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Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 172 +11, 19 strokes, cangjie input 廿人人土 (TOOG), four-corner 40514, composition𦰩)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1370, character 5
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 42128
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1876, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 6, page 4108, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+96E3

Chinese[edit]

-
trad.
simp.

Glyph origin[edit]

Phono-semantic compound (形聲): phonetic 𦰩 + semantic 

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *na-n/t ‎(ill, pain, difficult, evil spirit).

Cognate with Tibetan མནར་བ ‎(mnar ba, to suffer; suffering), ན་བ ‎(na ba, to be sick, ill), ནན་ཏེ ‎(nan te, sick, ill), ནད ‎(nad, disease, suffering), Burmese နာ ‎(na, to suffer pain, to be ill), နတ် ‎(nat, Nat (spirit), evil spirit).

Pronunciation[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (難), Pronunciation 1/2

Initial: 泥 (8)
Final: 寒
Division: I

Openness: Open
Tone: Level (Ø)

Fanqie: 那干切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/nɑn/ /nɑn/ /nɑn/ /nɑn/ /nan/ /nɑn/ /nɑn/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
nán ‹ nan › /*nˤar/ difficult

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
4897 1 /*n̥ʰaːn/ 朱駿聲暵省聲

Adjective[edit]

  1. difficult; hard
    為人父母 [MSC, trad.]
    为人父母 [MSC, simp.]
    Wéirén fùmǔ hěn nán. [Pinyin]
    it is difficult being a parent.
    工作非常 [MSC, trad.]
    工作非常 [MSC, simp.]
    Zhè xiàng gōngzuò fēicháng nán. [Pinyin]
    This job is very hard.
  2. bad; unpleasant
    /   ―  nánkàn  ―  ugly
    /   ―  nántīng  ―  unpleasant to the ear

Pronunciation[edit]

Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (難), Pronunciation 2/2

Initial: 泥 (8)
Final: 寒
Division: I

Openness: Open
Tone: Departing (H)

Fanqie: 奴案切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/nɑnH/ /nɑnH/ /nɑnH/ /nɑnH/ /nanH/ /nɑnH/ /nɑnH/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
nàn ‹ nanH › /*nˤar-s/ difficulty

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
4900 1 /*naːns/

Definitions[edit]

  1. disaster; calamity
    /   ―  zāinàn  ―  disaster, catastrophe
    /   ―  wēinàn  ―  calamity
    /   ―  jiénàn  ―  calamity
  2. to blame; to scold
    /   ―  zhìnàn  ―  to blame
    /   ―  fēinàn  ―  to blame

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 6 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. difficult

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(nan, na) (hangeul , , revised nan, na, McCune-Reischauer nan, na, Yale nan, na)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(nan, nạn, nản, nần, nàn)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.