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Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 172 +11 in Chinese, 隹+10 in Japanese, in Chinese 19 strokes, in Japanese 18 strokes, cangjie input 廿人人土 (TOOG), four-corner 40514, composition𦰩)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1370, character 5
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 42128
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1876, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 6, page 4108, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+96E3

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.

Glyph origin[edit]

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *n̥ʰaːn, *naːns): phonetic 𦰩 + semantic .

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *na-n/t ‎(ill, pain, difficult, evil spirit).

Cognate with Tibetan མནར་བ ‎(mnar ba, to suffer; suffering), ན་བ ‎(na ba, to be sick, ill), ནན་ཏེ ‎(nan te, sick, ill), ནད ‎(nad, disease, suffering), Burmese နာ ‎(na, to suffer pain, to be ill), နတ် ‎(nat, nat (spirit), evil spirit).

Pronunciation 1[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location 難 (易)
Mandarin Beijing /nan³⁵/
Harbin /nan²⁴/
Tianjin /nan⁴⁵/
Jinan /nã⁴²/
Qingdao /nã⁴²/
Zhengzhou /nan⁴²/
Xi'an /nã²⁴/
Xining /nã²⁴/
Yinchuan /nan⁵³/
Lanzhou /lɛ̃n⁵³/
Ürümqi /nan⁵¹/
Wuhan /nan²¹³/
Chengdu /nan³¹/
Guiyang /nan²¹/
Kunming /nã̠³¹/
Nanjing /laŋ²⁴/
Hefei /læ̃⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /næ̃¹¹/
Pingyao /nɑŋ¹³/
Hohhot /næ̃³¹/
Wu Shanghai /ne²³/
Suzhou /ne̞¹³/
Hangzhou /nẽ̞²¹³/
Wenzhou /na³¹/
Hui Shexian /lɛ⁴⁴/
Tunxi /lɔ⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /lan¹³/
Xiangtan /nan¹²/
Gan Nanchang /lan⁴⁵/
Hakka Meixian /nan¹¹/
Taoyuan /nɑn¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /nan²¹/
Nanning /nan²¹/
Hong Kong /nan²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /lan³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /naŋ⁵³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /nuiŋ³³/
Shantou (Min Nan) /laŋ⁵⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /naŋ³¹/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (8)
Final () (61)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/nɑn/
Pan
Wuyun
/nɑn/
Shao
Rongfen
/nɑn/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/nan/
Li
Rong
/nɑn/
Wang
Li
/nɑn/
Bernard
Karlgren
/nɑn/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
nán
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
nán
Middle
Chinese
‹ nan ›
Old
Chinese
/*nˤar/
English difficult

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 4897
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*n̥ʰaːn/
Notes 駿

Definitions[edit]

  1. difficult; hard
    為人父母 / 为人父母  ―  Wéirén fùmǔ hěn nán.  ―  it is difficult being a parent.
    工作非常 / 工作非常  ―  Zhè xiàng gōngzuò fēicháng nán.  ―  This job is very hard.
  2. bad; unpleasant
    /   ―  nánkàn  ―  ugly
    /   ―  nántīng  ―  unpleasant to the ear

Pronunciation 2[edit]


  • Dialectal data
Variety Location 難 (遭)
Mandarin Beijing /nan⁵¹/
Harbin /nan⁵³/
Tianjin /nan⁵³/
Jinan /nã²¹/
Qingdao /nã⁴²/
Zhengzhou /nan³¹²/
Xi'an /nã⁴⁴/
Xining /nã²¹³/
Yinchuan /nan¹³/
Lanzhou /lɛ̃n¹³/
Ürümqi /nan²¹³/
Wuhan /nan³⁵/
Chengdu /nan¹³/
Guiyang /nan²¹³/
Kunming /nã̠²¹²/
Nanjing /laŋ⁴⁴/
Hefei /læ̃⁵³/
Jin Taiyuan /næ̃⁴⁵/
Pingyao /nɑŋ³⁵/
Hohhot /næ̃⁵⁵/
Wu Shanghai /ne²³/
Suzhou /ne̞³¹/
Hangzhou /nẽ̞¹³/
Wenzhou /na²²/
Hui Shexian /lɛ²²/
Tunxi /lɔ¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /lan⁵⁵/
Xiangtan /nan⁵⁵/
Gan Nanchang /lan²¹/
Hakka Meixian /nan⁵³/
Taoyuan /nɑn⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /nan²²/
Nanning /nan²²/
Hong Kong /nan²²/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /lan²²/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /nɑŋ²⁴²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /nuiŋ⁴⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /laŋ³¹/
Haikou (Min Nan) /naŋ³³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (8)
Final () (61)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/nɑnH/
Pan
Wuyun
/nɑnH/
Shao
Rongfen
/nɑnH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/nanH/
Li
Rong
/nɑnH/
Wang
Li
/nɑnH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/nɑnH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
nàn
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
nàn
Middle
Chinese
‹ nanH ›
Old
Chinese
/*nˤar-s/
English difficulty

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 4900
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*naːns/

Definitions[edit]

  1. disaster; calamity
    /   ―  zāinàn  ―  disaster, catastrophe
    /   ―  wēinàn  ―  calamity
    /   ―  jiénàn  ―  calamity
  2. to blame; to scold
    /   ―  zhìnàn  ―  to blame
    /   ―  fēinàn  ―  to blame

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 6 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. difficult

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Kanji in this term
なん
Grade: 6
on'yomi

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana なん, romaji nan)

  1. difficulty

References[edit]

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(nan, na) (hangeul , , revised nan, na, McCune-Reischauer nan, na, Yale nan, na)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(nan, nạn, nản, nần, nàn)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.