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See also: and 𝍔
U+96E3, 難
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-96E3

[U+96E2]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+96E4]
U+FA68, 難
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-FA68

[U+FA67]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+FA69]
U+FAC7, 難
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-FAC7

[U+FAC6]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+FAC8]

Translingual[edit]

Traditional
Shinjitai
Simplified

Alternative forms[edit]

  • In traditional Chinese, Japanese kyūjitai, Korean hanja and Vietnamese Nôm, the component 𦰩󠄂 for this character is written with 廿 on top. Note that the bottom portion is written overlapped by and not on top of .
  • In Japanese shinjitai, the component 𦰩 is written with on top and has one stroke less. Due to Han unification, both traditional Chinese and Japanese forms are encoded under the same code point. The appearance of this character will differ according to the font used.
  • In simplified Chinese, the component 𦰩󠄂 is simplified to instead, giving the character (U+96BE).
  • Two compatibility ideographs exist for this character. U+FA68 corresponds to the kyūjitai form of this character while U+FAC7 corresponds to the alternative Korean form which is similar to Japanese shinjitai.

Han character[edit]

(radical 172, +11 in Chinese and Korean, 隹+10 in Japanese, 19 strokes in Chinese and Korean, 18 strokes in Japanese, cangjie input 廿人人土 (TOOG) or 廿戈人土 (TIOG), four-corner 40514, composition ⿰⿱廿(GHTKV or U+FA68) or ⿰𦰩(J or U+FAC7))

Derived characters[edit]

Related characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1370, character 5
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 42128
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1876, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 6, page 4108, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+96E3

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.
variant forms

Glyph origin[edit]

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*naːl
*naːl, *neːl, *njeːl
*n̥ʰaːn, *n̥ʰaːns
*n̥ʰaːn, *naːns, *hnaːnʔ, *hnaːns
*n̥ʰaːn
*n̥ʰaːn, *naːnʔ, *naːns
*n̥ʰaːn
*n̥ʰaːns
*n̥ʰaːn, *naːns
*hnaːnʔ, *hnaːns
*hnaːnʔ, *hnaːns, *njanʔ
*hnaːns
*rnaːnʔ, *njanʔ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *n̥ʰaːn, *naːns): phonetic 𦰩 + semantic .

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *na-n/t (ill, pain, difficult, evil spirit).

Cognate with Tibetan མནར (mnar, to suffer; suffering), (na, to be sick, ill), ནན་ཏེ (nan te, sick, ill), ནད (nad, disease, suffering), Burmese နာ (na, to suffer pain, to be ill), နတ် (nat, nat (spirit), evil spirit).

Pronunciation 1[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location 難 (易)
Mandarin Beijing /nan³⁵/
Harbin /nan²⁴/
Tianjin /nan⁴⁵/
Jinan /nã⁴²/
Qingdao /nã⁴²/
Zhengzhou /nan⁴²/
Xi'an /nã²⁴/
Xining /nã²⁴/
Yinchuan /nan⁵³/
Lanzhou /lɛ̃n⁵³/
Ürümqi /nan⁵¹/
Wuhan /nan²¹³/
Chengdu /nan³¹/
Guiyang /nan²¹/
Kunming /nã̠³¹/
Nanjing /laŋ²⁴/
Hefei /læ̃⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /næ̃¹¹/
Pingyao /nɑŋ¹³/
Hohhot /næ̃³¹/
Wu Shanghai /ne²³/
Suzhou /ne̞¹³/
Hangzhou /nẽ̞²¹³/
Wenzhou /na³¹/
Hui Shexian /lɛ⁴⁴/
Tunxi /lɔ⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /lan¹³/
Xiangtan /nan¹²/
Gan Nanchang /lan⁴⁵/
Hakka Meixian /nan¹¹/
Taoyuan /nɑn¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /nan²¹/
Nanning /nan²¹/
Hong Kong /nan²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /lan³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /naŋ⁵³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /nuiŋ³³/
Shantou (Min Nan) /laŋ⁵⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /naŋ³¹/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (8)
Final () (61)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/nɑn/
Pan
Wuyun
/nɑn/
Shao
Rongfen
/nɑn/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/nan/
Li
Rong
/nɑn/
Wang
Li
/nɑn/
Bernard
Karlgren
/nɑn/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
nán
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
nán
Middle
Chinese
‹ nan ›
Old
Chinese
/*nˤar/
English difficult

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 4897
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*n̥ʰaːn/
Notes 駿

Definitions[edit]

  1. difficult; hard; troublesome
    為人父母 / 为人父母  ―  Wéirén fùmǔ hěn nán.  ―  it is difficult being a parent.
    工作非常 / 工作非常  ―  Zhè xiàng gōngzuò fēicháng nán.  ―  This job is very hard.
  2. bad; unpleasant
    /   ―  nánkàn  ―  ugly
    /   ―  nántīng  ―  unpleasant to the ear
  3. to feel difficult
  4. to make things difficult for; to put someone in a difficult position
  5. difficulty; something which is difficult; issue
  6. 79th tetragram of the Taixuanjing; "difficulties"
  7. Alternative form of (“to dread; to fear”).
  8. Alternative form of (tān, “sacrificial rites for getting rid of bogeys”).

Synonyms[edit]

Antonyms[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Pronunciation 2[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location 難 (遭)
Mandarin Beijing /nan⁵¹/
Harbin /nan⁵³/
Tianjin /nan⁵³/
Jinan /nã²¹/
Qingdao /nã⁴²/
Zhengzhou /nan³¹²/
Xi'an /nã⁴⁴/
Xining /nã²¹³/
Yinchuan /nan¹³/
Lanzhou /lɛ̃n¹³/
Ürümqi /nan²¹³/
Wuhan /nan³⁵/
Chengdu /nan¹³/
Guiyang /nan²¹³/
Kunming /nã̠²¹²/
Nanjing /laŋ⁴⁴/
Hefei /læ̃⁵³/
Jin Taiyuan /næ̃⁴⁵/
Pingyao /nɑŋ³⁵/
Hohhot /næ̃⁵⁵/
Wu Shanghai /ne²³/
Suzhou /ne̞³¹/
Hangzhou /nẽ̞¹³/
Wenzhou /na²²/
Hui Shexian /lɛ²²/
Tunxi /lɔ¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /lan⁵⁵/
Xiangtan /nan⁵⁵/
Gan Nanchang /lan²¹/
Hakka Meixian /nan⁵³/
Taoyuan /nɑn⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /nan²²/
Nanning /nan²²/
Hong Kong /nan²²/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /lan²²/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /nɑŋ²⁴²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /nuiŋ⁴⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /laŋ³¹/
Haikou (Min Nan) /naŋ³³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (8)
Final () (61)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/nɑnH/
Pan
Wuyun
/nɑnH/
Shao
Rongfen
/nɑnH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/nanH/
Li
Rong
/nɑnH/
Wang
Li
/nɑnH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/nɑnH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
nàn
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
nàn
Middle
Chinese
‹ nanH ›
Old
Chinese
/*nˤar-s/
English difficulty

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 4900
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*naːns/

Definitions[edit]

  1. disaster; calamity; catastrophe
    /   ―  zāinàn  ―  disaster, catastrophe
    /   ―  wēinàn  ―  calamity
    /   ―  jiénàn  ―  calamity
  2. revolt; attack
  3. enmity; foe
  4. to blame; to scold; to reproach
    /   ―  zhìnàn  ―  to blame
    /   ―  fēinàn  ―  to blame
  5. to keep out; to ward off; to refuse
  6. to argue; to debate

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Shinjitai

Kyūjitai

Kanji[edit]

(grade 6 “Kyōiku” kanjishinjitai kanji, kyūjitai form )

  1. difficult

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Kanji in this term
なん
Grade: 6
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (MC nɑn).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana なん, rōmaji nan)

  1. difficulty

References[edit]

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(nan, na) (hangeul , , revised nan, na, McCune–Reischauer nan, na, Yale nan, na)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(nan, nạn, nản, nần, nàn)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.