of light) Made up of parallel rays, producing clearly defined shadows.
  2. (personal or social) Having a severe property; presenting difficulty.
    1. Difficult or requiring a lot of effort to do, understand, experience, or deal with.
      a hard problem;  a hard question;  a hard topic
      • 1988, Edmund White, An Oracle:
        Ray found it hard to imagine having accumulated so many mannerisms before the dawn of sex, of the sexual need to please, of the staginess sex encourages or the tightly capped wells of poisoned sexual desire the disappointed must stand guard over.
      • 2013 July 26, Nick Miroff, “Mexico gets a taste for eating insects …”, in The Guardian Weekly, volume 189, number 7, page 32:
        The San Juan market is Mexico City's most famous deli of exotic meats, where an adventurous shopper can hunt down hard-to-find critters such as ostrich, wild boar and crocodile.
    2. Demanding a lot of effort to endure.
      a hard life
    3. Severe, harsh, unfriendly, brutal.
      a hard master;  a hard heart;  hard words;  a hard character
      The senator asked the party chief to put the hard word on his potential rivals.
      • 1730, Henry Fielding, Rape upon Rape, act 4, scene 7:
        Leave off fornicating; leave the girls to the boys, and stand to thy bottle; it is a virtue becoming our years; and don’t be too hard on a wild honest young rake.
    4. (dated) Difficult to resist or control; powerful.
    5. (military) Hardened; having unusually strong defences.
      a hard site
    6. (slang) Tough, muscular, badass.
      He thinks he's well hard.
      • 2006, Noire [pseudonym], Thug-A-Licious: An Urban Erotic Tale, New York, N.Y.: One World, Ballantine Books, →ISBN, page 108:
        I was a hard niggah, but not twisted enough to eat and socialize with my peeps knowing I was planning on robbing them before the night was over.
  3. Unquestionable, unequivocal.
    hard evidence;  a hard requirement
    • 1796, The History of the Trial of Warren Hastings[2]:
      [] for, unless supported by hard facts, abusive words would recoil on him who used them, and would pass like empty air over the head of an innocent man.
    • 1962, The Selling Power of a Woman[3]:
      Here are a few techniques to turn a hard "no" into an easy "yes"!
    • 2011 December 19, Kerry Brown, “Kim Jong-il obituary”, in The Guardian:
      Unsurprisingly for a man who went into mourning for three years after the death in 1994 of his own father, the legendary leader Kim Il-sung, and who in the first 30 years of his political career made no public statements, even to his own people, Kim's career is riddled with claims, counter claims, speculation, and contradiction. There are few hard facts about his birth and early years.
  4. (of a road intersection) Having a comparatively larger or a ninety-degree angle.
    At the intersection, there are two roads going to the left. Take the hard left.
  5. (slang, vulgar, of a male) Sexually aroused; having an erect penis.
    I got so hard watching two hot girls wrestle each other on the beach.
  6. (bodybuilding) Having muscles that are tightened as a result of intense, regular exercise.
  7. (phonetics, not comparable) Fortis.
    1. Plosive.
      There is a hard c in "clock" and a soft c in "centre".
    2. Unvoiced.
      Hard k, t, s, ch, as distinguished from soft, g, d, z, j.
  8. (Slavic phonology) Velarized or plain, rather than palatalized.
    The letter ж (ž) in Russian is always hard.
  9. (art) Having a severe property; presenting a barrier to enjoyment.
    1. Rigid in the drawing or distribution of the figures; formal; lacking grace of composition.
    2. Having disagreeable and abrupt contrasts in colour or shading.
  10. (not comparable)
    1. In a physical form, not digital.
      a soft or hard copy; a digital or hard archive
    2. Using a manual or physical process, not by means of a software command.
      a hard reboot or reset
  11. (politics) Far, extreme.
  12. Of silk: not having had the natural gum boiled off.
  13. (finance) Of a market: having more demand than supply; being a seller's market.
    Antonym: soft
    • 2009, J. David Cummins, Olivier Mahul, Catastrophe Risk Financing in Developing Countries, page 7:
      Undercapitalized insurers cannot retain more catastrophe risks when the market is hard []
  14. (of pornography) hardcore
Synonyms[edit]
Antonyms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]
Related terms[edit]
Descendants[edit]
  • Finnish: haarti
  • Spanish: hard
Translations[edit]
The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout § Translations.

Adverb[edit]

hard (comparative harder, superlative hardest)

  1. (manner) With much force or effort.
    He hit the puck hard up the ice.
    They worked hard all week.
    At the intersection, bear hard left.
    The recession hit them especially hard.
    Think hard about your choices.
    The couple were fucking each other hard.
    • 1610–1611 (date written), William Shakespeare, “The Tempest”, in Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies [] (First Folio), London: [] Isaac Iaggard, and Ed[ward] Blount, published 1623, →OCLC, [Act III, scene i]:
      [] My father / Is hard at study. Pray now, rest yourself;
    • 1700, [John] Dryden, “The Wife of Bath's Tale”, in Fables Ancient and Modern; [], London: [] Jacob Tonson, [], →OCLC:
      prayed so hard for mercy from the prince
    • 1887, Harriet W. Daly, Digging, Squatting, and Pioneering Life in the Northern Territory of South Australia, page 164:
      I played hard, I drank hard, I rode hard, and did everything much on the same pattern.
    • 1985, Michael A. Arbib, In search of the person: philosophical explorations in cognitive science, page 119:
      What, then, of the voluntarist's sense that one often has to think long and hard before making agonizing choices?
  2. (manner) With difficulty.
    His degree was hard earned.
  3. (obsolete) So as to raise difficulties.
  4. (manner) Compactly.
    The lake had finally frozen hard.
  5. (now archaic) Near, close.
Derived terms[edit]
Translations[edit]

Noun[edit]

hard (countable and uncountable, plural hards)

  1. (countable, nautical) A firm or paved beach or slope convenient for hauling vessels out of the water.
    • 1952, Edward John Barrington Douglas-Scott-Montagu Baron Montagu, Beaulieu, the Abbey, Palace House, and Buckler's Hard, page 36:
      The Monastery's ironworks at Sowley were renowned for centuries but declined with the passing of the 'wooden walls' at Buckler's Hard — a great number of these ships having been built with timber from the Beaulieu Woods []
  2. (countable, motor racing) A tyre whose compound is softer than superhards, and harder than mediums.
  3. (uncountable, drugs, slang) Crack cocaine.
  4. (uncountable, slang) Hard labor.
    The prisoners were sentenced to three years' hard.

Etymology 2[edit]

From Middle English harden, herden, from Old English heardian (to become hard) and hierdan (to make hard), from Proto-West Germanic *hardēn and *hardijan, from Proto-Germanic *hardijaną.

Verb[edit]

hard (third-person singular simple present hards, present participle harding, simple past and past participle harded)

  1. (transitive, obsolete) To make hard, harden.
    • 1641, original 1618, Guillaume de Saluste Du Bartas, Josuah Sylvester, Du Bartas His Diuine Weekes and Workes:
      He knows vain men: he sees their harts that hard them In Guiles and Wiles, and will not hee regard them?

Anagrams[edit]

Dutch[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle Dutch hart, from Old Dutch hart, from Proto-West Germanic *hard(ī), from Proto-Germanic *harduz.

Adjective[edit]

hard (comparative harder, superlative hardst)

  1. hard, strong
    Antonym: zacht
  2. (economics, of a currency) strong, not easily devalued
  3. unquestionable, uncontestable
    harde feiten
    hard facts
  4. heartless, unsympathetic (of a person)
    Antonym: zacht
  5. hard, difficult
    een harde strijd
    a difficult fight
  6. harsh, heavy
    harde straffen
    harsh punishments
    een harde regen
    heavy rain
  7. hard, rich in calcium (of water)
    Antonym: zacht
  8. loud (of sound)
    Synonym: luid
    Antonym: zacht
  9. fast
    Synonym: snel
    Antonyms: langzaam, traag
    hard fietsen
    cycle fast
    hard rijden
    drive fast
    hard werken
    work hard
    hard lopen
    walk fast
Inflection[edit]
Inflection of hard
uninflected hard
inflected harde
comparative harder
positive comparative superlative
predicative/adverbial hard harder het hardst
het hardste
indefinite m./f. sing. harde hardere hardste
n. sing. hard harder hardste
plural harde hardere hardste
definite harde hardere hardste
partitive hards harders
Derived terms[edit]
Descendants[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Adverb[edit]

hard

  1. (speed) fast, swiftly
    Ik heb een bekeuring gekregen omdat ik te hard heb gereden.
    I got a ticket because I drove too fast.
  2. very
  3. loudly

Etymology 3[edit]

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Verb[edit]

hard

  1. inflection of harden:
    1. first-person singular present indicative
    2. imperative

French[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from English hard.

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

hard (plural hards)

  1. (of pornography) hardcore
    Des photos hards.
    Hardcore pictures.

Noun[edit]

hard m (plural hards)

  1. hardcore pornography
    Le Journal du hard est une émission de Canal + dédiée au cinéma pornographique.
    Le Journal du hard ("Hard Porn News") is a broadcast by Canal+ dedicated to pornographic films.
  2. hard rock
    Elle adore le hard et le headbang.
    She just loves hard rock and headbanging.
    • 2004, Thomas Mansier, Identité du rock et presse spécialisée. Évolution d'une culture et de son discours critique dans les magazines français des années 90, page 98:
      Le hard semble ainsi capable de remplir le contrat originel du rock.
      As such, hard rock seems capable of fulfilling the original purpose of rock.
    • 2014, Christian Eudeline, "Uriah Heep. Look At Yourself", in Du hard rock au métal. Les 100 albums cultes, Gründ (publ.).
      Au croisement du hard et du prog, Uriah Heep [] enregistre là son meilleur disque, pourtant, leurs paroles pseudo-lyriques et leurs envolées déplaisaient.
      At the crossroads of hard rock and prog rock, Uriah Heep [] records its best disc there; however, their pseudo-lyrical texts and their take-offs were disliked.

Irish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

hard

  1. h-prothesized form of ard

Middle English[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old English heard, from Proto-West Germanic *hard(ī), from Proto-Germanic *harduz.

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

hard

  1. hard

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

Norwegian Bokmål[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse harðr, from Proto-Germanic *harduz.

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

hard (neuter singular hardt, definite singular and plural harde, comparative hardere, indefinite superlative hardest, definite superlative hardeste)

  1. hard (not soft)
  2. hard, stern, severe
  3. hardy

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

References[edit]

Norwegian Nynorsk[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse harðr, from Proto-Germanic *harduz.

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

hard (neuter hardt, definite singular and plural harde, comparative hardare, indefinite superlative hardast, definite superlative hardaste)

  1. hard
  2. hard, stern, severe
  3. hardy

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

Old Saxon[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-West Germanic *hard(ī).

Adjective[edit]

hard (comparative hardiro, superlative hardist)

  1. hard

Declension[edit]




Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Low German: hard, hart (inflected hart-)

Spanish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from English hard.

Adjective[edit]

hard (invariable)

  1. hard, heavy, hardcore

Yola[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle English hard, from Old English heard, from Proto-West Germanic *hard(ī).

Adjective[edit]

hard

  1. hard
    • 1867, “A YOLA ZONG”, in SONGS, ETC. IN THE DIALECT OF FORTH AND BARGY, number 11, page 88:
      W' vengem too hard, he zunk ee commane,
      With venom too hard, he sunk his bat-club,

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  • Jacob Poole (1867), William Barnes, editor, A Glossary, With some Pieces of Verse, of the old Dialect of the English Colony in the Baronies of Forth and Bargy, County of Wexford, Ireland, London: J. Russell Smith, page 88