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Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 172 +11 in Chinese, 隹+10 in Japanese, in Chinese 19 strokes, in Japanese 18 strokes, cangjie input 廿人人土 (TOOG), four-corner 40514, composition𦰩)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1370, character 5
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 42128
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1876, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 6, page 4108, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+96E3

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.

Glyph origin[edit]

Phono-semantic compound (形聲): phonetic 𦰩 + semantic 

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *na-n/t ‎(ill, pain, difficult, evil spirit).

Cognate with Tibetan མནར་བ ‎(mnar ba, to suffer; suffering), ན་བ ‎(na ba, to be sick, ill), ནན་ཏེ ‎(nan te, sick, ill), ནད ‎(nad, disease, suffering), Burmese နာ ‎(na, to suffer pain, to be ill), နတ် ‎(nat, nat (spirit), evil spirit).

Pronunciation[edit]


Dialectal pronunciations ()
Variety Location 難 (易) 難 (遭)
Mandarin Beijing /nan³⁵/ /nan⁵¹/
Harbin /nan²⁴/ /nan⁵³/
Tianjin /nan⁴⁵/ /nan⁵³/
Jinan /nã⁴²/ /nã²¹/
Qingdao /nã⁴²/ /nã⁴²/
Zhengzhou /nan⁴²/ /nan³¹²/
Xi'an /nã²⁴/ /nã⁴⁴/
Xining /nã²⁴/ /nã²¹³/
Yinchuan /nan⁵³/ /nan¹³/
Lanzhou /lɛ̃n⁵³/ /lɛ̃n¹³/
Ürümqi /nan⁵¹/ /nan²¹³/
Wuhan /nan²¹³/ /nan³⁵/
Chengdu /nan³¹/ /nan¹³/
Guiyang /nan²¹/ /nan²¹³/
Kunming /nã̠³¹/ /nã̠²¹²/
Nanjing /laŋ²⁴/ /laŋ⁴⁴/
Hefei /læ̃⁵⁵/ /læ̃⁵³/
Jin Taiyuan /næ̃¹¹/ /næ̃⁴⁵/
Pingyao /nɑŋ¹³/ /nɑŋ³⁵/
Hohhot /næ̃³¹/ /næ̃⁵⁵/
Wu Shanghai /ne¹³/ /ne¹³/
Suzhou /ne̞¹³/ /ne̞³¹/
Hangzhou /nẽ̞²¹³/ /nẽ̞¹³/
Wenzhou /na³¹/ /na²²/
Hui Shexian /lɛ⁴⁴/ /lɛ²²/
Tunxi /lɔ⁴⁴/ /lɔ¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /lan¹³/ /lan⁵⁵/
Xiangtan /nan¹²/ /nan⁵⁵/
Gan Nanchang /lan⁴⁵/ /lan²¹/
Hakka Meixian /nan¹¹/ /nan⁵³/
Taoyuan /nɑn¹¹/ /nɑn⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /nan²¹/ /nan²²/
Nanning /nan²¹/ /nan²²/
Hong Kong /nan²¹/ /nan²²/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /lan³⁵/ /lan²²/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /naŋ⁵³/ /nɑŋ²⁴²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /nuiŋ³³/ /nuiŋ⁴⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /laŋ⁵⁵/ /laŋ³¹/
Haikou (Min Nan) /naŋ³¹/ /naŋ³³/
Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/2

Initial: (8)
Final:
Division: I

Openness: Open
Tone: Level (Ø)

Fanqie:
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/nɑn/ /nɑn/ /nɑn/ /nɑn/ /nan/ /nɑn/ /nɑn/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
nán ‹ nan › /*nˤar/ difficult

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
4897 1 /*n̥ʰaːn/ 朱駿聲暵省聲

Adjective[edit]

  1. difficult; hard
    為人父母 [MSC, trad.]
    为人父母 [MSC, simp.]
    Wéirén fùmǔ hěn nán. [Pinyin]
    it is difficult being a parent.
    工作非常 [MSC, trad.]
    工作非常 [MSC, simp.]
    Zhè xiàng gōngzuò fēicháng nán. [Pinyin]
    This job is very hard.
  2. bad; unpleasant
    /   ―  nánkàn  ―  ugly
    /   ―  nántīng  ―  unpleasant to the ear

Pronunciation[edit]

Dialectal pronunciations ()
Variety Location 難 (易) 難 (遭)
Mandarin Beijing /nan³⁵/ /nan⁵¹/
Harbin /nan²⁴/ /nan⁵³/
Tianjin /nan⁴⁵/ /nan⁵³/
Jinan /nã⁴²/ /nã²¹/
Qingdao /nã⁴²/ /nã⁴²/
Zhengzhou /nan⁴²/ /nan³¹²/
Xi'an /nã²⁴/ /nã⁴⁴/
Xining /nã²⁴/ /nã²¹³/
Yinchuan /nan⁵³/ /nan¹³/
Lanzhou /lɛ̃n⁵³/ /lɛ̃n¹³/
Ürümqi /nan⁵¹/ /nan²¹³/
Wuhan /nan²¹³/ /nan³⁵/
Chengdu /nan³¹/ /nan¹³/
Guiyang /nan²¹/ /nan²¹³/
Kunming /nã̠³¹/ /nã̠²¹²/
Nanjing /laŋ²⁴/ /laŋ⁴⁴/
Hefei /læ̃⁵⁵/ /læ̃⁵³/
Jin Taiyuan /næ̃¹¹/ /næ̃⁴⁵/
Pingyao /nɑŋ¹³/ /nɑŋ³⁵/
Hohhot /næ̃³¹/ /næ̃⁵⁵/
Wu Shanghai /ne¹³/ /ne¹³/
Suzhou /ne̞¹³/ /ne̞³¹/
Hangzhou /nẽ̞²¹³/ /nẽ̞¹³/
Wenzhou /na³¹/ /na²²/
Hui Shexian /lɛ⁴⁴/ /lɛ²²/
Tunxi /lɔ⁴⁴/ /lɔ¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /lan¹³/ /lan⁵⁵/
Xiangtan /nan¹²/ /nan⁵⁵/
Gan Nanchang /lan⁴⁵/ /lan²¹/
Hakka Meixian /nan¹¹/ /nan⁵³/
Taoyuan /nɑn¹¹/ /nɑn⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /nan²¹/ /nan²²/
Nanning /nan²¹/ /nan²²/
Hong Kong /nan²¹/ /nan²²/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /lan³⁵/ /lan²²/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /naŋ⁵³/ /nɑŋ²⁴²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /nuiŋ³³/ /nuiŋ⁴⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /laŋ⁵⁵/ /laŋ³¹/
Haikou (Min Nan) /naŋ³¹/ /naŋ³³/
Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 2/2

Initial: (8)
Final:
Division: I

Openness: Open
Tone: Departing (H)

Fanqie:
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/nɑnH/ /nɑnH/ /nɑnH/ /nɑnH/ /nanH/ /nɑnH/ /nɑnH/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
nàn ‹ nanH › /*nˤar-s/ difficulty

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
4900 1 /*naːns/

Definitions[edit]

  1. disaster; calamity
    /   ―  zāinàn  ―  disaster, catastrophe
    /   ―  wēinàn  ―  calamity
    /   ―  jiénàn  ―  calamity
  2. to blame; to scold
    /   ―  zhìnàn  ―  to blame
    /   ―  fēinàn  ―  to blame

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 6 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. difficult

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Kanji in this term
なん
Grade: 6
on'yomi

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana なん, romaji nan)

  1. difficulty

References[edit]

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(nan, na) (hangeul , , revised nan, na, McCune-Reischauer nan, na, Yale nan, na)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(nan, nạn, nản, nần, nàn)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.