earfoþe

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Old English[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *arbaidiz (hardship), from a verb *arbijaną, *arbāną (be orphaned). Compare Old English ierfa. See also Proto-Indo-European *h₃órbʰos, whence Ancient Greek ὀρφανός (orphanós), Latin orbus, Old Church Slavonic рабъ (rabŭ, slave) and perhaps the Albanian ethnonym arbën/arbër. Cognate with Old Frisian arbēd, Old Saxon arƀed, arvēd, Old Dutch arbeit (Dutch arbeid), Old High German arbeit (German Arbeit (work, labour)), Old Norse erfiði (Swedish arvode (salary)), Gothic 𐌰𐍂𐌱𐌰𐌹𐌸𐍃 (arbaiþs).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

earfoþe n (nominative plural earfoþu)

  1. work; labour
  2. suffering; hardship
  3. labour; pains; trouble; childbirth
  4. disease

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Adjective[edit]

earfoþe

  1. difficult; laborious; full of hardship

Declension[edit]

Weak Strong
case singular plural case singular plural
m n f m n f m n f
nominative earfoþa earfoþe earfoþe earfoþan nom. earfoþe earfoþe earfoþu earfoþe earfoþu, -e earfoþa, -e
accusative earfoþan earfoþe earfoþan acc. earfoþne earfoþe earfoþe earfoþe earfoþu, -e earfoþa, -e
genitive earfoþan earfoþra, earfoþena gen. earfoþes earfoþes earfoþre earfoþra
dative earfoþan earfoþum dat. earfoþum earfoþum earfoþre earfoþum
instrumental earfoþe