hard

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See also: Hard, härd, and hård

English[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle English hard, from Old English heard, from Proto-West Germanic *hard(ī), from Proto-Germanic *harduz, from Proto-Indo-European *kort-ús, from *kret- (strong, powerful). Cognate with German hart, Swedish hård, Ancient Greek κρατύς (kratús), Sanskrit क्रतु (krátu), Avestan 𐬑𐬭𐬀𐬙𐬎(xratu).

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

hard (comparative harder, superlative hardest)

  1. (of material or fluid) Having a severe property; presenting difficulty.
    1. Resistant to pressure.
      This bread is so stale and hard, I can barely cut it.
    2. (of drink or drugs) Strong.
    3. (of a normally nonalcoholic drink) Containing alcohol.
      hard cider, hard lemonade, hard seltzer, hard soda
    4. (of water) High in dissolved chemical salts, especially those of calcium.
    5. (physics, of a ferromagnetic material) Having the capability of being a permanent magnet by being a material with high magnetic coercivity (compare soft).
    6. (physics, of electromagnetic radiation) Having a high energy (high frequency; short wavelength).
      hard X-rays
    7. (photography, of light) Made up of parallel rays, producing clearly defined shadows.
  2. (personal or social) Having a severe property; presenting difficulty.
    1. Difficult or requiring a lot of effort to do, understand, experience, or deal with.
      a hard problem;  a hard question;  a hard topic
      • 1988, An Oracle, Edmund White
        Ray found it hard to imagine having accumulated so many mannerisms before the dawn of sex, of the sexual need to please, of the staginess sex encourages or the tightly capped wells of poisoned sexual desire the disappointed must stand guard over.
      • 2013 July 26, Nick Miroff, “Mexico gets a taste for eating insects …”, in The Guardian Weekly, volume 189, number 7, page 32:
        The San Juan market is Mexico City's most famous deli of exotic meats, where an adventurous shopper can hunt down hard-to-find critters such as ostrich, wild boar and crocodile.
    2. Demanding a lot of effort to endure.
      a hard life
    3. Severe, harsh, unfriendly, brutal.
      a hard master;  a hard heart;  hard words;  a hard character
      The senator asked the party chief to put the hard word on his potential rivals.
      • 1730, Henry Fielding, Rape upon Rape, Act 4, Scene 7:
        Leave off fornicating; leave the girls to the boys, and stand to thy bottle; it is a virtue becoming our years; and don’t be too hard on a wild honest young rake.
    4. (dated) Difficult to resist or control; powerful.
    5. (military) Hardened; having unusually strong defences.
      a hard site
    6. (slang) Tough and muscular.
      He thinks he's well hard.
  3. Unquestionable, unequivocal.
    hard evidence;  a hard requirement
    • 1796, The History of the Trial of Warren Hastings[1]:
      [] for, unless supported by hard facts, abusive words would recoil on him who used them, and would pass like empty air over the head of an innocent man.
    • 1962, The Selling Power of a Woman[2]:
      Here are a few techniques to turn a hard "no" into an easy "yes"!
    • 2011 December 19, Kerry Brown, “Kim Jong-il obituary”, in The Guardian:
      Unsurprisingly for a man who went into mourning for three years after the death in 1994 of his own father, the legendary leader Kim Il-sung, and who in the first 30 years of his political career made no public statements, even to his own people, Kim's career is riddled with claims, counter claims, speculation, and contradiction. There are few hard facts about his birth and early years.
  4. (of a road intersection) Having a comparatively larger or a ninety-degree angle.
    At the intersection, there are two roads going to the left. Take the hard left.
  5. (slang, vulgar, of a male) Sexually aroused; having an erect penis.
    I got so hard watching two hot girls wrestle each other on the beach.
  6. (bodybuilding) Having muscles that are tightened as a result of intense, regular exercise.
  7. (phonetics, not comparable) Fortis.
    1. Plosive.
      There is a hard c in "clock" and a soft c in "centre".
    2. Unvoiced.
      Hard k, t, s, ch, as distinguished from soft, g, d, z, j.
  8. (Slavic phonology) Velarized or plain, rather than palatalized.
    The letter ж (ž) in Russian is always hard.
  9. (art) Having a severe property; presenting a barrier to enjoyment.
    1. Rigid in the drawing or distribution of the figures; formal; lacking grace of composition.
    2. Having disagreeable and abrupt contrasts in colour or shading.
  10. (not comparable)
    1. In a physical form, not digital.
      a soft or hard copy; a digital or hard archive
    2. Using a manual or physical process, not by means of a software command.
      a hard reboot or reset
  11. (politics) Far, extreme.
  12. Of silk: not having had the natural gum boiled off.
  13. (finance) Of a market: having more demand than supply; being a seller's market.
    Antonym: soft
    • 2009, J. David Cummins, ‎Olivier Mahul, Catastrophe Risk Financing in Developing Countries (page 7)
      Undercapitalized insurers cannot retain more catastrophe risks when the market is hard []
  14. (of pornography) hardcore

Synonyms[edit]

Antonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

  • Pages starting with “hard”.
  • Related terms[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    • Finnish: haarti
    • Spanish: hard

    Translations[edit]

    The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout § Translations.

    Adverb[edit]

    hard (comparative harder, superlative hardest)

    1. (manner) With much force or effort.
      He hit the puck hard up the ice.
      They worked hard all week.
      At the intersection, bear hard left.
      The recession hit them especially hard.
      Think hard about your choices.
      The couple were fucking each other hard.
      • 1610–1611 (date written), William Shakespeare, “The Tempest”, in Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies [] (First Folio), London: [] Isaac Iaggard, and Ed[ward] Blount, published 1623, OCLC 606515358, [Act III, scene i]:
        [] My father / Is hard at study. Pray now, rest yourself;
      • 1700, [John] Dryden, “The Wife of Bath's Tale”, in Fables Ancient and Modern; [], London: [] Jacob Tonson, [], OCLC 228732415:
        prayed so hard for mercy from the prince
      • 1887, Harriet W. Daly, Digging, Squatting, and Pioneering Life in the Northern Territory of South Australia, page 164:
        I played hard, I drank hard, I rode hard, and did everything much on the same pattern.
      • 1985, Michael A. Arbib, In search of the person: philosophical explorations in cognitive science, page 119:
        What, then, of the voluntarist's sense that one often has to think long and hard before making agonizing choices?
    2. (manner) With difficulty.
      His degree was hard earned.
    3. (obsolete) So as to raise difficulties.
    4. (manner) Compactly.
      The lake had finally frozen hard.
    5. (now archaic) Near, close.

    Derived terms[edit]

    Translations[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    hard (countable and uncountable, plural hards)

    1. (countable, nautical) A firm or paved beach or slope convenient for hauling vessels out of the water.
      • 1952, Edward John Barrington Douglas-Scott-Montagu Baron Montagu, Beaulieu, the Abbey, Palace House, and Buckler's Hard (page 36)
        The Monastery's ironworks at Sowley were renowned for centuries but declined with the passing of the 'wooden walls' at Buckler's Hard — a great number of these ships having been built with timber from the Beaulieu Woods []
    2. (countable, motorsports) A tyre whose compound is softer than superhards, and harder than mediums.
    3. (uncountable, drugs, slang) Crack cocaine.
    4. (uncountable, slang) Hard labor.
      The prisoners were sentenced to three years' hard.

    Anagrams[edit]


    Dutch[edit]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    From Middle Dutch hart, from Old Dutch hart, from Proto-West Germanic *hard(ī), from Proto-Germanic *harduz.

    Adjective[edit]

    hard (comparative harder, superlative hardst)

    1. hard, strong
      Antonym: zacht
    2. (economics, of a currency) strong, not easily devalued
    3. unquestionable, uncontestable
      harde feiten
      hard facts
    4. heartless, unsympathetic (of a person)
      Antonym: zacht
    5. hard, difficult
      een harde strijd
      a difficult fight
    6. harsh, heavy
      harde straffen
      harsh punishments
      een harde regen
      heavy rain
    7. hard, rich in calcium (of water)
      Antonym: zacht
    8. loud (of sound)
      Synonym: luid
      Antonym: zacht
    9. fast
      Antonyms: langzaam, traag
      Synonym: snel
      hard fietsen
      cycle fast
      hard rijden
      drive fast
      hard werken
      work hard
      hard lopen
      walk fast
    Inflection[edit]
    Inflection of hard
    uninflected hard
    inflected harde
    comparative harder
    positive comparative superlative
    predicative/adverbial hard harder het hardst
    het hardste
    indefinite m./f. sing. harde hardere hardste
    n. sing. hard harder hardste
    plural harde hardere hardste
    definite harde hardere hardste
    partitive hards harders
    Derived terms[edit]
    Descendants[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    (This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

    Adverb[edit]

    hard

    1. (speed) fast, swiftly
      Ik heb een bekeuring gekregen omdat ik te hard heb gereden.
      I got a ticket because I drove too fast.
    2. very
    3. loudly

    Etymology 3[edit]

    See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

    Verb[edit]

    hard

    1. first-person singular present indicative of harden
    2. imperative of harden

    French[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    Borrowed from English hard.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Adjective[edit]

    hard (plural hards)

    1. (of pornography) hardcore
      Des photos hards.
      Hardcore pictures.

    Noun[edit]

    hard m (plural hards)

    1. hardcore pornography
      Le Journal du hard est une émission de Canal + dédiée au cinéma pornographique.
      Le Journal du hard ("Hard Porn News") is a broadcast by Canal+ dedicated to pornographic films.
    2. hard rock
      Elle adore le hard et le headbang.
      She just loves hard rock and headbanging.
      • 2004, Thomas Mansier, Identité du rock et presse spécialisée. Évolution d'une culture et de son discours critique dans les magazines français des années 90, page 98.
        Le hard semble ainsi capable de remplir le contrat originel du rock.
        As such, hard rock seems capable of fulfilling the original purpose of rock.
      • 2014, Christian Eudeline, "Uriah Heep. Look At Yourself", in Du hard rock au métal. Les 100 albums cultes, Gründ (publ.).
        Au croisement du hard et du prog, Uriah Heep [] enregistre là son meilleur disque, pourtant, leurs paroles pseudo-lyriques et leurs envolées déplaisaient.
        At the crossroads of hard rock and prog rock, Uriah Heep [] records its best disc there; however, their pseudo-lyrical texts and their take-offs were disliked.

    Irish[edit]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Adjective[edit]

    hard

    1. h-prothesized form of ard

    Middle English[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From Old English heard, from Proto-West Germanic *hard(ī), from Proto-Germanic *harduz.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Adjective[edit]

    hard

    1. hard

    Descendants[edit]

    References[edit]


    Norwegian Bokmål[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From Old Norse harðr, from Proto-Germanic *harduz.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Adjective[edit]

    hard (neuter singular hardt, definite singular and plural harde, comparative hardere, indefinite superlative hardest, definite superlative hardeste)

    1. hard (not soft)
    2. hard, stern, severe
    3. hardy

    Derived terms[edit]

    Related terms[edit]

    References[edit]


    Norwegian Nynorsk[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From Old Norse harðr, from Proto-Germanic *harduz.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Adjective[edit]

    hard (neuter hardt, definite singular and plural harde, comparative hardare, indefinite superlative hardast, definite superlative hardaste)

    1. hard
    2. hard, stern, severe
    3. hardy

    Derived terms[edit]

    References[edit]


    Old Saxon[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From Proto-West Germanic *hard(ī).

    Adjective[edit]

    hard (comparative hardiro, superlative hardist)

    1. hard

    Declension[edit]




    Derived terms[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    • Low German: hard, hart (inflected hart-)

    Spanish[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From English hard.

    Adjective[edit]

    hard (invariable)

    1. hard, heavy, hardcore

    Yola[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From Middle English hard, from Old English heard, from Proto-West Germanic *hard(ī).

    Adjective[edit]

    hard

    1. hard
      • 1867, “A YOLA ZONG”, in SONGS, ETC. IN THE DIALECT OF FORTH AND BARGY, number 11:
        W' vengem too hard, he zunk ee commane,
        With venom too hard, he sunk his bat-club,

    References[edit]

    • Jacob Poole (1867), William Barnes, editor, A Glossary, With some Pieces of Verse, of the old Dialect of the English Colony in the Baronies of Forth and Bargy, County of Wexford, Ireland, London: J. Russell Smith, page 88