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See also:
U+8CAC, 責
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-8CAC

[U+8CAB]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+8CAD]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 154, +4, 11 strokes, cangjie input 手一月山金 (QMBUC), four-corner 50806, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1205, character 19
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 36682
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1668, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 6, page 3626, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+8CAC

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.

Glyph origin[edit]

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ʔsreːɡs, *ʔsreːɡ
*ʔseɡs, *ʔseɡ
*sʰeɡs, *sʰeɡ
*sʰeːɡs, *raːds
*sʰeɡs
*sʰeɡs
*zeɡs
*zraːd, *zreːɡ
*ʔsraːɡ, *ʔsreːɡ, *zreːɡ
*sreːɡ, *sʰloːɡ, *sloːɡ, *l̥ʰoɡ
*sreːɡ, *sroɡs, *sroɡs
*ʔsreːɡ
*ʔsreːɡ
*ʔsreːɡ, *sʰreːɡ, *sʰeɡ
*ʔsreːɡ
*ʔsreːɡ
*sʰreːɡ
*sʰreːɡ
*sʰreːɡ
*sʰreːɡ, *kreːb, *keːb
*sʰreːɡ, *sreːɡ
*zreːɡ
鰿 *zreːɡ, *ʔseɡ
*sreːɡ
*ʔseɡ
*ʔseɡ
*sʰeɡ
*sʰeɡ
*ʔseːɡ
*ʔseːɡ
*ʔseːɡ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ʔsreːɡ): phonetic  (OC *sʰeɡs) + semantic  (cowry; money) – tax; debt.

Top component now resembles (without the diagonal stroke) – compare , .

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note:
  • chit - vernacular;
  • chiak/chek - literary.
  • Wu

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /t͡sɤ³⁵/
    Harbin /t͡sai²⁴/
    /t͡sɤ²⁴/
    Tianjin /t͡sɤ⁴⁵/
    Jinan /t͡sə²¹³/
    /ʈ͡ʂei²¹³/
    Qingdao /t͡sə⁴²/
    /t͡se⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /ʈ͡ʂɛ⁴²/
    Xi'an /t͡sei²¹/
    Xining /t͡sɨ⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /t͡sə¹³/
    Lanzhou /ʈ͡ʂə¹³/
    Ürümqi /t͡sɤ⁵¹/
    /t͡sei⁵¹/
    Wuhan /t͡sɤ²¹³/
    Chengdu /t͡se³¹/
    Guiyang /t͡sɛ²¹/
    Kunming /t͡sə³¹/
    Nanjing /t͡səʔ⁵/
    Hefei /t͡sɐʔ⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /t͡saʔ²/
    Pingyao /t͡sʌʔ⁵³/
    Hohhot /t͡saʔ⁴³/
    Wu Shanghai /t͡səʔ⁵/
    Suzhou /t͡səʔ⁵/
    Hangzhou /t͡sɑʔ⁵/
    Wenzhou /t͡sa²¹³/
    Hui Shexian /t͡sɛʔ²¹/
    Tunxi /t͡sa⁵/
    Xiang Changsha /t͡sə²⁴/
    Xiangtan /t͡sæ²⁴/
    Gan Nanchang /t͡sɛʔ⁵/
    Hakka Meixian /t͡sit̚¹/
    Taoyuan /t͡sit̚²²/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /t͡sak̚³/
    Nanning /t͡sak̚³³/
    Hong Kong /t͡sak̚³/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /t͡sik̚³²/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /t͡saiʔ²³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /t͡sɛ²⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /t͡seʔ²/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /t͡sɛ⁵⁵/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (18)
    Final () (119)
    Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () II
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /t͡ʃˠɛk̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ʈ͡ʂᵚæk̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /t͡ʃɐk̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ʈ͡ʂəɨjk̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /t͡ʃɛk̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /t͡ʃæk̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ʈ͡ʂæk̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    zhe
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/3 2/3
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ tsreak › ‹ tsreak ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*s-tˁrek/ /*s-tˁrek/
    English demand payment blame

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 1761
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ʔsreːɡ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. to demand; to ask for (something)
    2. to demand to; to order to
    3. to blame; to reproach
    4. to interrogate; to question closely
    5. to punish by beating
    6. duty; responsibility
    7. (Cantonese) to put pressure on something with something heavy for a period of time

    Compounds[edit]

    Pronunciation 2[edit]



    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 3/3
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    zhài
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ tsreaH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*s-tˁrek-s/
    English debt

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.

    Definitions[edit]

    1. Original form of (zhài, “debt; loan”).

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 5 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Readings[edit]


    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (chaek, chae) (hangeul , , revised chaek, chae, McCune–Reischauer ch'aek, ch'ae, Yale chayk, chay)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Việt readings: trách

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.